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KhK winter semester 2018: Screenology block


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KhK winter semester 2018: Screenology block

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KhK winter semester 2018: Screenology block

  1. 1. Untie&&Dis/Solvescreen / resolution / desktop
  2. 2. A seminar on ‘the screen’ 1. The interface effect && my work on breaking out of the confines of the screen 2. A condensed, incomplete history of the GUI && the screen 3. The Screen in Hollywood // Sci-Fi screens 4. Decollage: modern artists ‘breaking the screen’ 5. Contemporary decollate / Screenshots, or: taking shots from within the screen
  3. 3. “in spite of their ubiquitous presence screens are strangely evasive, Some are flat, some fat, attached to a box. Some are like the sun - active, radiating "life" of their own - while others are like the moon, passive, reflecting light projected at them. There are screens observed from a distance, and others touched and interacted with, held in one's hand. How to formulate a definition that would embrace them all? Does it even make sense to ask such a question?” hard to grasp. They are constantly metamorphosing, appearing in new places and new forms. There are "Big Screens" and "Small Screens". Erkki Huhtamo: Elements of Screenology, 2001. Do not let syntaxes of the past run our futures! Definition of a SCREEN
  4. 4. Night of the unexpected, Moscow, 2013. This experience made me consider: The depth of the projection vs thickness of the screen. Russian video police 1 2 3 During the performance, the differences between the resolved image on the black screen and the image resolved on my check monitor differed not just in terms of brightness or aspect ratio, but also in terms of aesthetics, timing, and most importantly, in terms of power: a gate keeper - ‘the Russian video police’ - could cut the live feed at any time. I realized then, that even though a screen often illuminates a situation, what happens beyond the screen is often obscured by the screen. The screen acts as a veil or cover, concealing (most of) the technological processes involved in resolving the image, guiding the perspective of the viewer only to a final resolution.
  5. 5. XILITLA, MEXICONormally, the role of architecture is to orchestrate flow and infrastructure - even to direct perception. But Las Pozas ("the Pools"), near the village Xilitla, created by Edward James and opened in 1962 is a park full of non-functional architecture. Visiting Xilitla inspired me to build a ‘less functional architecture’ to screen my videos in an abnormal, non quadrilateral ‘architecture’.
  6. 6. Rosa Menkman, Xilitla, 2012-2014. Video environment. A 3D environment, which can used as a video interface, to present work outside of the cliches that conventional platforms and softwares impose.
  7. 7. I re-contextualized the videos inside Unity; a 3D engine. Wired subsequently reviewed it as a videogame. “it is a flop, an annoying videogame.” - Wired.
  8. 8. Every de-contextualization also means a re-contextualization; no video, film or software exist outside of its context of convention from where its run, read and interpreted.
  9. 9. As Galloway explains in The Interface Effect (2012), the interface is part of the processes of understanding, reading and translating our mediated experiences: it operates as an effect. Galloway: The Interface effect Cavell: a painting is the world, a photo is of the world. the cinema is for a world. the computer is on a world. There is a difference between media and mediation computers are not designed as image processing tools. they are artefacts for storage, transmissions and processing. MODES OF MEDIATION, NOT MEDIA.
  10. 10. Vannevar Bush 1945 The memex and Bush's 1945 essay "As We May Think" influenced generations of computer scientists, who drew inspiration from his vision of the future. “Consider a future device … in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.” (The New Media Reader p. 34-49) 2. A condensed, incomplete history of the GUI - the Graphical User Interface inside the digital screen space
  11. 11. Vannevar Bush 1945
  12. 12. A History of the GUI
  13. 13. Ivan Sutherland - Sketchpad, 1962 at MIT Professor Claude Shannon supervised Sutherland’s computer drawing thesis. Sketchpad was the first program ever to utilize a complete graphical user interface. (The New Media Reader p. 109-127)
  14. 14. Ivan Sutherland (1965) A Head Mounted Display
  15. 15. Morton Heilig in the 1950’s Experiential theatre, involving multiple senses: Sensorama (1962)
  16. 16. "The Mother of All Demos is a name given retrospectively to Douglas Engelbart's December 9, 1968, demonstration of experimental computer technologies that are now commonplace. The live demonstration featured the introduction of the computer mouse, video conferencing, teleconferencing, hypertext, word processing, hypermedia, object addressing and dynamic file linking, bootstrapping, and a collaborative real-time editor.” (The New Media Reader p. 93-109) Douglas Engelbard 1968-2013
  17. 17. Douglas Engelbard The Demo.
  18. 18. While at PARC, Kay conceived the Dynabook concept, a key progenitor of laptop and tablet computers and the e-book. He is also the architect of the modern overlapping windowing graphical user interface (GUI) Dynabook in his 1972 proposal "A personal computer for children of all ages" Alan Kay: DynaBook (1972)
  19. 19. Xerox Computer
  20. 20. Xerox Star (1981) 3 button mouse, bitmap display, graphical windows, ethernet network, first: modern GUI
  21. 21. Apple Lisa (1983)
  22. 22. interface feature, desktop icons, multiple windows, finder and trashcan Apple Macintosh (1984)
  23. 23. Resolutions have become the invisible, ‘grey mundane objects of everyday life’. While not inherently bad (or evil); they contribute to the efficiency of technology. So why Study Resolutions? Resolutions are non-neutral standard settings that involve political, economical, technological and cultural values and ideologies, embedded in the genealogies and ecologies of our media. They are what we build our media on. 1984 Apple's Macintosh Commercial
  24. 24. 256 colors Windows can not be overlapped, but tile, and cannot go on the task bar (the green bar). windows, icons, menus, pointer. (or: WIMP interface design) Windows 1.01 (1985)
  25. 25. Nicholas Negroponte first TED Talk in 1984.
  26. 26. Apple iPhone 2007
  27. 27. The ‘future’ of the screen (commercial version)
  28. 28. Notch Aesthetics in a Samsung commercial
  29. 29. Immersive mixed reality Technology The Weather Channel
  30. 30. 3D tornado: Wildfires: hurricane Rosa: making/story?id=58168191 Tanks in Russia Today: Tanks in Haber7 (Turkey):
  31. 31. The screen becomes a display - an environment featuring interactive windows. The window, the screen, VR and AR, the display, the interface, the phone, synaptic interface and desktop movies offer us new contexts to use and read the screen. The Weather Channel
  32. 32. When Google-ing “screen from future” the results are all blue touch screens with light green GUIS. 3. The Screen in Hollywood // Sci-Fi screens
  33. 33. Ongoing research: a database of trailers of the top 20 Top-US—Grossing Sci-Fi Titles Released from 1994 to 2018 (the last 25 years), as indexed by the Internet Movie Database What can Sci-Fi teach us about the future of the screen?
  34. 34. He doesn't know it, but everything in Truman Burbank's (Jim Carrey) life is part of a massive TV set. Executive producer Christof (Ed Harris) orchestrates "The Truman Show," a live broadcast of Truman's every move captured by hidden cameras. Cristof tries to control Truman's mind, even removing his true love, Sylvia (Natascha McElhone), from the show and replacing her. The Truman Show (1998)
  35. 35. During a fighting scene between Electro, who has the ability to control electricity, and Spiderman, the billboards of Times Square go all glitchy. ÷ The Amazing Spider-Man™ 2 (2014) was shot on KODAK VISION3 Color Negative Film. The Amazing Spiderman
  36. 36. What can Sci-Fi teach us about the future of the screen? During the fight scene between Spider man and Electro, all the bill boards glitch and finally explode, while Kodak is the of the last billboards left standing.
  37. 37. Alien 1979 Interface
  38. 38. The Batman (1943)
  39. 39. Cybergeddon (2012)
  40. 40. INTERFACES in Alien (1979) Ridley Scott
  41. 41. INTERFACES in Alien (1979) Ridley Scott
  42. 42. Lilo and Stich, (2002). A round, Galactic Cell Phone or Communicator featuring an antenna.
  43. 43. SCREEN DIVINATION — STARING IN A SILVER BASIN — PRECOG VISIONS — READING A BLACK MIRROR Spy Kids 2 Island of Lost Dreams, 2002. - featuring many different round and oval screens with green GUIs A few of my favourite Sci-FI NON ISO-compliant screens
  44. 44. Men in Black II, (2002). An oval screen features a greenish blue GUI
  45. 45. Kingsman: The Secret Service (2014) features a screen with 8 corners and a red GUI
  46. 46. Star Wars: episode 1: The Phantom Manace. Round screen featuring a red and greenish-blue GUI
  47. 47. The Expanse. Season 2 episode 12. Screens is transparent, bluish white, octagonal but with extruding notches.
  48. 48. Kingsman: The Secret Service (2014). An umbrella is used as a screen when a bad guy shoots a secret agent. The umbrella transforms in an augmented reality screen, featuring a green blueish GUI
  49. 49. Minority Report (2002). John Anderton manipulates images on a giant glass plate, super imposing and re-grouping them to create a future time line. All the images seem to shine greyish blue.
  50. 50. Star Wars Episode II - Attack of the Clones (2002). When the transmission is not stable, a blue hologram shows interlacing artifacts.
  51. 51. Prometheus (2012). Blue, 3D encapsulating holograms show what the Engineers did 2000 years ago.
  52. 52. Big Hero 6 (2014). Touch sensitive hologram. Holograms are and will be a shade of greenish blue.
  53. 53. Artificial Intelligence: AI (2001)
  54. 54. Wing Commander, 1999. Augmented reality glasses.
  55. 55. Spy Kids 2 Island of Lost Dreams, 2002. Six levels of augmented reality (you can stack AR!)
  56. 56. Ghost in the Shell, 1995. Synaptic interfacing: breaking not just “a fourth wall” A human to brain interface.
  57. 57. The Dark Knight (2008) - Bruce Wayne converts every cellphone to a high-frequency generator, turning them into a listening device for echolocation, in doing so he develops a detailed map of the city.
  58. 58. Ex Machina (2014) - screens are looking back. the screens will be watching over us
  59. 59. our field of vision is not quadrilateral. What if we layer AR with and expanded synaptic interface, and then go to the movies; what kind of inception of the senses could we trigger?
  60. 60. Updating to Remain the Same, 2016. Wendy Chun. Habit is not the same as instinct; habit is when something that is learned, becomes automatic. Chun describes habit as the scar of the outside within the self; habit makes us blind to other possibilities - while Sci-Fi influences UX design - UX design influences Sci-Fi and in this vicious circle the screen or display of the future might never reach its full potential.
  61. 61. Recently I came across two UX designers who did similar research into Sci-Fi interface design: Nathan Shedroff and Christopher Noessel.
  62. 62. So what can Sci-Fi teach us about the future of the screen?From: Nathan Shedroff and Christopher Noessel.: “Make It So: Interaction Design Lessons From Science Fiction.” 2012.
  63. 63. Is there a better way of showing a text message in a film? How about the internet? Even though we’re well into the digital age, film is still ineffective at depicting the world we live in. Maybe the solution lies not in content, but in form. [Every Frame a Painting] A Brief look at texting and the Internet in Film
  64. 64. (Screen) settings either ossify as requirements and de facto standards, or are notated as norms by standardizing organizations, such as the ISO. This is what we call progress. International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)
  65. 65. There are three moments during which the static notion of transmitting information is interrupted; these interruptions result into noise artifacts: encoding / decoding, glitch and feedback. The Shannon–Weaver model of communication 1948 4. Decollage: modern artists ‘breaking the screen’
  66. 66. ELECTRONIC dé-coll / age HAPPENING ROOM E. d. HR, 1968 - 1982. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
  67. 67. ELECTRONIC dé-coll / age HAPPENING ROOM E. d. HR, 1968 - 1982. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Wolf Vostell
  68. 68. Magnet TV (1965) Mirage Stage (1986) Nam June Paik
  69. 69. 5VoltCORE Contemporary decollage
  70. 70. Benjamin Gaulon, Gijs Gieskes and Karl Klomp: Contemporary decollage ReFunct Media v2.0 @ruared
  71. 71. A screenshot is a way to take the camera inside the internet or the computer - It turns the desktop or phone into a stage. The screenshot captures a point in time; a moment that is specific because of the hard and software connected to it. The screenshot is also a momentary registration of the computational environment in process. The desktop is not an homogenous place, but rather an assemblage of different platforms, spaces and environments. It is an interface, a display, an environment. A place of distributed authorship. The screen shows a final resolution while also obfuscating how this resolution was established. In essence, the screen is a device of obfuscation, a space of compromise. Screenshots, or:taking some shots from which to define a screen. 5.
  72. 72. Hyper-Reality presents a provocative and kaleidoscopic new vision of the future, where physical and virtual realities have merged, and the city is saturated in media. Keiichi Matsuda: HYPER-REALITY (2016)
  73. 73. The screen becomes a display - an environment featuring interactive windows. The window, the screen, VR and AR, the display, the interface, the phone, synaptic interface and desktop movies offer us new contexts to use and read the screen. Yung Jake, 2012.
  74. 74. Akihiko Taniguchihyper experimental live performance set ver 0.1 demo
  75. 75. Viewing cinema on a laptop screen is only possible when remembering that such an experience has little to do with cinema itself. As a hybrid, episodic documentary, “The Sprawl”‘s story isn’t linear. is the online interface for The Sprawl, where the viewer can see the “shards” that make up the full version of the film. The website has been shaped by the interface design of Metahaven and the viewing algorithms of YouTube. Metahaven
  76. 76. Holly Herndon and Akhiko Taniguchi. Chorus, 2014.
  77. 77. Saga: Mat Dryhurst
  78. 78. Sam Rolfes: Absurd Arms
  79. 79. Kevin b. Lee Essay Film vs. Film Essay
  80. 80. The computer as a the stage, the set; not just the machine, but the setting in which the movie takes place. Kevin B. Lee - Transformers: The Premake (2014)
  81. 81. Cinema of the Desktop: John Muse. 2018
  82. 82. what is a desktop film (documentary / video essay / essay video)
  83. 83. Evan Meaney and Amy Szczepanski - Big_Sleep™ (2015)
  84. 84. Camille Henrot “Grosse Fatigue” 2013
  85. 85. Nick Briz. Apple Computers, 2013.
  86. 86. Noah (desktop movie, 2013)
  87. 87. Trevor Stears: Desktop Films - A Desktop Documentary (2017)
  88. 88. Do not let syntaxes of the past run our futures!Do not let syntaxes of the past run our futures! It is not just the ISO who is responsible for standardisation of grey media. The embedding of bias or the preclusion of other uses of our media. We all are: developers - independent or not - creators and users. We need to realise how the media we use on a day to day basis shape our messages not - just by design but also what is actually said.