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Chapter 16 religion

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Chapter 16 religion

  1. 1. What Is Religion? • Religion – a system of beliefs and practices around sacred things, a set of shared “stories” that guide belief and action – Religious beliefs help shape social behavior by setting expectations and helping people distinguish between right and wrong.© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
  2. 2. What Is Religion? • There are many religions throughout the world, all of which fall into one of three categories: – Theism is the worship of a god or gods. – Ethicalism is adherence to certain principles to lead a© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. moral life. – Animism is the belief that spirits roam the natural world.
  3. 3. What Is Religion? • Secularism is a general movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief and toward a rational, scientific orientation.© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
  4. 4. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. You May Ask Yourself, 2nd Edition Figure 16.1 World Religions Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  5. 5. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. You May Ask Yourself, 2nd Edition Figure 16.2 Percentages of Religious Adherents Worldwide Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  6. 6. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Figure 16.3 Percentage of National Populations That Rated You May Ask Yourself, 2nd Edition the Importance of God in Their Lives as “10” Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  7. 7. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. You May Ask Yourself, 2nd Edition Figure 16.4 One Nation, Many Faiths Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  8. 8. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. You May Ask Yourself, 2nd Edition Figure 16.6 Religious Activity by Gender Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  9. 9. Can belief and science co-exist?© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=h5ACyiSPAmE&feature=fvwrel 9
  10. 10. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Richard Dawkins poses in front of an ad campaign that he and the British Humanist Association posted on 800 buses around You May Ask Yourself, 2nd Edition Great Britain. Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  11. 11. Theory: Marx, Weber, and Durkheim • Karl Marx argued religion was used to keep workers from questioning their oppressed position in everyday life by promising them riches in the afterlife.© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
  12. 12. Theory: Marx, Weber, and Durkheim • Émile Durkheim – argued that religions promote solidarity by strengthening the collective conscience. – felt that sacred symbols become powerful because people collectively invest them with© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. power through their shared beliefs.
  13. 13. Theory: Marx, Weber, and Durkheim • Max Weber stated that: – Protestantism was necessary for capitalism because it states that a person fulfilled the duty to God through hard work. – Making money was not frowned upon, although spending that money on pleasure and personal enjoyment© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. was.
  14. 14. Secularization or Speculation? • Pluralism is the presence of numerous distinct religious groups in one society. – Possible negative effect: having too many choices weakens the credibility of any one church. – Possible positive effect: diverse religions can engage with one another© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. to build a common sense of community.
  15. 15. Secularization or Speculation? • Attendance at religious services is declining overall in the United States, but the number of people who profess to have religious© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. or spiritual beliefs is holding steady or rising.
  16. 16. At the Micro Level: Is It a Great Big Delusion? • Microsociologists look at religion in terms of its meaning and uses in people’s everyday lives.© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
  17. 17. The Power of Religion: Social Movements • Churches and church organizations also played a key role in the civil rights movement through coalition building, fundraising, and communications. • The church has long played an important role in African American communities, building strong social© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. networks, providing social services, and functioning as a safe haven for people who have experienced enormous marginalization in society at large.
  18. 18. Religion and the Social Landscape • Religious affiliation and practice can be closely connected to elements as varied as family structure, gender, social status, age, educational attainment level, type of involvement in the church, geography, and politics.© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
  19. 19. Religion and the Social In terv iew, Jen ’na n Reed Landscape© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Jen’nan Reed discusses her research on the experience of Muslims in the United States. 19
  20. 20. Selling God, Shopping for Faith: The Commercialization of Religion • Americans donate billions of dollars per year to religious organizations, and in addition to donations, there is a huge market for religious products, particularly Christian products.© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
  21. 21. Selling God, Shopping for Faith: The Commercialization of Religion • In an effort to appeal to a wider audience, especially young people, many churches have incorporated elements of pop culture into their services and messages and added more secular© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. activities to attract members.
  22. 22. Selling God, Shopping for Faith: The Commercialization of Religion • A megachurch is typically a conservative Protestant church that attracts at least 2,000 people to worship services per week. • Megachurches stress family values above religious tradition and are© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. known for being flexible and creative.
  23. 23. Selling God, Shopping for Faith: The Commercialization of Religion© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. 23
  24. 24. The Paradox of Popularity • The sect–church cycle is one explanation for the existence of so many Christian churches in the United States. – Sects usually start out by separating from an existing church because of disagreements over the direction or emphasis of the church.© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. – Over time, if the sect develops a large enough following, it may become a church in its own right, and eventually another sect may split off from it.
  25. 25. The Paradox of Popularity • Stricter religious institutions are more likely to grow faster than more lenient or open groups because members of stricter groups are likely to be more committed and to buy more completely into the group’s overall mission.© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
  26. 26. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Mass Delusion?26

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