Kenya<br />
Kenya:<br />Colonized by British<br />Became independent in 1963 <br />Member of many international organizations includin...
Kenya Continued…<br />Population: 39,002,772 people<br />Ages Structure: <br /><ul><li>0-14 years: 42.3%
15-64 years: 55.1%
65 years and over: 2.6%
12,200,000 between age 10-24 (about 31%)</li></ul>Ethnic Groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, ...
Background Kenyan political development <br />Before Independence<br />Secret Kikuyu guerrilla group known as Mau Mau begi...
Percent of votes for Principle Presidential candidates per province in 1992<br />
1969 - Assassination of government minister Tom Mboya sparks ethnic unrest. KPU banned and Odinga arrested. Kanu only part...
Kenya cont’d<br />1987- Opposition groups suppressed. International criticism of political arrests and human rights abuses...
Presidential Election Results 1997<br />
Kenya’s Elections<br />Candidate nominations<br />More than 100 registered parties<br /><ul><li>Only 9 party candidates ce...
No provision for independent candidates
Pres nominations well conducted
Parliamentary , civic chaotic, interference by party HQ</li></ul>Background<br />Dec 27, 2007<br />10th general election/4...
14 million voters or 82% total eligible voter population
Continuous registration system
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  1. 1. Kenya<br />
  2. 2. Kenya:<br />Colonized by British<br />Became independent in 1963 <br />Member of many international organizations including the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Union and the United Nations<br />Economy:<br />GDP: $61.65 billion<br />Unemployment rate: 40%<br />Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism<br />
  3. 3. Kenya Continued…<br />Population: 39,002,772 people<br />Ages Structure: <br /><ul><li>0-14 years: 42.3%
  4. 4. 15-64 years: 55.1%
  5. 5. 65 years and over: 2.6%
  6. 6. 12,200,000 between age 10-24 (about 31%)</li></ul>Ethnic Groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1% <br />Religious Groups: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, Muslim 10%, indigenous beliefs 10%, other 2%<br />
  7. 7. Background Kenyan political development <br />Before Independence<br />Secret Kikuyu guerrilla group known as Mau Mau begins violent campaign against white settlers. <br />State of emergency declared. Kenyatta arrested. <br />1953 - Kenyatta charged with management of Mau Mau and jailed. KAU banned. <br />1960 - State of emergency ends. Britain announces plans to prepare Kenya for majority African rule. Kenya African national Union (Kanu) formed by Tom Mboya and Oginga Odinga. <br />Independence<br />1961 - Kenyatta freed and assumes presidency of Kanu. <br />1963 - Kenya gains independence, with Kenyatta as prime minister. <br />1964 - Republic of Kenya formed. Kenyatta becomes president and Odinga vice-president. <br />1966 - Odinga, a Luo, leaves Kanu after ideological split, forms rival Kenya People's Union (KPU). <br />1969- Assassination of government minister Tom Mboya sparks ethnic unrest. KPU banned and Odinga arrested. Kanu only party to contest elections. <br />1978 - Kenyatta dies in office, succeeded by Vice-President Daniel arap Moi. <br />1982 June - Kenya officially declared a one-party state by National Assembly.<br />
  8. 8. Percent of votes for Principle Presidential candidates per province in 1992<br />
  9. 9. 1969 - Assassination of government minister Tom Mboya sparks ethnic unrest. KPU banned and Odinga arrested. Kanu only party to contest elections. <br />1978 - Kenyatta dies in office, succeeded by Vice-President Daniel arap Moi. <br />1982 June - Kenya officially declared a one-party state by National Assembly.<br />
  10. 10. Kenya cont’d<br />1987- Opposition groups suppressed. International criticism of political arrests and human rights abuses.  Multi-party elections1991 December - Special conference of Kanu agrees to introduce a multi-party political system1992 December - Moi re-elected in multi-party elections. Kanu wins strong majority.  <br />1994 - Odinga dies. <br />1997 - Demonstrations calling for democratic reform. World Bank withholds disbursement of $5bn in structural adjustment credit. <br />1997 December - Moi wins further term in widely-criticised elections. His main opponents are former vice-president MwaiKibaki and Raila Odinga, son of Oginga Odinga. <br />2001 - Ethnic tensions culminate in thousands several violent clashes. In December flee and several people are killed in rent battles involving Nubian and Luo communities in Nairobi's Kibera slum district. <br />2004March-July - Long-awaited draft of new constitution completed. Document requires parliament's approval and proposes curbing president's powers and creating post of prime minister. But deadline for enactment is missed. <br />2004 July-August - Food crisis, caused by crop failures and drought, dubbed "national <br />Parliament approves a draft constitution after days of violent protests in Nairobi over aspects of the draft which<br /> demonstrators say give too much power to in the president's hands. <br />2005November-December - Voters reject a proposed new constitution in what is seen as a protest against President Kibaki. The president replaces his cabinet; some nominees reject <br />2006 April - Visiting Chinese President Hu Jintao signs a contract allowing China to prospect for oil off the Kenyan coast. His African tour has focused on trying to satisfy China's hunger for energy and raw materials. <br />2007 December - Presidential elections. President Kibaki claims victory and a second term in office, prompting a wave of unrest. Opposition says polls were rigged. <br />Opposition Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) wins most seats in the parliamentary election. <br /> <br />   <br />
  11. 11. Presidential Election Results 1997<br />
  12. 12. Kenya’s Elections<br />Candidate nominations<br />More than 100 registered parties<br /><ul><li>Only 9 party candidates certified, one female
  13. 13. No provision for independent candidates
  14. 14. Pres nominations well conducted
  15. 15. Parliamentary , civic chaotic, interference by party HQ</li></ul>Background<br />Dec 27, 2007<br />10th general election/4th multiparty <br />Flaws, irregularities 1992,1997, 2002<br />9 presidential candidates/2,547<br />parliamentary/15,331 local government<br />Highly contested PNU and ODM<br />Elect president/ parliament/local government<br />Voter Registration<br /><ul><li>Registration record high 2007
  16. 16. 14 million voters or 82% total eligible voter population
  17. 17. Continuous registration system
  18. 18. Discrimination, multiple registration,
  19. 19. 1.2 million names of deceased</li></ul>Voter education<br /><ul><li>Electorate to understand process
  20. 20. Anti-violence campaign
  21. 21. Kimya campaign for high voter turnout</li></ul> Koffi Anan, Mwai Kibaki, Raila Odinga<br />
  22. 22. Campaign Kenya<br /><ul><li> Free and fair environment
  23. 23. Robust language, strong ethnic polarization, some clashes
  24. 24. Kibaki (PNU) Kikuyu, Embu, Meru communities
  25. 25. Political Platform=social economic record
  26. 26. Raila Odinga (ODM) Luo, luhya, kalenjin
  27. 27. Political platform=political, socio-economic reform, devolution of power</li></ul>Campaign financing<br /><ul><li> Undisclosed, wealthy donors, int’l donors, abuse of incumbency
  28. 28. Distribution of money, goods, etc</li></ul> Media Environment<br /><ul><li>Freedom of speech respected
  29. 29. High level coverage during preparation, campaign
  30. 30. Bias KBC coverage 76% for PNU
  31. 31. Hate speech
  32. 32. Radio, sms, internet,
  33. 33. “settlers’, “lets claim our land”, “people of milk cut grass”aimed at kikuyu
  34. 34. “Lazy”, “don’t work”, “don’t pay rent”, “murderer”Luo</li></li></ul><li> Election day<br />Voter turnout<br />Record high, millions of 1st time voters,<br />government ID<br />20,000 polling stations<br />Election administration<br />ECK, party agents, observers verify ballot Boxes<br />Voter’s name verified against voter register<br />3 ballots, pre-stamped, <br />Election observation<br />17,000 domestic, 62 organizations<br />EU, COMESA, EAC, IRI, Pan-African<br />Movement, KEDOF<br />Observer comments Peaceful & orderly<br />manner<br />Irregularities<br />Missing polling staff<br />Late delivery election material<br />Secrecy of votes breached<br />Group voting<br />
  35. 35. Final results Kenya elections 2007<br />Counting & Tallying<br /><ul><li>Polling stationsconstituencylevelECK
  36. 36. Irregularities
  37. 37. Returning officers in 21 constituencies
  38. 38. Turnover 100% in Kibaki strong hold after re-vote</li></ul>Announcement<br /><ul><li> ECK legalized to announce results
  39. 39. Parliamentary announced 12/29presidential withheldPNU losses
  40. 40. PNU, ODM pre-announce victoryclashes
  41. 41. Dec. 30 ECK announcement of winner 47% to 43%Chaos1,000 dead, 500,000 IDP</li></li></ul><li>Results in Kenya’s elections<br />Results announcement<br />ECK legalized to announce results<br />Parliamentary announced 12/29presidential withheldPNU losses<br />PNU, ODM pre-announce victoryclashes<br />Dec. 30 ECK announcement of winner 47% to 43%<br />Chaos1,000 dead, 500,000 IDP<br />
  42. 42. Kriegler Report‏<br />“Countries such as Mexico, where there has been radical<br />electoral reform comparatively recently, have established a special electoral tribunal with<br />extensive power and exclusive jurisdiction in relation to elections. This may be costly but<br />has the great benefit of speed and special expertise. Then again, South Africa opted for a<br />special electoral court with exclusive and final jurisdiction consisting of three senior<br />members of the judiciary who ordinarily continue with their routine work but are on<br />standby to deal with electoral matters on an urgent and prioritised basis. Expedition has<br />thus been ensured with the prospect of some degree of specialist knowledge.”<br />
  43. 43. One man half vote?<br />http://www.mapsofworld.com/kenya/kenya-ethnic-groups.html<br />http://www.uiowa.edu/~electdis/Kenya.htm<br />“the current system favors the regions that support the ruling party, KANU, and discriminates against the regions that support opposition parties. The extent to which this argument is valid is illustrated by the results of the 1997 election. “<br />“Most districts have populations that are well above or below the mean population of 103,000.” <br />“the present system awarded KANU a higher proportion of seats (51%) than its proportion of the vote (43%)” <br />
  44. 44. The system matters <br />http://www.uiowa.edu/~electdis/Kenya.htm<br />
  45. 45. New constitution, no new system<br />Part 2—Composition and membership of Parliament<br />Membership of the Senate<br />125. (1) The Senate shall consist of—<br />(a) members elected one each by the counties, each county<br />assembly acting as an electoral college;<br /> <br />Membership of the National Assembly<br />126. (1) The National Assembly shall consist of—<br />members elected one each by the constituencies as may be provided by law;<br />Election of State President<br />162. (1) The election of the State President shall be by direct adult suffrage<br />through a secret ballot and shall be conducted in accordance with this<br />Constitution and any Act of Parliament regulating presidential<br />elections.<br />

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