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Research Methods
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUB4j0n2UDU
“do no harm”
Informed Consent:
anonymity
confidentiality
Voluntary Participation
Protected Populations
What Makes “Good” Research?
Good research should be valid, reliable, and
generalizable:
Validity: does the study measure w...
Science, junk science, pseudo-science, non-science
andnonsense
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8T_jwq9ph8k
https://www.yout...
Framing Social Problems
Jumpstarting exercise
Form groups of 2 and on a piece of paper write
down 10 social problems that come to mind
You have 10...
Personal or social problems?
What do you think is the difference between
personal and social problems?
Personal or social problem?
What difference does the distinction between personal and social problems make in
understandin...
Personal problem
A personal problem is one whose causes and solutions lie within the individual and
his/her immediate envi...
Personal vs. Social problems
Viewing a problem as either personal or social leads to identifying very different
consequenc...
Approaching rape: a personal or social problem ?
rape
defined as a personal problem
due to personal inadequacies
results in guilt in victim and impunity for the
offender
e...
Defining itasa personal problem eitherblames thevictim or castigates
theoffender
Defining rapeas asocial problem organizestheneedforcollective action
thatattacksfactors outside the individual
Tackling personal problems
Individual strategies employed to deal with problem
Help from professionals depending on the ty...
A broad definition of a social problem
“A social problem is a social condition that has negative consequences for individu...
different Level of social problems
Problems of behavior deviance
Problems of inequality
Problems of social institutions
Gl...
Recognizing fallacies of thinking
9fallaciesofthinkingwhenanalyzingsocialproblems:
1. Fallacy of dramatic instance:
Overgeneralizing
2. Fallacy of misplaced...
examples
Fallacy of dramatic instance:
Overgeneralizing
“We saw two young boys doing drugs in the street; the modern youth...
9fallaciesofthinkingwhenanalyzingsocialproblems:
4. Fallacy of appeal to prejudice:
Argument by appealing to popular preju...
examples
Fallacy of appeal to prejudice:
Argument by appealing to popular prejudices or passions
“We shouldn’t hire gay pe...
9fallaciesofthinkingwhenanalyzingsocialproblems:
7. Fallacy of composition:
The assertion that what is true of the part is...
examples
Fallacy of composition:
The assertion that what is true of the part is necessarily true of the whole
“Members of ...
Defining the concept of “Social problems”
Defining the concept of ‘social problems’
Social problems can be defined in term...
Research Methods
Research methods are standard rules that social
scientists follow when trying to establish a causal
relat...
Approaches to Research
A deductive approach to research:
1) starts with a theory.
2)develops a hypothesis.
3) makes empiri...
Do you believe in ghosts?
Deductive reasoning is more narrow and is generally used to test or confirm hypotheses.
The basic principle on which deductive
reasoning is based, is a well-known
mathematical formula;
If, 1 = 2 (premise)
and 2...
Given below are a few examples that will
help you understand this concept better:
All oranges are fruits
All fruits grow o...
Here are a few valid,
but unsound examples;
All flight attendants know how to swim
Ralph knows how to swim
Hence, Ralph is...
Do you believe in ghosts?
Everything is Data!
Data Will Rule Your lives!
You job – pre-interview – job performance - raise?
Your car insurance
Your ...
Approaches to Research
An inductive approach to research:
1) starts with empirical observation.
2) then works to form a th...
Inductive reasoning is more open-ended and exploratory, especially during the early stages.
Sometimes called a “bottom up”...
The Black Swan
Outliers
The stock market –
-the housing crash
–your life.
All the swans that I have seen till date are whi...
Do you believe in ghosts?
In research it is often a combination..
His initial observations led him to inductively create a
theory of religion, socia...
What the current research said about suicide:
Suicide is greatest in late spring and summer NOT winter.
Media perpetuates ...
Causality vs. Correlation
Causality is the idea that a change in one factor results in a
corresponding change in another f...
Causality vs. Correlation
Sociologists conduct research to try to prove causation.
To prove causation, correlation and tim...
Correlation is not causation.
Does it meet all threecriteria?
Spurious Correlation
Variables – What Are We Studying?
A dependent variable is the outcome that a researcher is
trying to explain.
An independe...
The Hypothesis (if…then)
A hypothesis is a proposed relationship between
two variables, represented by either the null
hyp...
Marijuana and serious mental illness
(SMI) research
Prevalence of Past Year SMI among Adults Aged 18 or
Older, by Gender a...
Example:
What affects a student’s arrival to class?
Variables:
Type of School
Liberals Arts v. University
Type of Student
...
Independent
(input)
1. Intentionally manipulated
2. Controlled
3. Vary at known rate
4. Cause
1. Intentionally left alone
...
http://www.wired.com/medtech/drugs/magazine/17-09/ff_placebo_effect?currentPage=all
Researchers beware!
Quantitative Methods
Quantitativeresearchis researchthat uses numerical analysis.
In essence, this approach reduces the da...
Research methods wccc 9 14-15
Research methods wccc 9 14-15
Research methods wccc 9 14-15
Research methods wccc 9 14-15
Research methods wccc 9 14-15
Research methods wccc 9 14-15
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Research methods wccc 9 14-15

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Sociology WCCC

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Research methods wccc 9 14-15

  1. 1. Research Methods https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUB4j0n2UDU
  2. 2. “do no harm” Informed Consent: anonymity confidentiality Voluntary Participation Protected Populations
  3. 3. What Makes “Good” Research? Good research should be valid, reliable, and generalizable: Validity: does the study measure what it is intended to measure? Reliability: if you conduct the study again, will you get the same results? Generalizability: will the findings of this study apply to some other population or group of people? 3
  4. 4. Science, junk science, pseudo-science, non-science andnonsense http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8T_jwq9ph8k https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUB4j0n2UDU
  5. 5. Framing Social Problems
  6. 6. Jumpstarting exercise Form groups of 2 and on a piece of paper write down 10 social problems that come to mind You have 10 minutes!
  7. 7. Personal or social problems?
  8. 8. What do you think is the difference between personal and social problems?
  9. 9. Personal or social problem? What difference does the distinction between personal and social problems make in understanding the causes and consequences of problems? Work in groups and choose one problem from the list you made at the beginning of this class and try to understand this specific problems in terms of a) A personal problem b) A social problem c) Make a comparison: what different analysis outcomes do you get? What consequences does this have
  10. 10. Personal problem A personal problem is one whose causes and solutions lie within the individual and his/her immediate environment “personal troubles or milieu”
  11. 11. Personal vs. Social problems Viewing a problem as either personal or social leads to identifying very different consequences as well as different causes Helping individuals deal with personal problems is important but it is only a stopgap approach to social problems.
  12. 12. Approaching rape: a personal or social problem ?
  13. 13. rape defined as a personal problem due to personal inadequacies results in guilt in victim and impunity for the offender ends in appropriate or no action and continuation of the problem rape defined a social problem due in part to social attitudes about women results in collective action –education of the public and criminal justice personnel ends in amelioration of the problem as attitudes change and women are treated as victims rather than as the guilty ones
  14. 14. Defining itasa personal problem eitherblames thevictim or castigates theoffender
  15. 15. Defining rapeas asocial problem organizestheneedforcollective action thatattacksfactors outside the individual
  16. 16. Tackling personal problems Individual strategies employed to deal with problem Help from professionals depending on the type on problem (e.g. social workers, psychologists etc.) Possible consequences: Personal empowerment Escape mechanism Sense of inadequacy (low self-esteem, self-fulfilling prophecy)
  17. 17. A broad definition of a social problem “A social problem is a social condition that has negative consequences for individuals, our social world, or psychical world” (Leon-Guerrero, 2010)
  18. 18. different Level of social problems Problems of behavior deviance Problems of inequality Problems of social institutions Global social problems As we will learn it is difficult to place social problems in boxes of categories, since they so complex and overlap.
  19. 19. Recognizing fallacies of thinking
  20. 20. 9fallaciesofthinkingwhenanalyzingsocialproblems: 1. Fallacy of dramatic instance: Overgeneralizing 2. Fallacy of misplaced concreteness: making something abstract into something concrete 3. Fallacy of personal attack: Argument by attacking the opponent personally rather than dealing with the issue Fallacies of thinking when analyzing SPs:
  21. 21. examples Fallacy of dramatic instance: Overgeneralizing “We saw two young boys doing drugs in the street; the modern youth is really in decline” Fallacy of misplaced concreteness: Making something abstract into something concrete “The masculine Aruban culture inhibits a good education for women.” Fallacy of personal attack: Argument by attacking the opponent personally rather than dealing with the issue “We shouldn’t start a program for the homeless; they are all drug addicts.”
  22. 22. 9fallaciesofthinkingwhenanalyzingsocialproblems: 4. Fallacy of appeal to prejudice: Argument by appealing to popular prejudices or passions 5. Fallacy of circular reasoning: Using conclusions to support the assumptions that were necessary to make the conclusions 6. Fallacy of retrospective determinism: That argument that things could have not worked out any other way than they did Fallacies of thinking when analyzing SPs:
  23. 23. examples Fallacy of appeal to prejudice: Argument by appealing to popular prejudices or passions “We shouldn’t hire gay people, they have AIDS” Fallacy of circular reasoning: Using conclusions to support the assumptions that were necessary to make the conclusions “Poor people are inferior because they are unable to make any money.” Fallacy of retrospective determinism: That argument that things could have not worked out any other way than they did “There will always be poor people, there always have been” “Without tourism Aruba would be broke”
  24. 24. 9fallaciesofthinkingwhenanalyzingsocialproblems: 7. Fallacy of composition: The assertion that what is true of the part is necessarily true of the whole 8. Fallacy of non sequitur: Something that does not follow logically from what has preceded it 9. Fallacy authority: Argument by an illegitimate appeal to authority Fallacies of thinking when analyzing SPs:
  25. 25. examples Fallacy of composition: The assertion that what is true of the part is necessarily true of the whole “Members of parliament are wasteful, parliament is wasteful” Fallacy of non sequitur: Something that does not follow logically from what has preceded it “If you don’t donate to this charity organization, you don’t care about the poor.” Fallacy authority: Argument by an illegitimate appeal to authority “Aruba’s crime rates are rising” “Why do you think that?” “Professor x said so.”
  26. 26. Defining the concept of “Social problems” Defining the concept of ‘social problems’ Social problems can be defined in terms of different perspectives The specific angle you choose will influence the way you approach social problems
  27. 27. Research Methods Research methods are standard rules that social scientists follow when trying to establish a causal relationship between social elements. Quantitative methods seek to obtain information about the social world that is in, or can be converted to, numeric form. Qualitative methods attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form.
  28. 28. Approaches to Research A deductive approach to research: 1) starts with a theory. 2)develops a hypothesis. 3) makes empirical observations. 4)analyzes the data collected through observation to confirm, reject, or modify the original theory. 29
  29. 29. Do you believe in ghosts?
  30. 30. Deductive reasoning is more narrow and is generally used to test or confirm hypotheses.
  31. 31. The basic principle on which deductive reasoning is based, is a well-known mathematical formula; If, 1 = 2 (premise) and 2 = 3 (premise) then, 1 = 3 (conclusion)
  32. 32. Given below are a few examples that will help you understand this concept better: All oranges are fruits All fruits grow on trees Therefore, all oranges grow on trees Johnny is a bachelor, All bachelors are single, Hence, Johnny is single
  33. 33. Here are a few valid, but unsound examples; All flight attendants know how to swim Ralph knows how to swim Hence, Ralph is a flight attendant. The above conclusion is untrue, because it is not necessary that only flight attendants know how to swim. Absolutely any swimmer can swim.
  34. 34. Do you believe in ghosts?
  35. 35. Everything is Data! Data Will Rule Your lives! You job – pre-interview – job performance - raise? Your car insurance Your credit Your chances of staying married to a particular person. Your chances of dying of dying soon. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AiAHlZVgXjk
  36. 36. Approaches to Research An inductive approach to research: 1) starts with empirical observation. 2) then works to form a theory. 3) determines if a correlation exists by noticing if a change is observed in two things simultaneously. 37
  37. 37. Inductive reasoning is more open-ended and exploratory, especially during the early stages. Sometimes called a “bottom up” approach.
  38. 38. The Black Swan Outliers The stock market – -the housing crash –your life. All the swans that I have seen till date are white in color. Therefore, all swans are white.
  39. 39. Do you believe in ghosts?
  40. 40. In research it is often a combination.. His initial observations led him to inductively create a theory of religion, social integration, anomie, and suicide. His theoretical interpretations in turn led him to deductively create more hypotheses and collect more observations. He noticed that Protestant countries consistently had higher suicide rates than Catholic ones.
  41. 41. What the current research said about suicide: Suicide is greatest in late spring and summer NOT winter. Media perpetuates myths – the winter suicide is “sexy.” No strong interest in correcting or challenging the myth. Cover the story on the pre-set anniversary dates. Suicide has a stronger association with free time (summer) than sunshine.
  42. 42. Causality vs. Correlation Causality is the idea that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another factor. 48
  43. 43. Causality vs. Correlation Sociologists conduct research to try to prove causation. To prove causation, correlation and time order are established and alternative explanations are ruled out. 1.Correlation 2. Time order 3. Alternate Explanations. 49
  44. 44. Correlation is not causation.
  45. 45. Does it meet all threecriteria? Spurious Correlation
  46. 46. Variables – What Are We Studying? A dependent variable is the outcome that a researcher is trying to explain. An independent variable is a measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable. 52 Example: a person’s income (dependent variable) may vary according to age, gender and social class (independent variables).
  47. 47. The Hypothesis (if…then) A hypothesis is a proposed relationship between two variables, represented by either the null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis. 53 Null Hypothesis (sometime called no-difference) Hyperactivity is unrelated to eating sugar. The null hypothesis is good for experimentation because it's simple to disprove. If you disprove a null hypothesis, that is evidence for a relationship between the variables you are examining.
  48. 48. Marijuana and serious mental illness (SMI) research Prevalence of Past Year SMI among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Gender and Age Group: 2002 and 2003 Prevalence of Past Year SMI among Lifetime Marijuana Users Aged 18 or Older, by Age at First Marijuana Use: 2002 and 2003
  49. 49. Example: What affects a student’s arrival to class? Variables: Type of School Liberals Arts v. University Type of Student Athlete? Gender? GPA? Time Bedtime, Waking, Arrival Mode of Transportation walk, bus, carpool
  50. 50. Independent (input) 1. Intentionally manipulated 2. Controlled 3. Vary at known rate 4. Cause 1. Intentionally left alone 2. Measured 3. Vary at unknown rate 4. Effect For example: •If a scientist conducts an experiment to test the theory that a vitamin could extend a person’s life-expectancy, then the independent variable is the amount of vitamin that is given to the subjects within the experiment. This is controlled by the experimenting scientist. •The dependent variable, or the variable being affected by the independent variable in this case, is life span. Dependent (output)
  51. 51. http://www.wired.com/medtech/drugs/magazine/17-09/ff_placebo_effect?currentPage=all
  52. 52. Researchers beware!
  53. 53. Quantitative Methods Quantitativeresearchis researchthat uses numerical analysis. In essence, this approach reduces the data into numbers. www.gapminder.com http://www.gapminder.org/videos/200-years-that-changed-the-world-bbc/

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