The compressive strength of geopolymer is 1.5 times more than that of
ordinary portland cement concrete.
Workability of geopolymer concrete is better in comparison to ordinary
The compressive strength of geopolymer concrete increases as increment in
% of fly ash.
Reduces CO2 emission.
Utilization of byproducts.(Fly ash)
High tensile and compression strength.
Precast concrete products like railway sleepers, Parking tiles, geopolymer
concrete blocks, etc
In marine structures due to chemical attacks.
Where the fire resistance material is required.
In road construction.
Source of materials:
Requires different source materials. Like
(Fly ash, Alumina and silica, Alkaline solution, Aggregates.)
Difficult to create:
Requires use of chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide,
that can be harmful.
Pre mix only:
Sold only as pre mix/ pre cast material due to mixing is
The reduced CO2 emissions of Geopolymer cements make them a good
alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement.
Produces a substance that is comparable to or better than
traditional cements with respect to most properties.
Geopolymer concrete has excellent properties within both acid and
Mehta, P. K. 2002 “Greening of the Concrete Industry for Sustainable Development”, ACI Concrete
Cembureau “Cement in Cembureau Countries Statistics 2005- 2007” available at
Mehta, P. K. 2001 “Reducing the Environmental Impact of Concrete”, ACI Concrete International 23(10):pp.
Portland Cement Association 2006 “World Cement Consumption Growth Expected to Continue” in Portland
Cement Association Executive Report, available at http://www.cement.org/exec/10-23-06.htm .
Davidovits, J. 1991 “Geopolymers: inorganic geopolymeric new materials” Journal of Thermal Analysis, 37, pp.
Rangan,B.V. 2008 “Low-Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete” Chapter 26, Concrete Construction
Engineering Handbook, Second Edition, Editor-in-Chief: E.G. Nawy, CRC Press, New York, pp. 26.1-26.20;
also available as Research Report GC4, Curtin University of Technology at
Sumajouw, M. D. J. and Rangan, B.V. 2006 “Low-Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete: Reinforced
Beams and Columns” Research Report GC3, Faculty of Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, available
Ash Development Association of Australia, “Total ash production and beneficial usage” available at
Sofi, M., van Deventer, J. S. J., Mendis, P. A. and Lukey, G. C. 2007 “Bond performance of Reinforcing
Bars in Inorganic Polymer Concrete (IPC)”, Journal of Materials Science, 42(9), pp. 3107-3116.
Sarker, P. K., Grigg, A. and Chang, E.H. 2007 “Bond Strength of Geopolymer Concrete with
Reinforcing Steel” in: Zingoni, A. (ed) Proceedings of Recent Development in Structural Engineering,
Mechanics and Computation, The Netherlands, pp. 1315-1320
Hardjito, D. and Rangan, B. V. 2005 “Development and Properties of Low Calcium Fly Ash Based
Geopolymer Concrete”, Research Report GC1, Faculty of Engineering, Curtin University of
Technology, available at http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au/R?func=dbin-jump-
Gourley, J.T. and Johnson, G.B. 2005 “Developments in Geopolymer Precast Concrete”, Proceedings
of the International Workshop on Geopolymers and Geopolymer Concrete, Perth, Australia.
Siddiqui KS 2007, Strength and durability of low –calcium fly-ash based geopolymer concrete, Final
year Honours dissertation, The University of Western Australia, Perth.
Cheema, D.S., Lloyd, N.A., Rangan, B.V. 2009 “Durability of Geopolymer Concrete Box Culverts-A
Green Alternative”, Proceedings of the 34th Conference on Our World in Concrete and Structures,
Wallah, S. E. and Rangan, B.V. 2006 “Low Calcium Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete: Long Term
Properties.” Research Report GC2, Faculty of Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, available