Disaster Management is an integral part of
any Industrial Activity Management in
dealing with the hazards and risks which
may have impact on environment, human
lives, health and safety and business
It is the means by which an industry
manages itself in order to mitigate these
Recent Industrial Disaster
Argon Mercury leakage in MINAMATI in Japan
Bhopal Gas Disaster, 1984
Shri Ram Oleium Gas Leak
Transportation Disasters on Road affecting large number of near
Numerous other Examples can be cited of Industrial Disaster which
has brought in Untold misery to the affected as well as to the
Maximum panic and turmoil created in the World due to Weapons of
Mass Destruction (WMD) specially Biological and Chemical
warfare equipment capable of bringing vast devastation without
much tried antidotes
Disaster Risk Assessment
• ‘Risk’ is a function of probability of occurrence of any hazardous event,
and of the magnitude of its consequences during installation/ operation
of the unit.
• ‘Risk Assessment’ is a formalized approach to identify potential hazards
arising due to hazardous operations and to quantify and evaluate same
besides suggesting remedial measures to eliminate/reduce such hazards.
• The steps involved in risk assessment, which form Disaster Management
• Hazard identification
• Hazard quantification
• Consequence analysis
Objectives Of Disaster Management
Total Prevention or Safe Management of Disaster
Safety of men at work and in the vicinity of Disaster.
Effective rescue and treatment of casualties.
Mitigating the severness of Disaster first and ultimately to
control the whole situation.
Causality identification, classification and safe transportation to
Trauma Centre /Hospital
Providing factual information to authorities coordinating the
operations to avoid contradiction and confusion
Identification and Assessment of scenarios
• The primary step in any disaster management planning is the
identification and assessment of the principal hazards. The
hazard can be fire, explosion, toxic release, failure of structure
or vessel holding hazardous substances, sudden heavy toxic
emissions from exhausts/ vents/ chimneys etc.
• Identification of vulnerable points likely to result in disaster
are essential through :
Past history/ experience
The following methods are applied for hazard
identification and prevention
Critical review of MSDS of chemicals in manufacture,
pipeline and storage
“What if” analysis of each design, operation and
maintenance which could trigger disaster
Minimizing inventory of hazardous chemicals
Study of cloud formation dispersion module in case of toxic
release and identification of area & population affected
Setting up of effected WAD system for entire stored quantity
of lethal chemicals “list available under MSIHC rules”
Identification and Prevention
IDENTIFICATION AND PREVENTIONIDENTIFICATION AND PREVENTION
The high level control applicable to 17
potentially more hazardous chemicals are:
• Threshold quantity
• Preparation and updating of Safety report.
• Identification of hazardous units and segments of
plants and storage units based on relative ranking
technique, viz. Fire Explosion and Toxicity Index
Hazard potential in a chemical process plant has been
calculated by classifying, categorizing/ indexing
chemicals based on their toxicity, reactivity and
The most widely used relative ranking hazard index is
DOW CHEMICAL company’s “fire explosive index”
(F&EI) and MONDs toxicity index (TI). These together
are called fire and explosive and toxicity index (FETI).).
Fire Explosion & Toxicity Index (FETI)
Identification of equipment within a process plant
that would contribute to initiation or escalation of
Quantification and Classification of damage
potential of fire, explosion and toxicity incidents in
Determination of “Excessive Area of Exposure”
surrounding the process or storage units.
Objectives of FETI
• For the purpose of FETI calculations, a process unit
is defined as any primary item of process
• Storage tanks, reactions, separation trains such as
distillation, absorption/ desorption systems,
warehouse facilities handling hazardous materials
termed as process units.
• Pertinent process units with an impact from the
loss prevention stand point need to be evaluated.
Selection Of Pertinent Process Units
Based on the following factors :
• Chemical energy potential represented by material
• Inventory/quantity of hazardous material in the
• Capital investment involved in setting up the process
• Operating temperature and pressure conditions.
• Past accident record.
• Identification through dispersion modeling of a toxic
release for possible scenarios like leakage from
pinhole, complete failure of a pipeline, storage vessel
either due to physical aberrations or due to natural
Selection of Pertinent Process
Dispersion model for a toxic release based on any
scenario would determine the trajectory or space
of influence of the release in the vicinity with
varying degree of concentrations taking into
account all possible meteorological conditions.
Drawing a peripheral graph in giving the
concentration whether dangerous or tolerable
along with details taken from worked out wind-
roses. The maximum area of impact determined
to clearly define planning parameters.
Selection of Pertinent Process
Analysis of harmful effects arising from
Inflammable, unstable substances which
may result in explosions while some
substances are toxic and may result in
serious injury to human kind, plant life and
property if released beyond safe limits.
Scientific Basis of Characterization of
Major Chemical Hazards
• Affinity for reaction with surroundings.
• Effect on particular substances.
• Runaway actions if mixed with other substances during any
• Physical properties affecting the toxicity/ inflammability/
instability depending on:
• State of substance i.e. gaseous vapors, liquefied gas volatile
liquid or a solid.
The most dangerous/ Hazardous state is liquefied gas
and least hazardous is that of being solid
(Substances dangerous due to intrinsic properties)
• Chemical Reactivity
• Toxicity causing an immediate/ or irreversible
threat to life or damage to humans, animals,
plants and environment.
Characteristics of Hazardous
Treatment of Hazardous Wastes
Reduction at source/reuse/recycle
Dilution of hazardous waste
Commercial available alternatives
(Applicable to all industries producing Hazardous Waste)
All hazardous waste should be disposed
as per norms to avoid accident during
treatment/ storage / transportation/
disposal at site and after wards for long
Steps are required for preparation of Disaster Management
I.To evaluate risks and hazards which may affect the nearby
community in emergency situation
II.To identify required response tasks not covered in
III.To mark these tasks to the resources available
IV.To make changes necessary to improve existing plans
V.To establish procedures for periodic testing, review and
updating of the plans
VI.To educate the general community about the integrated
Disaster Management Planning
The “Off-Site Emergency/DM plan” begins beyond the
premises of The plant. The following are the important
features of “off Site Plan”.
• The off site emergency plan will be under the control
of local administration.
• The plant authorities need to extend their cooperation
to the local administration.
• The Plant authorities should make available their ‘on
site emergency plan’ so that the nature of risks and
hazards involved in the plant will be known to all the
OFF SITE DM PLAN :
OFF SITE DM PLANOFF SITE DM PLAN
• The copies of emergency plans should be with the
government authorities (e.g. Administrator/ Fire
station officer/ Factory Inspectorate/ Environment
• The people living in the immediate vicinity of the
plant should be made fully aware of the plant
activities and the possible risks associated with the
Measures to be taken during the Emergency
The plant authorities should immediately contact the local administrator in
case hazard is likely to spread beyond the factory.
The concerned Police Officers along with civic officials should make
arrangements for evacuation of the people from the vicinity to safe areas
The plant authorities should extend all technical support in controlling the
Most importantly, it is the responsibility of the industry management that
the people do not get panicky
After all the hazard is totally eliminated, people may be brought back to
their respective places of working and living.