Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
- is the scientific study of the relationships that
living organisms have with each other and
with their abiotic environme...
Ecosystem processes, such as primary
production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and
various niche construction activities,...
Levels of organization of matter
Subatomic
particles

Organs
Tissues

Ecosystem

Organ
System

Atoms
Cells

Communities

O...
are such physical and chemical factors of an
ecosystem as light, temperature, atmosphere
gases(nitrogen, oxygen, carbon di...
which is at the same time an
essential element to life and a milieu
which provides oxygen, nitrogen,
and carbon dioxide to...
which should not exceed
certain extremes, even if tolerance to heat is
significant for some species
which provides energy ...
The living organisms are the biotic components
of an ecosystem. In ecosystems, living things are
classified after the way ...
are bacteria that obtain energy
by oxidizing inorganic compounds such as
ammonia, nitrites, and sulfides , and they use th...
- organisms that rely on detritus,
the decomposing particles of organic
matter, for food. Earthworms and some
beetles, ter...
or food cycle depicts feeding connections (whateats-what) in an ecological community and hence
is also referred to as a co...
Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio
Sci
Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
("self-feeding", from
the Greek autos "self" and trophe
"nourishing") or "producer", is an
organism that produces complex ...
A
is an organism that
cannot fix carbon and uses organic
carbon for growth.
This contrasts with autotrophs, such
as plants...
Biodiversity is the degree of variation
of life forms within a
given species, ecosystem, biome, or planet.
Terrestrial bio...
Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
•
•
•
•
•

Energy flows through ecosystems
Matter Cycles through ecosystems
types of cycles
types of reservoirs
major biog...





energy flows through the earth system
Matter cycles through the earth system
Matter cycles within ecosystems
Orga...
 nutrients (matter)
 any atom, molecule, or ion an organism needs to

live, grow, or reproduce
 some required in fairly...
 continually through both biotic and abiotic

components of ecosystems is
called biogeochemical cycles.
 cyclic pathways...
 begins with incorporation of substances

into bodies of living organisms from nonliving reservoirs
 materials pass from...
 unified by involvement of four

reservoirs of earth system through
which matter cycles
 lithosphere (rocks and soils)
...
 depending on two main determinants
 chemical reactivity of the substance
 whether it has a gaseous phase at some point...
•
3 Main Categories of
Biogeochemical Cycles

 hydrologic (water) cycle

 involves materials that
 involves exchanges

...
 most familiar of all

 function

biogeochemical cycles
 all life depends on water
 main constituent of bodies of

mos...
 conversion of liquid water

(from surface waters and
soils) to water vapor (in
atmosphere)
 source of water vapor in
at...
Precipitation
 conversion of water vapor into droplets of liquid





water
can take form of rain, sleet, hail, snow
...
 movement of water into soil and






porous rock
affected by
substrate type
vegetation cover
degree of saturation
...
 downward flow of water

through soil and
permeable rock
formations
 to groundwater storage
areas called aquifers
 to o...
 have increased over past century via
 withdrawal of large quantities of

freshwater from streams, lakes,
underground so...
 for
 agriculture, mining,
roads, timber
harvesting, building
construction

 leads to
 increased runoff
 reduced infi...
 carbon
 essential to life as we know it

 building block of molecules of life

 based on carbon dioxide (gas)
 const...
 can trace carbon cycle by considering how
carbon enters and leaves each of the four
main reservoirs
 lithosphere
 larg...
 biosphere





enters
photosynthesis, consumption
leaves
cellular respiration, death

 hydrosphere






ocean...
 atmosphere
 enters
 cellular respiration, combustion of wood,

combustion of fossil fuels, volcanic action,
diffusion ...
 since industrial revolution and especially

since mid-1950s, humans activities have
been adding CO2 to atmosphere in two...
Fossil fuels
 over millions of years, buried deposits of
dead organic matter become compressed
between layers of sediment...
 in past few hundred years, humans have

extracted and burned fossil fuels that took
millions of years to form
 thus, re...
 consequence of increased atmospheric

concentration of CO2
 enhances planet’s natural greenhouse
effect
 producing "gl...
nitrogen gas (N2)

 constitutes ~78% of earth’s atmosphere
 cannot be absorbed or used directly by

multicellular organi...
 converts gaseous nitrogen (N2) to ammonia

(NH3), a form that can be used by plants
 carried out by specialized bacteri...
 two step process carried out by specialized aerobic

bacteria
 most of ammonia (NH3) in soil is converted to nitrite
io...
 process of converting nitrogen-rich compounds of

living organisms and their wastes back into
 simpler nitrogen-contain...
 interventions in nitrogen cycle over past 100








years include
adding adding nitric oxide to atmosphere
addi...
 via








 droplets of nitric acid
dissolved in rain or snow are
components of acid
deposition
adding nitrous oxi...


phosphorous
 plays a critical role in plant nutrition
 is element most likely to be scarce enough to limit plant grow...
 interventions in nitrogen cycle over past 100 years

include
 mining
 large quantities of phosphate rock for use in
 ...
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Ecosystems and Nature's Cycles

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Ecosystems and Nature's Cycles

  1. 1. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  2. 2. - is the scientific study of the relationships that living organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment. are composed of dynamically interacting parts including organisms, the communities they make up, and the nonliving components of their environment. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  3. 3. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and various niche construction activities, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by the biodiversity within them. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  4. 4. Levels of organization of matter Subatomic particles Organs Tissues Ecosystem Organ System Atoms Cells Communities Organism Molecules Protoplasm Populations Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  5. 5. are such physical and chemical factors of an ecosystem as light, temperature, atmosphere gases(nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide are the most important), water, wind, soil. These specific abiotic factors represent the geological, geographical, hydrological and climatological features of a particular ecosystem. Separately: Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  6. 6. which is at the same time an essential element to life and a milieu which provides oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide to living species and allows the dissemination of pollen and spores at the same time source of nutriment and physical support. The salinity, nitrogen and phosphorus content, ability to retain water, and density are all influential. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  7. 7. which should not exceed certain extremes, even if tolerance to heat is significant for some species which provides energy to the ecosystem through photosynthesis can also be considered abiotic. According to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, a moderate amount of disturbance does good to increase the biodiversity. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  8. 8. The living organisms are the biotic components of an ecosystem. In ecosystems, living things are classified after the way they get their food. Biotic Components include the following -- produce their own organic nutrients for themselves and other members of the community; therefore, they are called the . There are basically two kinds of autotrophs, "chemoautotrophs and photoautogrophs. " Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  9. 9. are bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic compounds such as ammonia, nitrites, and sulfides , and they use this energy to synthesize carbohydrates. are photosynthesizers such as algae and green plants that produce most of the organic nutrients for the biosphere. as consumers that are unable to produce, are constantly looking for source of organic nutrients from elsewhere. Herbivores like giraffe are animals that graze directly on plants or algae. Carnivores as wolf feed on other animals; birds that feed on insects are carnivores, and so are hawks that feed on birds. Omnivores are animals that feed both on plants and animals, as human. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  10. 10. - organisms that rely on detritus, the decomposing particles of organic matter, for food. Earthworms and some beetles, termites, and maggots are all terrestrial detritivores. and fungi, including mushrooms, are decomposers that carry out decomposition, the breakdown of dead organic matter, including animal waste. Decomposers perform a very valuable service by releasing inorganic substances that are taken up by plants once more Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  11. 11. or food cycle depicts feeding connections (whateats-what) in an ecological community and hence is also referred to as a consumer-resource system. Ecologists can broadly lump all life forms into one of two categories called trophic levels: 1) the autotrophs, and 2) 2) the heterotrophs. To maintain their bodies, grow, develop, and to reproduce, autotrophs produce organic matter frominorganic substances, including both minerals and gases such as carbon dioxide. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  12. 12. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  13. 13. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  14. 14. ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or "producer", is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis). Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  15. 15. A is an organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth. This contrasts with autotrophs, such as plants and algae, which can use energy from sunlight (photoautotrophs) or inorganic compounds (lithoautotrophs) to produce organic compounds such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from inorganic carbon dioxide. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  16. 16. Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, biome, or planet. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be highest at low latitudes near the equator, which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest and in mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time but will likely slow in the future. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  17. 17. Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  18. 18. • • • • • Energy flows through ecosystems Matter Cycles through ecosystems types of cycles types of reservoirs major biogeochemical cycles Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  19. 19.     energy flows through the earth system Matter cycles through the earth system Matter cycles within ecosystems Organisms depend on the ability to recycle basic of "nutrients" of life Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  20. 20.  nutrients (matter)  any atom, molecule, or ion an organism needs to live, grow, or reproduce  some required in fairly large quantities  C, H, O, N, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium  some required in small or trace amounts  sodium, zinc, copper, iodine  globally, only small portion of these substances is contained within organisms  most exist in nonliving reservoirs  atmosphere, water, rocks Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  21. 21.  continually through both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems is called biogeochemical cycles.  cyclic pathways involving biological, geological and chemical processes  driven directly or indirectly by incoming solar radiation and gravity  connect past, present, future forms of life  cycling of matter through ecosystems Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  22. 22.  begins with incorporation of substances into bodies of living organisms from nonliving reservoirs  materials pass from organisms that first acquire them into bodies of organisms that eat them  until they complete the cycle and return to the nonliving world, through decomposition  there are many biogeochemical cycles Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  23. 23.  unified by involvement of four reservoirs of earth system through which matter cycles  lithosphere (rocks and soils)  atmosphere  hydrosphere(oceans, surface waters, groundwater, glaciers)  biosphere (living organisms)  matter in these reservoirs have different average times of storage or cycling Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  24. 24.  depending on two main determinants  chemical reactivity of the substance  whether it has a gaseous phase at some point in cycle  Generalized average times of storage or cycling based on reservoir  long  lithosphere (rocks and soils)  intermediate  hydrosphere(oceans, surface waters, groundwaters, glaciers)  biosphere (living organisms)  short  atmosphere Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  25. 25. • 3 Main Categories of Biogeochemical Cycles  hydrologic (water) cycle  involves materials that  involves exchanges among atmosphere, biosphere, soils and oceans  include  carbon Cycle move from land to oceans and back  include  phosphorous cycle  sulfur cycle  oxygen Cycle  nitrogen Cycle Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  26. 26.  most familiar of all  function biogeochemical cycles  all life depends on water  main constituent of bodies of most organisms  source of H+, whose movements help generate ATP  ~98% of all water on earth is free water  circulating between atmosphere and oceans  ~2% of all water on earth is  collects, purifies, distributes earth’s fixed supply of water  main processes        evaporation transpiration condensation precipitation infiltration percolation runoff captured in any form  frozen  held in soil  incorporated into bodies of organisms Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  27. 27.  conversion of liquid water (from surface waters and soils) to water vapor (in atmosphere)  source of water vapor in atmosphere  ~84% - evaporation from oceans  which cover 3/4th of earth’s surface  evaporation from leaves of plants  of water extracted from the soil by roots and transported throughout the plant  driven by energy from sun  driven by energy from sun Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  28. 28. Precipitation  conversion of water vapor into droplets of liquid     water can take form of rain, sleet, hail, snow requires condensation nuclei tiny particles on which droplets of water vapor can collect sources include  volcanic ash, soil dust, smoke, sea salts, particulate matter from human activities (factories, vehicles, power plants, etc.)  fate  becomes locked in glaciers  impinges directly on oceans or other surface water bodies  infiltrates soil or porous rock  becomes surface runoff by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci Reported
  29. 29.  movement of water into soil and      porous rock affected by substrate type vegetation cover degree of saturation topography Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  30. 30.  downward flow of water through soil and permeable rock formations  to groundwater storage areas called aquifers  to oceans  dissolves and transports minerals and nutrients  down slope surface movement back to the sea to resume cycle  replenishes surface waters such as lakes and streams  causes soil erosion  movement of soil and weathered rock fragments from one place top another Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  31. 31.  have increased over past century via  withdrawal of large quantities of freshwater from streams, lakes, underground sources  for  needs in heavily populated areas  irrigation  leads to  groundwater shortages  intrusion of ocean salt water into groundwater supplies Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  32. 32.  for  agriculture, mining, roads, timber harvesting, building construction  leads to  increased runoff  reduced infiltration that recharges groundwater supplies  increased risk of flooding  accelerated soil erosion  by adding  nutrients (such as phosphates and nitrates in fertilizers  pollutants  changing ecological processes that purify water naturally Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  33. 33.  carbon  essential to life as we know it  building block of molecules of life  based on carbon dioxide (gas)  constitutes ~0.04% by volume of troposphere  is key component of "nature’s thermostat"  if too much CO2 is removed from atmosphere, it will cool  if too much CO2 is added (or remains in) atmosphere, it will warm  dissolved in ocean Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  34. 34.  can trace carbon cycle by considering how carbon enters and leaves each of the four main reservoirs  lithosphere  largest reservoir for earth’ carbon  rocks such as limestone (CaCO3) deposited as sediment on ocean floor and on continents  enters  death, burial, compaction over geologic time  becoming sediment, marine sediments, sedimentary rock, fossil fuels  leaves  very slowly  weathering, uplifting over geologic time, volcanic activity  exception: combustion of fossil fuels Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  35. 35.  biosphere     enters photosynthesis, consumption leaves cellular respiration, death  hydrosphere      oceans are second largest reservoir of earth’s carbon play role in regulating amount of CO2 in atmosphere CO2 is readily soluble in water fate  some stays dissolved in sea water  some is removed by marine photosynthesizing producers  some reacts with sea water to form carbonate ions (CO32-) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)     enters weathering, leaching, runoff, diffusion, cellular respiration leaves photosynthesis, diffusion, incorporation into sediments Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  36. 36.  atmosphere  enters  cellular respiration, combustion of wood, combustion of fossil fuels, volcanic action, diffusion from ocean  leaves  photosynthesis  diffusion from the ocean  flow of carbon in form of carbon dioxide from atmosphere to biosphere (photosynthesis) and back to atmosphere (respiration)  is approximately in balance Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  37. 37.  since industrial revolution and especially since mid-1950s, humans activities have been adding CO2 to atmosphere in two ways  clearing trees and plants that remove CO2 via photosynthesis  burning fossil fuels and wood Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  38. 38. Fossil fuels  over millions of years, buried deposits of dead organic matter become compressed between layers of sediment where they form carbon-containing fossil fuels such as coal and oil  carbon in fossil fuels is not released into atmosphere for recycling until  long-term geologic processes expose deposits to chemical and mechanical processes that can liberate carbon  fossil fuels are extracted and burned Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  39. 39.  in past few hundred years, humans have extracted and burned fossil fuels that took millions of years to form  thus, removing carbon from its major reservoir far faster than it can be added to that reservoir  causing disruption in carbon cycle  in past few hundred years, humans have extracted and burned fossil fuels that took millions of years to form, resulting in  removal of carbon from its major reservoir far faster than it can be added to that reservoir  addition of carbon to atmosphere far faster than it can be removed Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  40. 40.  consequence of increased atmospheric concentration of CO2  enhances planet’s natural greenhouse effect  producing "global warming"  consequences "global warming"  will be discussed in detail later in course  include  disruption of global food production  increase average sea level Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  41. 41. nitrogen gas (N2)  constitutes ~78% of earth’s atmosphere  cannot be absorbed or used directly by multicellular organisms  must be "fixed" or combined with hydrogen or oxygen to provide compounds these organisms can use  occurs via  atmospheric electrical discharges in form of lightning  activities of certain bacteria  several processes involved Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  42. 42.  converts gaseous nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), a form that can be used by plants  carried out by specialized bacteria  cyanobacteria in soil and water  Rhizobium bacteria  living in small nodules on root systems of variety of plants (including legumes such as soybeans, alfalfa) Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  43. 43.  two step process carried out by specialized aerobic bacteria  most of ammonia (NH3) in soil is converted to nitrite ions (NO2-) which are toxic to plants  nitrite ions are then converted to nitrate (NO3-) which are easily taken up by plants  plants  roots absorb inorganic ammonia (NH3), ammonium ions (NH4+), and nitrate ions (NO3-)  use these ions to make nitrogen-containing organic molecules such as DNA, amino acids, proteins  animals  obtain their nitrogen by eating plants or planteating animals Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  44. 44.  process of converting nitrogen-rich compounds of living organisms and their wastes back into  simpler nitrogen-containing inorganic compounds such as ammonia (NH3)  water-soluble salts containing ammonium ions (NH4+)  carried out by variety of decomposer bacteria and fungi  process of converting nitrogen compounds (ammonia, ammonium ions, nitrite ions, nitrate ions) back into nitrogen gas (N2) which can be returned to atmosphere  carried out by specialized bacteria  mostly anaerobic bacteria in water-logged soil, in bottom sediments of lakes, oceans, swamps, bogs Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  45. 45.  interventions in nitrogen cycle over past 100        years include adding adding nitric oxide to atmosphere adding nitrous oxide to atmosphere removing nitrogen from topsoil adding nitrogen compounds to aquatic ecosystems adding adding nitric oxide (NO) to atmosphere when burning fuel N2 + O2  2NO nitric oxide (NO) can combine with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which in turn can react with water vapor to nitric acid (HNO3) Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  46. 46.  via      droplets of nitric acid dissolved in rain or snow are components of acid deposition adding nitrous oxide (N2O) atmosphere through action of  anaerobic bacteria on livestock wastes  commercial inorganic fertilizers applied to soil which can reach stratosphere  enhance natural greenhouse effect  contribute to ozone depletion removing nitrogen from topsoil  harvest of nitrogen-rich crops  irrigation of crops (leaching)  burning or clearing forests or grasslands  adding nitrogen compounds to aquatic ecosystems  via  agricultural runoff  discharge of municipal sewage  constitutes excess nutrients that  stimulate rapid growth of algae and aquatic plants  can lead to  depletion of water dissolved oxygen(via action of decomposers)  disruption of aquatic ecosystems Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  47. 47.  phosphorous  plays a critical role in plant nutrition  is element most likely to be scarce enough to limit plant growth  exists in soil only in small amounts  when it weathers out of soil its transported to rivers and oceans and eventually accumulates in sediment  is found in atmosphere only as small particles of dust  at normal temperatures and pressures it is not in gas form  is only naturally brought back up from sediments by the uplift of lands or by marine animals  which can be consumed by animals such as seabirds  which then deposit guano (feces) rich in phosphorous, and can be used as fertilizer Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci
  48. 48.  interventions in nitrogen cycle over past 100 years include  mining  large quantities of phosphate rock for use in  commercial inorganic fertilizers  detergents  reducing available phosphate in tropical forests  by removing trees  causes phosphorus in soil to be washed away  adding phosphate to aquatic ecosystems  via  runoff from animal wastes from livestock feedlots  runoff of commercial phosphate fertilizers from cropland  discharge of municipal sewage Reported by: Ray James G. Rio -MAED Bio Sci

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