Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Wk 12 why people believe part 2

196 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Wk 12 why people believe part 2

  1. 1. November 5th:Why do people believe in questionable factual claims? In other words, what makes pseudo-archaeology appealing?
  2. 2. Why do people believe in questionable factual claims? Are people dumb? NO So, let’s find the logic behind why people believe bogus claimsWhat we started on Wednesday and will finish today: What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? A. Pseudo-archaeologists make skillful use of rhetoric B. Pseudo-archaeologists commit logical errors that are difficult to notice C. The nature of belief
  3. 3. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? B. Pseudo-archaeologists commit logical errors that are difficult to notice 1. They presume that coincidences are intentional 2. They jump to conclusions without enough facts 3. They ignore the concept of representativeness This book claims that there are a handful of artifacts that look like they were made with modern lathes. So…the true function of the pyramids was to generate electricity for all the lathes But what about all the other artifacts? And where are the lathes and other machines?
  4. 4. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? B. Pseudo-archaeologists commit logical errors that are difficult to notice 1. They presume that coincidences are intentional 2. They jump to conclusions without enough facts 3. They ignore the concept of representativeness closeup of pottery showing inclusions 4. Selective presentation of data Everyone is selective Good selective Bad selective potsherds
  5. 5. Were the pyramids built as a map of the stars? Text inside the pyramid says “this is Khufu’s pyramid.” ORWere the pyramids built as tombs for rulers? Khufu’s sarcophagus Dozens of other tombs nearby
  6. 6. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? B. Pseudo-archaeologists commit logical errors that are difficult to notice 1. They presume that coincidences are intentional 2. They jump to conclusions without enough facts 3. They ignore the concept of representativeness 4. Selective presentation of data 5. False dichotomies: the idea that explanation is “either-or” There are some things that we still do not know about Tiwanaku, Bolivia.But just because we do not know everything about Tiwanaku does not imply that a wild alternative (that it is 17000 years old) must be correct.
  7. 7. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? B. Pseudo-archaeologists commit logical errors that are difficult to notice 1. They presume that coincidences are intentional 2. They jump to conclusions without enough facts 3. They ignore the concept of representativeness 4. Selective presentation of data 5. False dichotomies: the idea that explanation is “either-or” 6. They embrace incorrect theories and/or out-of-date information 1st Example: Earth Crustal displacement Plato’s vision of Atlantis The correct theory of what generates earthquakes? Plate tectonics 2nd Example: hyperdiffusion
  8. 8. Mexico Coastal PeruEngland Illinois
  9. 9. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? B. Pseudo-archaeologists commit logical errors that are difficult to notice 1. They presume that coincidences are intentional 2. They jump to conclusions without enough facts 3. They ignore the concept of representativeness 4. Selective presentation of data 5. False dichotomies: the idea that explanation is “either-or” 6. They embrace incorrect theories and/or out-of-date information 1st Example: Earth Crustal displacement The correct theory of what generates earthquakes? Plate tectonics 2nd Example: hyperdiffusion The correct understandings of similarities in different parts of the world? --Independent invention --Historical particularism
  10. 10. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? B. Pseudo-archaeologists commit logical errors that are difficult to notice 1. They presume that coincidences are intentional 2. They jump to conclusions without enough facts 3. They ignore the concept of representativeness 4. Selective presentation of data 5. False dichotomies: the idea that explanation is “either-or” 6. They embrace incorrect theories and/or out-of-date information In sum, this is bad logic, or, stated differently, bad thinking. But are pseudo-archaeologists dumb? NO So why do pseudo-archeaologists do this? $$$ But also: --nationalism --religious belief
  11. 11. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? C. The nature of belief 1. Pseudo-archaeologists offer simple explanations, which is attractive in a complex world How do we explain the rise of complex societies in the Nile Valley?
  12. 12. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? C. The nature of belief 1. Pseudo-archaeologists offer simple explanations, which is attractive in a complex world 2. Pseudo-archaeological ideas are more fun and care-free than the cold logic of science I think the actual discoveries and painstaking results of scientific archaeology are more exciting, and I hope I have been able to convince you of this.
  13. 13. Shipwreck of Kas, Turkey Internal ramp hypothesis
  14. 14. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? C. The nature of belief 1. Pseudo-archaeologists offer simple explanations, which is attractive in a complex world 2. Pseudo-archaeological leaps of faith are more care-free than the cold logic of science 3. We trust authority often without being critical of authority Barry Fell, Harvard professor marine biologist
  15. 15. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? C. The nature of belief 1. Pseudo-archaeologists offer simple explanations, which is attractive in a complex world 2. Pseudo-archaeological leaps of faith are more care-free than the cold logic of science 3. We trust authority often without being critical of authority
  16. 16. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? C. The nature of belief 1. Pseudo-archaeologists offer simple explanations, which is attractive in a complex world 2. Pseudo-archaeological leaps of faith are more care-free than the cold logic of science 3. We trust authority often without being critical of authority 4. Many of our beliefs come from personal sources, prior to any scientific evaluation of such beliefs --It is hard to relinquish questionable beliefs. Why? 1) Beliefs are sometimes tied up with personal relationships 2) Pride: hard to admit that you are wrong 3) Sometimes changing a single belief means changing an entire world view 4) Confirmation bias: we protect bad beliefs with bad logic
  17. 17. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? C. The nature of belief 1. Pseudo-archaeologists offer simple explanations, which is attractive in a complex world 2. Pseudo-archaeological leaps of faith are more care-free than the cold logic of science 3. We trust authority often without being critical of authority 4. Many of our beliefs come from personal sources, prior to any scientific evaluation of such beliefs 5. We have been programmed to believe, and every now and then, we believe things that are false Evolutionary psychology Type 2 error--a “false positive”: we see a pattern when there is in fact no pattern.
  18. 18. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? C. The nature of belief 1. Pseudo-archaeologists offer simple explanations, which is attractive in a complex world 2. Pseudo-archaeological leaps of faith are more care-free than the cold logic of science 3. We trust authority often without being critical of authority 4. Many of our beliefs come from personal sources, prior to any scientific evaluation of such beliefs 5. We have been programmed to believe, and every now and then, we believe things that are false Evolutionary psychology Type 2 error--a “false positive”: we see a pattern when there is in fact no pattern.
  19. 19. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? C. The nature of belief 1. Pseudo-archaeologists offer simple explanations, which is attractive in a complex world 2. Pseudo-archaeological leaps of faith are more care-free than the cold logic of science 3. We trust authority often without being critical of authority 4. Many of our beliefs come from personal sources, prior to any scientific evaluation of such beliefs 5. We have been programmed to believe, and every now and then, we believe things that are false Evolutionary psychology Type 2 error--a “false positive”: we believe there is a pattern when there is in fact no pattern. Our brains have evolved in such a way that type 2 errors are tolerated. There is more harm in being too skeptical, so we believe more than we doubt Learning requires credulousness: a willingness to believe even when we don’t yet have the ability to determine what is correct and what is false. We may cling to unsupportable beliefs because they give us comfort Religions all over the world attribute disasters to specific people or spirits, when in fact scientific logic and probability can explain disasters
  20. 20. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? C. The nature of belief 1. Pseudo-archaeologists offer simple explanations, which is attractive in a complex world 2. Pseudo-archaeological leaps of faith are more care-free than the cold logic of science 3. We trust authority often without being critical of authority 4. Many of our beliefs come from personal sources, prior to any scientific evaluation of such beliefs 5. We have been programmed to believe, and every now and then, we believe things that are false 6. The values of social classes influence belief 7. Age?
  21. 21. What makes pseudo-archaeology appealing? A. Pseudo-archaeologists make skillful use of rhetoric B. Pseudo-archaeologists commit logical errors that are difficult to notice C. The nature of belief

×