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Report: "MolGAN: An implicit generative model for small molecular graphs"

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De Cao & Kipf, "MolGAN: An implicit generative model for small molecular graphs" (ICML Deep Generative Models Workshop 2018)
arXiv:1805.11973

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Report: "MolGAN: An implicit generative model for small molecular graphs"

  1. 1. MolGAN: An implicit generative model for small molecular graphs N. De Cao and T. Kipf (Informatics Institute, University of Amsterdam) ICML Deep Generative Models Workshop (2018) arXiv:1805.11973 Gpat Journal Club 2018.10.12, Ryohei Suzuki
  2. 2. Research Summary • Automatic generation of drug-like small molecules • Generative Adversarial Net + Graph Neural Network + Reinforcement Learning • Optimization of biochemical properties (e.g., solubility) → first step toward in-silico screening by ML ※It is not aimed at designing drugs for specific purposes
  3. 3. About the authors T. Kipf (Ph.D cand.) • https://tkipf.github.io/ • Supervisor: Max Welling (ML) N. De Cao (Ph.D cand.) • https://nicola-decao.github.io/ • Supervisor: Ivan Titov (NLP) Supervisor of D. Kingma Pupil of G. t’Hooft (author of Adam, VAE, etc.) (quantum gravity, string theory) citation count 1999 (electro-weak)
  4. 4. Drug design / drug discovery (DD) Properties required for drugs • Useful bioactivity • Controllable side effect • Synthesizability • Having effect after metabolism (cf. drug delivery) Vast time and monetary cost of animal/human experiments → in-silico screening using computers
  5. 5. Screening by simulation Case of target drug: 1. Structure determination of target protein 2. Decision of target site 3. Static affinity prediction 4. Dynamic binding simulation (MD) days-weeks computation time /molecule Gefitinib Mutated EGFR (non small cell lung cancer)
  6. 6. Why is drug design difficult? 1. Very large and high-dimensional search space - over 60,000 permutation for only 10 C/N/O atoms - very limited atomic permutations give valid structure 2. Discrete optimization of molecular structure - continuous/gradual optimization is not possible 3. Slight change in structure results in large effects - COH and COOH are absolutely different
  7. 7. Why is drug design difficult? 4. No appropriate data structure for molecular structure 5. Predicting biochemical properties is essentially difficult - Even QM/MM has limitation. Wet exp. is necessary CN1CCC[C@H]1c2cccnc2 Image SMILES representation 3D structure (important for proteins)
  8. 8. Will ML solve the problems? 1. Very large and high-dimensional search space → Generative models (e.g. GAN) can effectively represent complex/high-dimensional data 2. Discrete optimization of molecular structure → Goal of this study is just rough screening (not fine-tuning of specific drugs) 3. Slight change in structure results in large effects → Pinpoint affinity prediction can be difficult for ML. ML suites predicting general properties like solubility
  9. 9. Will ML solve the problems? 4. No appropriate data structure for molecular structure → Graph representation + Graph convolutional neural network 5. Predicting biochemical properties is essentially difficult → ML wouldn’t solve this fundamental problem. Improved simulation methods are also needed
  10. 10. Problem definition Generating molecular structure without specific usages • Generated molecules are evaluated by: 1. Druglikeness (QED: Bickerton et al., 2012) 2. Synthesizability (Synthetic Accessibility: Ertl & Schuffenhauer, 2009) 3. Solubility (logP: Comer & Tam, 2001) • Methods are evaluated by: 1. Validness = valid structure / output structure 2. Novelty = ratio of valid structures not included in training dataset 3. Uniqueness = unique valid molecules / total valid molecules
  11. 11. Overview Generator: Transforms noise into a structure Generated structure Discriminator: Judges structure is valid or not Reward Network: Predict the properties of molecular structures Goal: obtaining a generator that can output valid molecular structures with good properties
  12. 12. Revisiting neural networks https://towardsdatascience.com/how-to-build-your-own-neural-network-from-scratch-in-python-68998a08e4f6 1. Input an image or some value 2. Multiple transformation 3. Value (regression) or category (classification) is outputted 4. Calculate “loss” value 5. Refine the transformation parameter to improve the loss value (back-propagation)
  13. 13. Generative models • classification:judge an image to be cat or dog • regression:predict f(0.5) from f(0), f(1) • generation:generate data distribution like training data https://blog.openai.com/generative-models/
  14. 14. Generative models • 識別モデル:画像を入力してカテゴリ(犬か猫か)を判定 • 回帰モデル:f(0), f(1)が分かってるときのf(0.5)を予測 • 生成モデル:データセットの分布と同じようなデータを生成 https://blog.openai.com/generative-models/ Challenge: How to calculate the “loss” value to train the model to generate a “distribution like given dataset?”
  15. 15. Generative Adversarial Net (GAN) “Rat race between fake bill maker vs. police” • generator:generate data as resemble as possible dataset samples • discriminator:distinguish real / fake data as precise as possible → train two modules alternately do not calculate actual distribution → danger of mode collapse https://towardsdatascience.com/generative-adversarial-networks-explained-34472718707a
  16. 16. Power of GANs e.g., BigGANs (Brock et al., 2018) Generated Images Continuous morphing of input noise Continuous change of noise gives semantically continuous change of Image =learned useful representation
  17. 17. Molecular structure representation Image:human-interpretable, but inefficient SMILES:rich information, but syntax is too strict 3D:very rich information, large data size, invariance problem CN1CCC[C@H]1c2cccnc2 2D Image SMILES 3D structure
  18. 18. Graph and molecular structure Graph:Network structure consist of nodes V and edges E Node=atom / Edge=bond → Graph = molecule https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%9A%A3%E6%8E%A5%E8%A1%8C%E5%88%97 simple graph Adjacency matrix Node matrix Adjacency tensor
  19. 19. 2D-convolution for images https://developer.nvidia.com/discover/convolutional-neural-network Convolution:Applying filters for an entire image http://timdettmers.com/2015/03/26/convolution-deep-learning/ Convolutional Neural Network Extract abstract information of images by repeated 2D-convolutions
  20. 20. Graph convolution (Kipf&Welling ICLR2017) Convolution can be also defined for graphs! http://tkipf.github.io/misc/SlidesCambridge.pdf
  21. 21. Reinforcement Learning Learning framework for robot movement Action under an environment gives a reward reflecting the goodness ex) going toward a hole results in death of Mario Optimizing the policy to maximize the reward ex) Jump when a hole is located in front of Mario https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reinforcement_learning
  22. 22. LR for Molecular Design Action:Generation of a molecule Environment/Reward:biochemical evaluation of molecule Policy:Generative model druglikeness:0.9 synthesizability:0.1 solubility:0.3 … Feedback External software
  23. 23. Design of MolGAN (1) GAN • Gen directly output a graph in adjacency matrix • Gen is a MLP • Dis judges the validness of a molecule • Dis is a graph convolutional • WGAN-GP* loss *Please refer to the material of Fukuta-san’s lecture
  24. 24. Design of MolGAN (2) LR Deep deterministic policy gradient • Reward network mimics external program to evaluate molecules • Reward network has same structure as the dis • Reward loss = output of reward network • Blend GAN loss & reward loss
  25. 25. Examples of generated molecules ※numbers: druglikeness (QED score)
  26. 26. Exp.1: valance of GAN/reward loss Evaluate generated molecules with changing the loss valance Result:Only reward loss is necessary
  27. 27. Exp.2: comparison with other methods • Validity: Others: 85-95% MolGAN: 98-100% • Uniqueness: Others: 10-70% MolGAN: 2% • Time consumption: 1/10-1/2 to others
  28. 28. Exp.2: comparison with other methods • druglikeness • synthesizability • solubility Higher score than other methods for all the properties
  29. 29. Discussion Pros • Very high (~100%) valid output structure ratio • GraphNN+LR is effective for biochemical optimization • Light computational cost, fast learning Cons / Future work • mode collapse = same structure is repeatedly generated → normalization techniques (e.g., spectral norm) are useful? • Fixed atom count

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