Environment & Industrial disasters


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Environment & Industrial disasters-

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Environment & Industrial disasters

  1. 1. Prevention, Preparedness & Management https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 1 Environment & Industrial Disasters
  2. 2. Introduction https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 2 Disaster Management is an integral part of any Industrial Activity Management in dealing with the hazards and risks which may have impact on environment, human lives, health and safety and business interests. It is the means by which an industry manages itself in order to mitigate these risks.
  3. 3. Recent Industrial Disaster https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 3  Argon Mercury leakage in MINAMATI in Japan  Bhopal Gas Disaster, 1984  Shri Ram Oleium Gas Leak  Transportation Disasters on Road affecting large number of near by People Numerous other Examples can be cited of Industrial Disaster which has brought in Untold misery to the affected as well as to the Posterity Maximum panic and turmoil created in the World due to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) specially Biological and Chemical warfare equipment capable of bringing vast devastation without much tried antidotes
  4. 4. Disaster Risk Assessment • ‘Risk’ is a function of probability of occurrence of any hazardous event, and of the magnitude of its consequences during installation/ operation of the unit. • ‘Risk Assessment’ is a formalized approach to identify potential hazards arising due to hazardous operations and to quantify and evaluate same besides suggesting remedial measures to eliminate/reduce such hazards. • The steps involved in risk assessment, which form Disaster Management are : • Hazard identification • Hazard quantification • Consequence analysis https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 4
  5. 5. Objectives Of Disaster Management https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 5  Total Prevention or Safe Management of Disaster  Safety of men at work and in the vicinity of Disaster.  Effective rescue and treatment of casualties.  Mitigating the severness of Disaster first and ultimately to control the whole situation.  Causality identification, classification and safe transportation to Trauma Centre /Hospital  Providing factual information to authorities coordinating the operations to avoid contradiction and confusion
  6. 6. Identification and Assessment of scenarios https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 6 • The primary step in any disaster management planning is the identification and assessment of the principal hazards. The hazard can be fire, explosion, toxic release, failure of structure or vessel holding hazardous substances, sudden heavy toxic emissions from exhausts/ vents/ chimneys etc. • Identification of vulnerable points likely to result in disaster are essential through :  Operational experience  Past history/ experience  Criteria review
  7. 7. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 7 The following methods are applied for hazard identification and prevention  Critical review of MSDS of chemicals in manufacture, pipeline and storage  “What if” analysis of each design, operation and maintenance which could trigger disaster  Minimizing inventory of hazardous chemicals  Study of cloud formation dispersion module in case of toxic release and identification of area & population affected  Setting up of effected WAD system for entire stored quantity of lethal chemicals “list available under MSIHC rules” Identification and Prevention
  8. 8. IDENTIFICATION AND PREVENTIONIDENTIFICATION AND PREVENTION https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 8 The high level control applicable to 17 potentially more hazardous chemicals are: • Threshold quantity • Preparation and updating of Safety report. • Identification of hazardous units and segments of plants and storage units based on relative ranking technique, viz. Fire Explosion and Toxicity Index (FETI)
  9. 9. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 9  Hazard potential in a chemical process plant has been calculated by classifying, categorizing/ indexing chemicals based on their toxicity, reactivity and instability.  The most widely used relative ranking hazard index is DOW CHEMICAL company’s “fire explosive index” (F&EI) and MONDs toxicity index (TI). These together are called fire and explosive and toxicity index (FETI).). Fire Explosion & Toxicity Index (FETI)
  10. 10. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 10 Identification of equipment within a process plant that would contribute to initiation or escalation of an incident. Quantification and Classification of damage potential of fire, explosion and toxicity incidents in realistic terms. Determination of “Excessive Area of Exposure” surrounding the process or storage units. Objectives of FETI
  11. 11. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 11 • For the purpose of FETI calculations, a process unit is defined as any primary item of process equipment. • Storage tanks, reactions, separation trains such as distillation, absorption/ desorption systems, warehouse facilities handling hazardous materials termed as process units. • Pertinent process units with an impact from the loss prevention stand point need to be evaluated. Selection Of Pertinent Process Units
  12. 12. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 12 Based on the following factors : • Chemical energy potential represented by material factor (MF). • Inventory/quantity of hazardous material in the process unit. • Capital investment involved in setting up the process unit • Operating temperature and pressure conditions. • Past accident record. • Identification through dispersion modeling of a toxic release for possible scenarios like leakage from pinhole, complete failure of a pipeline, storage vessel either due to physical aberrations or due to natural calamities. Selection of Pertinent Process Units…
  13. 13. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 13  Dispersion model for a toxic release based on any scenario would determine the trajectory or space of influence of the release in the vicinity with varying degree of concentrations taking into account all possible meteorological conditions.  Drawing a peripheral graph in giving the concentration whether dangerous or tolerable along with details taken from worked out wind- roses. The maximum area of impact determined to clearly define planning parameters. Selection of Pertinent Process Units…
  14. 14. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 14 Analysis of harmful effects arising from certain substances. Inflammable, unstable substances which may result in explosions while some substances are toxic and may result in serious injury to human kind, plant life and property if released beyond safe limits. Scientific Basis of Characterization of Major Chemical Hazards
  15. 15. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 15 • Affinity for reaction with surroundings. • Effect on particular substances. • Runaway actions if mixed with other substances during any accidental release. • Physical properties affecting the toxicity/ inflammability/ instability depending on: • Temperature • Pressure • State of substance i.e. gaseous vapors, liquefied gas volatile liquid or a solid. The most dangerous/ Hazardous state is liquefied gas and least hazardous is that of being solid Substances Dangerous (Substances dangerous due to intrinsic properties)
  16. 16. • Inflammability • Corrosiveness • Chemical Reactivity • Toxicity causing an immediate/ or irreversible threat to life or damage to humans, animals, plants and environment. • Infectiousness Characteristics of Hazardous Wastes https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 16
  17. 17. Treatment of Hazardous Wastes  Reduction at source/reuse/recycle  Dilution of hazardous waste  Commercial available alternatives  Physical treatment  Chemical treatment  Biological treatment  Thermal treatment  Stabilization/solidification/ sorption Hazardous Wastes (Applicable to all industries producing Hazardous Waste) https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 17
  18. 18. All hazardous waste should be disposed as per norms to avoid accident during treatment/ storage / transportation/ disposal at site and after wards for long period https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 18 Disposal
  19. 19. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 19 Steps are required for preparation of Disaster Management Plan I.To evaluate risks and hazards which may affect the nearby community in emergency situation II.To identify required response tasks not covered in existing plans. III.To mark these tasks to the resources available IV.To make changes necessary to improve existing plans V.To establish procedures for periodic testing, review and updating of the plans VI.To educate the general community about the integrated plan Disaster Management Planning (DMP)
  20. 20. https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 20 The “Off-Site Emergency/DM plan” begins beyond the premises of The plant. The following are the important features of “off Site Plan”. • The off site emergency plan will be under the control of local administration. • The plant authorities need to extend their cooperation to the local administration. • The Plant authorities should make available their ‘on site emergency plan’ so that the nature of risks and hazards involved in the plant will be known to all the concerned people. OFF SITE DM PLAN :
  21. 21. OFF SITE DM PLANOFF SITE DM PLAN https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 21 • The copies of emergency plans should be with the government authorities (e.g. Administrator/ Fire station officer/ Factory Inspectorate/ Environment Authorities etc). • The people living in the immediate vicinity of the plant should be made fully aware of the plant activities and the possible risks associated with the processes.
  22. 22. Measures to be taken during the Emergency conditions https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 22  The plant authorities should immediately contact the local administrator in case hazard is likely to spread beyond the factory.  The concerned Police Officers along with civic officials should make arrangements for evacuation of the people from the vicinity to safe areas  The plant authorities should extend all technical support in controlling the damage  Most importantly, it is the responsibility of the industry management that the people do not get panicky  After all the hazard is totally eliminated, people may be brought back to their respective places of working and living.
  23. 23. THANK YOU https://www.linkedin.com/in/r220206001 23