Helping students understand their performance and learn
Effective feedback can lead to change in learners through affective processes of increased effort, motivation and engagement, or through cognitive processes including restructuring of knowledge and alternative strategies to understanding (Hattie and Timperley, 2007).Bullet point 2: no feedback can be demotivating.
In a literature review of feedback, van der Ridder identified differing understandings of feedback that varied from information about performance to more comprehensive definitions such as this.What you notice with this definition that is relevant to you in the clinical environment is that feedback needs to be specific, needs to be about performance that is observed (not second hand information) and against a standard of performance.
These three aspects should be present in all feedback encounters and relate to the van der Ridder et al definition in the previous slide. About the learner’s goalsAbout current performanceAbout an action plan to achieve the goals.
By focussing on how the feedback is delivered it ignore an important aspect of the feedback – the learner and the relationship you have with the learner! It also ignore the complexities of communication and how power, identity, self-esteem, previous experiences and background all impact on the way communication occurs and is interpreted.
e.g. point 2 – what does more critique mean when the student doesn’t know how to critique or things they have done it
Effective feedback can lead to change in learners through affective processes of increased effort, motivation and engagement, or through cognitive processes including restructuring of knowledge and alternative strategies to understanding (Hattie and Timperley, 2007).Bullet point 2: no feedback can be demotivating and humiliating.
Bullet-point 1: it matters most when feedback from one assignment should feed into the next assignment and so feedback needs to be given in a timely manner so that students are able to read, think about and develop action plans as a result of the feedback in time to feed into the next assignment before its due date. It should also enable time for students to seek further clarification or discussion of the feedback.
Modular approach to sequencing of assessmentExplicating feedback times in a student-tutor charterDevelopment of assessment rubrics for all summativeIncreased use of formative assessmentsFaculty development around feedback
Student should be asked to summarise the feedback – David Nicol reported that this is analogous to self explanation which Chi et al (1994) report to improve self-monitoring and evaluation. ( For more on self-explaining http://www.learnlab.org/research/wiki/index.php/Prompted_self-explanation_hypothesis) He also reported some work by Cho and MacArthur who showed that students made more complex improvements to their work after receiving feedback from multiple sources. http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/edu/103/1/73.html This list is by no means exhaustive
How to get the most out of assessment through feedback
CENTRE FORMEDICALEDUCATIONCentre for Medical Education, The Mackenzie Building, Kirsty Semple Way, Dundee DD2 4BFTel: 01382 381952 www.dundee.ac.uk/meded
How to get the most outof assessment throughfeedbackDr Rola AjjawiSenior Lecturer in Medical EducationCentre for Medical Education
Overview Types of assessment What is feedback The feedback gap Feedback dialogue How to bridge the feedback gap
Two types of assessment1Summative assessment = assessment of learning
BUT is this a usefuldistinction…Why can’t we optimiselearning from all assessmentprocesses?
Influence of feedback2-3 Affective processes of increasedeffort and motivation Cognitive processes of restructuringknowledge Learners require reassurance thatthey are heading in the rightdirection Constructive feedback often resultsin improved performance
Definition“Specific information about the comparison betweena trainees observed performance and a standard,given with the intent to improve the traineesperformance” 4, p. 193
Feedback encapsulates:21. Where am I going2. How am I going3. Where to next (how do I get there?)(Hattie and Timperley, 2007)
Feedback is the“cornerstone of effectiveclinical training”5
We have a problem…http://www.motor-trade-insider.com/index.php/2010/11/houston-we-have-a-problem/
The feedback ‘gap’Educators and learners at all levels believefeedback is valuable for learningBUTThere is a disparity in educators’ and students’perception of feedback6
Tutors think they provide more detailed feedback thanstudents perceiveTutors view their feedback to be more usefulcompared to what students think6
Why is there a feedback gap?(and how can we bridge it…)
Commonly reported concerns of students Feedback is too late to influence learning Feedback is cryptic e.g. “more” Feedback is jargon heavy and difficult to understand Feedback provides no explanation for action e.g.“good” Good students miss out Feedback is “one off” – no chance to try again basedon the feedback Feedback is overwhelming/not enough… assuming they get any feedback at all!
& ignores the relationship… Interplay between fear, confidence and reasoningin receptivity to feedback7 Tendency for ‘deflection’ when there is a discrepancybetween learners’ internal perceptions (self-evaluation) and the external teacher’s perceptions(feedback)8 Learner re-interprets the external feedback to makeit conform with their own hope, intention orinterpretation of their performance9 Perceived credibility of feedback giver essential10
We need to actively involveour students in feedbackdialogue“Medical educators may have been too focused on anarrow view of feedback. Building an approach orsystem around a few teacher-specific behavioralprinciples (eg, timely, specific) is inadequate. Anapproach to improving feedback incorporates teacher-based behaviors, learner-based cognitive principles,and a focus on the teacher-learner relationship” 11, p.1331
Teacher-based strategies Faster turnaround of feedback (if itmatters) Improve quality of the feedback Explicate timings Discuss standards and criteria withyour students to ensure clarity Look at sequencing of assignments Faculty development andbenchmarking Establish authentic (not tokenistic)dialogue Ask for feedback
Learner-based strategies Educate and empower students totake an active role in feedback Engage students in generatingassessment criteria and discussingstandards Create opportunities for students toprocess and use feedback (e.g. self-explaining) Engage students in self- and peer-review Generate a dialogue about feedback
To find out more about our changes…13http://youtu.be/S5bBFEbXDD0
Summary To get most out of the assessment process you needFEEDBACK Feedback should be conceptualised as a dialogicaltwo-way process that involves coordinated teacher–student and peer-to-peer interaction as well as activelearner engagement6 Feedback does not need to be the sole responsibilityof teachers The trainee-supervisor relationship influences theeffectiveness of feedback
References1. Schuwirth L & van der Vleuten (2010). How to design a useful test: principles of assessment. InSwanwick T Understanding Medical Education (p.195-207). ASME Wiley-Blackwell.2. Hattie J, Timperley H. The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research. 2007;77(1):81-112.3. Veloski J, Boex JR, Grasberger MJ, Evans A, Wolfson DB. Systematic review of the literature onassessment, feedback and physicians’ clinical performance: BEME Guide No. 7. Medical Teacher.2006;28(2):117-28.4. Van De Ridder JMM, Stokking KM, McGaghie WC, Ten Cate OTJ. What is feedback in clinical education?Med Educ. 2008;42(2):189-975. Norcini, J., & Burch, V. (2007). Workplace-based assessment as an educational tool: AMEE Guide No. 31.Medical Teacher, 29(9), 855 - 871.6. Carless D. Differing perceptions in the feedback process. Studies in Higher Education. 2006;31(2):219-33.7. Eva K, Armson H, Holmboe E, Lockyer J, Loney E, Mann K, et al. Factors influencing responsiveness tofeedback: on the interplay between fear, confidence, and reasoning processes. Advances in HealthSciences Education. 2011:1-12.8. Boud D, Molloy E. Rethinking models of feedback for learning: the challenge of design. Assessment &Evaluation in Higher Education. 2012:1-15.9. Watling C, Driessen E, van der Vleuten CPM, Vanstone M, Lingard L. Understanding responses tofeedback: the potential and limitations of regulatory focus theory. Med Educ. 2012;46(6):593-60310. Carless D, Salter D, Yang M, Lam J. Developing sustainable feedback practices. Studies in HigherEducation. 2011;36(4):395-40711. Bing-You RG, Trowbridge RL. Why medical educators may be failing at feedback. JAMA.2009;302(12):1330-1.12. Russell, M., & Bygate, D. (2010). Assessment for Learning: An introduction to the ESCAPE project.Blended Learning in Practice, March, 38-48.13. Ajjawi, R., Schofield, S., McAleer, S., & Walker, D. (2013). Assessment and feedback dialogue in onlinedistance learning. Medical Education, 47(5), 527-528