Earthquake Disaster Management System (EDMS) for                       Quetta City Using GIS             Muhammad Kashif N...
the active seismic region; therefore earthquakes occur     line which starts from Chilton range and goes up tofrom time to...
minimize the damage to areas at high risk by limiting          Above mentioned data can be integrated into a GIS todevelop...
c)   Residential Areas                                                                Major residential areas in Quetta ar...
earthquakes. Mapping and spatial analysis will help            the Earthquake in Pakistan IUCN Field Missionauthorities ma...
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GIS for Quetta (ICAST 2006)


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M. Kashif Nazir, Imran Sarwar Bajwa, M. Imran Khan [2006], "A Conceptual Framework of Earthquake Disaster Management System (EDMS) for Quetta City using GIS", in IEEE 1st International Conference on Advances in Space Technologies, (ICAST 2006), Islamabad, Pakistan, Aug 2006, pp:117-120

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GIS for Quetta (ICAST 2006)

  1. 1. Earthquake Disaster Management System (EDMS) for Quetta City Using GIS Muhammad Kashif Nazir1, Imran Sarwar Bajwa1, Muhammad Imran Khan2 1Faculty f Computer and Emerging Sciences, Balochitan University if Information Technology and Management Sciences, Quetta Pakistan 2 NesPak, Islamabad, Pakistan,, Abstract Due to the construction of new port at Gawader Quetta has acquired important position in this region.This paper, about Earthquake-Disaster Management Samungali air base and Quetta international airport areSystem of Quetta City Using GIS, point up how the located here. Apart from this there are many headeffects of earthquakes can be minimized. For this offices of national, multinational and internationalpurpose it proposes two strategies Preparedness for organizations. As a result, many leading companies andwhen the disaster occurs and Hazard mitigation and investors are establishing or looking to establish theiremergency response. The Earthquake Disaster offices in Quetta. Quetta lies in the active seismicPreparedness Plan is essentially a plan that identifies region; therefore earthquakes occur from time to time.weaknesses and threats to the urban environment and The worst earthquake occurred in May, 1935, when aproposes strategies to overcome these weaknesses. large part of Quetta was destroyed and 60,000 peopleEarthquake Disaster mitigation plan describes how to died. Recently Quetta was hit hard by the earthquake ofrespond when a disaster occurs. GIS will be developed 7.1 magnitudes in February 1997.using Risk mapping that is Hazard’s layers and Typicalor General Layers. Typical layers include the layers Due to these factors Earthquake Disaster Managementtypically necessary for developing GIS for a disaster for System using GIS is very important keeping in view theexample service infrastructure, housing typologies, and sensitive geographical and geological position ofcritical emergency facilities, such as police and fire Quetta. The ultimate goal is to protect Quetta and itsstations, and hospitals. Where as Hazard’s Layers citizens before and after an Earthquake, and GIS is theinclude Seismic Hazard Layer, Seismic Micro zoning perfect technological tool to facilitate the authorities inLayer and Risk Categorization Layer. achieving this goal. Rapid urbanization in Quetta has pushed settlements to develop in physically unfit areas as a result of poor or nonexistent planning. As such,Keywords: Disaster management system. Earthquake these areas are more at risk to Earthquake Disasterdisaster, Geographical Information System because building codes are not enforced and settlements occur haphazardly. If a disaster does occur, these1. Introduction settlements will undoubtedly suffer the most damage.Quetta (the word derives from Pushtu word kwatta, Therefore it is very important that cities that are at riskfort) no doubt is a natural fort, surrounded as it is by to Earthquake Disasters take the precautionaryimposing hills on all sides. The encircling hills have the measures to minimize the loss of life and property,resounding names of Chiltan, Takatoo, Mordar and casualties and victims, and damaged infrastructure.Zarghun. Quetta, the capital of Balochistan lies between There are two types of disasters: man-made and natural.300 - 03’ and 300 -27’ N and 660 - 44’ and 670 - 18’ E. GIS can be used in both cases to prepare an area in theThe total geographical area of Quetta district is 2653 event of a disaster; however, using GIS for EarthquakeKm2, has a population of almost 1.5 millions and stands Disaster Management System is the focus of this the gateway to central Asia. Its strategic location has GIS produces results quickly, can respond in real-time,caused rapid population growth. The resulting and can be accessed from a remote place if the disasterpopulation pressure has contributed to the lack of is severe and the control station has to be situated at aplanned development in the city. distance from the actual disaster site [2]. Quetta lies in 1
  2. 2. the active seismic region; therefore earthquakes occur line which starts from Chilton range and goes up tofrom time to time. Kallat. In Quetta city, physically, this layers moves parallel along western by pass.2. Earthquake Activity in QuettaThe historic record shows that the largest earthquake tostrike Pakistan in the 20th Century occurred on 31 May1935, in Quetta, a very active seismic region ofPakistan. Up to the 8 October 2005 event this had beenthe deadliest earthquake in the region. It killed about35,000 people, although some estimates of up to 50,000have been provided. The Quetta earthquake, as it wasnamed, had a Moment Magnitude (Mw) of 8.1. Itsepicenter was at 27.4 N and 88.75 E. The earthquakeoccurred at 02:33am local time (PST) on May 31, 1935.The regions along Zones of high seismic activity areNorthern, Western as well as Southern Pakistan,Kashmir and Northern India and Afghanistan. Most ofthe earthquakes in Pakistan occur in the north andwestern regions, along the boundary of the Indiantectonic plate with the Iranian and Afghan micro-plates. Figure 02 – Another view of Major fault lines in Pakistan Most earthquakes in Pakistan occur in the north and western sections of the country along the boundary of the Indian tectonic plate with the Iranian and Afghan micro-plates. As indicated, numerous earthquakes occur along the Chaman Fault System. 3- Technical Plan of Development The process is two-phase line of action: Phase - IFigure 01 – Major seismic zones of Pakistan, as Quetta Initially current urban conditions of Quetta city will be is the largest and most sensitive zone. assessed after collecting the municipal data describingThe Chaman Thrust Fault system is a continuation on the administrative boundaries, residents, andland of an extensive transform fault system in the infrastructure etc.Arabian Sea known as the Owen Fault Zone. TheChaman Fault System is a major fracture which begins Phase - IIin the Balochistan Province. The great Quetta The next phase is evaluation of the area’s susceptibilityearthquake (M7.7) of 31 May 1935 occurred along the regarding earthquake hazard. Detailed risk mapChaman Fault. The powerful earthquake devastated the (Tectonic map) and Geological map will be produced totown of Quetta and the adjoining region. indicate the fault line and seismic activity in the region. This will enable us to estimate the extent of the damageThe Chaman Thrust Fault system extends along according to the current built environment.Pakistans frontier with Afghanistan. It begins nearKalat, in the northern Makran range, passes near Quetta The assessment of current urban conditions is useful forand continues in a north-northeastern direction to preparedness and evaluation of the area’s susceptibilityKabul, Afghanistan after branching off to form the regarding earthquake hazard is useful for prevention ofMain Karakoram Thrust (MKT) System. Another damage due to possible earthquake hazard becauseimportant fault line near Quetta valley is Chiltan fault policies can then be implemented with greater ease to 2
  3. 3. minimize the damage to areas at high risk by limiting Above mentioned data can be integrated into a GIS todevelopment in these areas. produce emergency response maps as soon as a disaster occurs to identify exposed areas and provide helpAbove mentioned process is focused on identifying quickly and efficiently. For example using GIS, thestrengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. After critical issue of accessibility can be addressed with thehaving above mentioned data/information two use of a number of different functionalities such asstrategies will be adopted: creating buffer zones and finding shortest routes etc.• Preparedness for when the disaster occurs• Hazard mitigation and emergency response 6- GIS Development Most of the above data can be incorporated into a GIS to produce maps. GIS for Earthquake Disaster4- Earthquake Disaster Preparedness Plan Management System for Quetta city will be developedThe Earthquake Disaster Preparedness Plan is using a High Resolution (o.6m) satellite image as baseessentially a plan that identifies weaknesses and threats map. Two types of GIS layers will be includedto the urban environment and proposes strategies to a) First is Risk Mapping that is Hazard’s layers.overcome these weaknesses. Following may be theconsiderations for Earthquake Disaster Preparedness b) Typical LayersPlan:i. A vital component of such planning is historicalexperience and research, either in that particular regionor elsewhere with similar conditions, to ensure thatlessons can be learned from the past [3].ii. Assessment of Critical Assets, Fragilities &Activities at RiskThe assets include the infrastructures and lifelines,general building stock, and critical facilities, industries,and essential production centers or areas.iii. Risk Reduction Measures • Creation/Improvement of Codes / Regulations / Incentives. Figure 03 –Two major fault lines in Quetta: Chiltan • Reducing Fragilities, Increasing Resilience Fault Line and Chaman Fault Lineiv. Training of Response (Rescue Teams) Teams 6.1- Hazard’s layers5- Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Plan In this type GIS layers to be included are:The Earthquake Disaster Preparedness Plan covers a- Seismic Hazard Layer of Quettaprevention, which is essentially a plan that identifiesweaknesses and threats to the urban environment and Seismic Hazard Layer will be produced as shown inproposes strategies to overcome these weaknesses. The figure. Showing the fault lines of threatening to Quetta.last stage is the mitigation plan itself: how to respond The fault lines include Chaman Fault line and Chiltanwhen a disaster occurs [4]. Fault line [6].The hazard mitigation plan starts with an identification b- Seismic Micro zoning Layer of Quettaof facilities that play a role during and after disasterevents. i.e. Seismic Micro zoning Layer dividing the Quetta in two zones Very High Seismic Zone and High Seismic Zone.Medical Facilities, Water Supply Infrastructure,Transportation, Shelter (Tents, cots, blankets, gaslamps, camping equipment), and CommunicationsInfrastructure [5]. 3
  4. 4. c) Residential Areas Major residential areas in Quetta are Shehbaz town, Jinnah town, Samungli, Ceneral Quetta city, satellite town, Broori, Sar-e-aab, Marri abad, Hazara town, etc. d) Major Population Centers Schools, Universities, Shopping Centers, Bus stations, Railway Station. e) Infrastructure Utilities, Water Supplies, Waste Water, Electric Power Supply (Grid Stations) f) Rescue Centers Hospitals, Red Crescent, depots of supplies (medicine and equipment) Rescue Teams, Fire Stations, Police Stations, Military/FC (Frontier Core), Levies Force. g) CommunicationFigure 04 –Two major seismic zones in Quetta city that Emergency broadcast system, cell need to be planed in any disastrous situation phone/radio/CB/TV transmission towers and infrastructure.6.2- Risk Categorization Layer 7. ConclusionThe Layer of risky areas which have major damages Rapid urbanization in Quetta has pushed settlements todue to past earthquakes ranging from low-risk to high- develop in physically unfit areas as a result of poor orrisk. nonexistent planning. As such, these areas are more at risk to Earthquake Disaster because building codes areThese layers will make us able to analyze and predict not enforced and settlements occur haphazardly. If athe probability and location of an earthquake. Exact disaster does occur, these settlements will undoubtedlylocations are still not obtainable with the current suffer the most damage. Therefore it is very importanttechnology but intelligent estimates can be made. that cities that are at risk to Earthquake Disasters takeFor example with the help of Seismic Micro zoning the precautionary measures to minimize the loss of lifeMap it can be analyzed that a specified location is lying and property, casualties and victims, and damagedin either Very High Seismic Zone or High Seismic infrastructure.Zone then using Risk Categorization Layer damages GIS is a powerful tool for assessing the risk andto that location due to past earthquakes can be prioritizing needs. It will help to develop newanalyzed. So that prediction and future preparedness applications to support emergency preparedness. Urbanplan for that specified location can be implemented. information systems help automate analysis, shareb) Typical Layers information, and encourage teamwork. By visually displaying information, GIS enhances risk evaluationTypical layers include the layers typically necessary for and performs analyses that would not otherwise bedeveloping GIS for a disaster. For this Thematic Maps possible. Real-time information updates in GIS supportwill be created for the Quetta Inventory .These layers better decision making and improve earthquakewill be: management. Creating an urban inventory, thematic a) Transportation maps, and queries also help to identify Quettas most at risk areas and "what-if" "where is...?", and "what Main Roads, Bridges, Highways, Evacuation intersects...?" scenarios will help in planning mitigation Routes Railway Line, airport measures such as retrofitting and relocation. GIS b) Parcels technology manages vast quantities of information quickly in an emergency and helps authorities Building footprint and Typology formulate strategies that mitigate the effects of future 4
  5. 5. earthquakes. Mapping and spatial analysis will help the Earthquake in Pakistan IUCN Field Missionauthorities make better decisions and formulate more Reporteffective policies for local emergency bureaus. [2] Aiping Tang , Xiaxin Tao, et al(2000). DigitalA crucial component of this Disaster Management System for Natural Disaster Mitigation in China.System is historical experience and research in the Prague,Republic of Czech: International conferenceregion to ensure that lessons can be learned from the of 30th Urban data management symposiumpast. (UDMS2000), 2000.Finally, critical information such as damaged [3] Guanhua Xu(1999): Building the “Digital Earth”,infrastructure, particularly utilities and transportation, Promoting Chinas and Global Sustainablecan greatly influence the success of post-disaster efforts Development. Proceedings of the Internationalbecause saving lives and protecting property depends Symposium on Digital Earth, Science Press, 1999.on how quickly and efficiently people and objects can [4] Yongxiang Lu(1999):Building up the Digital Earthbe transported out of the disaster site. This information Together, Sharing Global Data Resources Eachcan be viewed in GIS with regular updates to the actual Other. Proceedings of the International Symposiumsituation in the field so that emergency response on Digital Earth, Science Press, 1999.reaches the largest number of people in the shortestamount of time. [5] Lili Xie, et al (2000): Digital disaster reduction system. Journal of natural disasters, Vol.9, No.2,Government involvement is necessary at each stage to 2000.formulate and implement policy analyses addressingeach specific area. [6] Yafeng Shi, et al (1992): Natural disaster analysis, strategy and countermeasure against disaster in china.8. Future Work The Division of Earth Sciences of China Academy of Science, Hubei Publishing house of science andFurther studies can be done about building typologies, technology, 1992.type of material, number of floors, and anapproximation of the number of occupants. Conditionof building whether it has been retrofitted or not canalso be added to further refine the risk categories.Environment should be assessed and a projected growthdefined to understand what shape the area will takeover the next 20 years. In addition, maps of soil depthand soil type, indicative of earthquake shaking periods,can be created.Finally, using Radar Imagery study of Earthquake FaultLines and movement of tectonic plates can be done toenhance the accuracy and effectiveness of Hazard’sLayers. Predictions of possible Earthquakes are alsopossible using such studies.9. AcknowledgmentsWe are highly obliged to Mr. Asif Nazeer Rana,Assistant Director Geological Survey of PakistanHeadquatter Quetta amd Mr. Joozer Marzban, DeputyDirector Geological Survey of Pakistan for theirphilanthropist behavior during our research andproviding us with necessary information and documentswhich were required during our research activities.10. References[1] Karl Schuler, Ahmad Saeed, Mahmood Akhtar Cheema, Preliminary Environmental Assessment of 5