What is X?In rural folklore, __X__ was often regarded as an evil place, the siteof black magic. This notion dated back to early mythology in Africaand Europe. As these pagan cultures were forcibly assimilated byChristian society, some of their original beliefs were blended withthe new religion.According to the legend, Robert Johnson went down to __X__ andmade a pact with Satan. The devil promised to fulfill his dreams,thus Johnson traded his eternal soul for his extraordinary talents.Of course, the devil wouldnt allow him to enjoy his success and thelord of the underworld soon claimed his prize. Even thoughJohnsons musical legacy would eventually earn worldwide acclaim,he never had a chance to enjoy the fruits of his labor.
Name the reportWith more money flowing into consumers’ pockets, thecountry’s urban market place has expanded from metrosto smaller cities. The increased affluence and theresulting change in consumption patterns in these townshave forced marketers to devise new ways of exploitingthis emerging opportunity.A report by Ernst and Young cites examples fromindustries such as telecom where subscriber growth inthe top four metros was at a scorching 58%, but at amuch higher rate of 93% in the rest of India.
August 18 1913, Monday. In one of the casinosat Monte Carlo, it was chaos, hustle andmadness. Something unprecedented had takenplace, the roulette wheel had landed on black26 times in a row.What happened after this (the first instance ofsomething which has entered mathematicalfolklore hence) ?
What?People have been fascinated by __X__ forcenturies. Some Native Americans believedthat a spirit lived inside each kernel of __X__.When heated, the spirit grew angry and wouldeventually burst out of its home and into theair as a disgruntled puff of steam.
In 2006, Ben and Jerrys introduced an icecream called __X__, whose label states: "Therevolutionary struggle of the cherries wassquashed as they were trapped between twolayers of chocolate. May their memory live onin your mouth." As you finish the ice creamyoure left with a wooden stick with the words"We will bite to the end!"
XIn a literal sense, there is no such type of fish as a __X__;rather it refers to a particularly strong kipper, meaning afish that has been strongly cured in brine and/or heavilysmoked. It was used to train young scent hounds: thepungent __X__ would be dragged along a trail until apuppy learned to follow the scent. Later, when the dog wasbeing trained to follow the faint odour of a fox or a badger,the trainer would drag a __X__ (whose strong scentconfuses the animal) perpendicular to the animals trail toconfuse the dog
Tribute to the invincibleThe __X__ are sometimes described as the first empirebuilders in the recorded history of India. They inherited thelarge kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yetmore distant frontiers. According to Plutarch, the __X__army numbered 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000war chariots, and 6,000 war elephants. However, the__X__ never had the opportunity to see their army upagainst Alexander, since Alexander had to confine hiscampaign to the plains of Punjab, for his forces, frightenedby the prospect of facing a formidable foe, mutinied at theHyphasis River (the modern Beas River) refusing to marchany further.
Age of civilizationsIn 1974, a group of French archaeologists discoveredone of the most important neolithic sites in Balochistan.__X__ was inhabited in various periods from 7000 BC to2600 BC. It is one of the earliest sites with farming andherding. The location and timescale suggests that __X__was a precursor to the Indus valley civilization."Discoveries at __X__ changed the entire concept of theIndus civilization. There we have the whole sequence,right from the beginning of settled village life."
Who?"It was to a land of dark people he was sent, to clothe them byBaptism in white robes. His grateful dawn dispelled Indiaspainful darkness. It was his mission to espouse India to theOne-Begotten. The merchant is blessed for having so great atreasure. Edessa thus became the blessed city by possessingthe greatest pearl India could yield. __X__ works miracles inIndia, and at Edessa __X__ is destined to baptize peoplesperverse and steeped in darkness, and that in the land ofIndia." BACK
Who, and what is going on?On the outskirts of Ghazni are two domed tombs. Thelarger was of Ghori and few meters away was asecond smaller tomb of __B__.“In the centre of the second tomb was a bare patch ofearth where the actual grave should have been.Hanging over this spot from the top of the dome is along, thick rope ending in a knot at shoulder height.Local visitors would grab hold of this knot in one handand stamp vigorously and repeatedly with one foot onthe bare patch in the centre of the tomb”
ID the system The popularity of the __X__ system derived from the fact that● If parents were childless, they vowed to dedicate their first child if it happened to be a girl.● If there were no sons in the family, the girl child was dedicated and could not marry as she becomes a son for the family (earning the livelihood) The practice was outlawed in India in 1988, because after initiantion of __X__, women migrate either to nearby towns or far off cities to practise prostitution.
Which fort is being talked about?__X__ was the second city of Delhi. Alauddin Khiljicreated __X__ between 1297 and 1307 to defendagainst Mongol invasions of India and Delhi. The__X__ fort served as a seat of his power. Accordingto the legend of Ala-ud-din’s war exploits, the name__X__ given to the Fort was because the foundationof the fort was built on the severed heads of over8000 Mongol soldiers killed in the war. BACK
ID X__X__ was the founding editor of the Journalof Asiatic Society of Bengal, and bestremembered for deciphering the Brahmi andKharosthi scripts of ancient India. He studied,documented and illustrated many aspects ofnumismatics, metallurgy and meteorologyapart from pursuing his career in India as anassay master at the mint in Benares.
Excerpt from a certain biographical account. What did this lead to? “Information and warning came to him from a very special source, that is, from the leaders among those devoted, in all parts of India, to a religious life. Among the heads or Gurus of these sects are to be found men of the highest quality who, like the ancient Hebrew prophets, have purged themselves from earthly desires, and fixed their aspirations on the highest good. These religious leaders, through their Chelas or disciples are fully informed of all that goes on under the surface, and their influence is great in forming public opinion. It was with these men that Mr. __X__ came into touch, towards the end of Lord. Lyttons viceroyalty. "The jingle is all dry," they said; "fire does spread wonderfully in such when the right wind blows, and it is blowing now, and hard".”
ID XThe __X__ was an organization founded by PunjabiIndians in the United States and Canada with the aimto liberate India from British rule. Many of them werestudents of UC Berkeley. After the outbreak of WorldWar I, __X__ members returned to Punjab to agitatefor rebellion. In 1915 they conducted revolutionaryactivities in central Punjab and attempted to organizeuprisings, but their attempts were crushed by theBritish Government BACK
Newspaper report of which incident? “We wrote two days ago that conditions in Calcutta were horrifying. They have gone beyond since. What ever the appropriate adjective is, they were nothing in comparison with what we have subsequently seen. The last estimate of dead in 3000, who have lain thick about the streets. The injured number many thousands and it is impossible to say how many business houses and private dwellings have been destroyed. This is not a riot. This needs a word found in medieval history, a fury.”
The other side, which incident?“You understand the bitterness with which I send you thismessage. It is horrible to think that this may mean totalsacrifice, but I believe that sacrifice is the only way for usto keep up to the highest traditions and provide service tothe future of the Nation. Do not expect the possibility oftruce or of ____ prisoners, as there will be no surrenderrendered because I feel that our soldiers and sailors canbe either victorious or dead. These words could, by theirseriousness, be directed only to a soldier of higher dutiesfully prepared to fulfill them. God will not allow you to bethe last Governor of the State of India”
Jai MaharashtraIn 1963, the government of Maharashtra passed an act in theLegislature which started with the following declaration -“Whereas the agricultural situation of the State is constantlywatched by the State Government, and relief measures aswarranted by the situation are provided as soon as signs ofscarcity conditions are apparent...”The act was a aimed at providing a permanent solution for thepersistent problem of famines. What was the proposed solution? BACK
Which phrase?In 1956, the nation was at a particularly tense time in theCold War. Paranoia prevailed over the Soviet Unionsplace in the world. As a result, the 84th Congress passeda joint resolution to start using __X__ as the nationalmotto. The move was politically motivated, unlike popularbelief – an attempt to distance themselves from Sovietideologies. The use of __X__ has come under scrutinyand criticism, at times being labelled un-American,however it stands tall till date.
PrecedentPresident Hayes was the firstto use the coat of arms onpresidential invitations (1877).The insignia was used till 1945when President Trumanredefined the seal. Whichlegend did this new definitionspawn, which has found itsway into popular stories likeDeception Point amongothers?
Flogging MolliesThe Molly Maguires was a 19th century secret society ofmainly Irish-American coal miners. It was a time of rampantbeatings and murders in mining districts, some committed bythe Mollies.Franklin B. Gowen, the President of the Philadelphia andReading Railroad, "the wealthiest anthracite coal mine ownerin the world", hired Allan Pinkertons services to deal with theMolly Maguires. Pinkerton assigned McParland to the job.McParland successfully infiltrated the secret organization,becoming a secretary for one of its local groups, and led to thearrest of several Maguires. What did his success inspire? BACK
HerodotusIn the reign of Atys the son of Manes their king there cameto be a grievous dearth over the whole of Lydia; and theLydians for a time continued to endure it, but afterwards,as it did not cease, they sought for remedies; and onedevised one thing and another of them devised anotherthing. And then were discovered, they say, __X__. Thesethey invented as a resource against the famine, and thusthey used to do:--on one of the days they would ____ allthe time in order that they might not feel the want of food,and on the next they ceased from their ____ and hadfood: and thus they went on for eighteen years
ID X__X__ rose to power during a period of anarchy inIran. He managed to overthrow the invaders:Russians and Ottoman Turks, and overthrew theruling dynasty to become the ruler himself. Heexpanded his empire to include Iraq, Afghanistan,Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, India,Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Oman and thePersian gulf. His victories made him the MiddleEasts more powerful sovereign, and he has beendeclared as "the last great Asian military conqueror"by the Cambridge History of Iran.
Of horses and men__X__ was a military tactic made famous by theParthians, an Iranian people. The Parthian archersmounted on light horse, while retreating at a full gallop,would turn their bodies back to shoot at the pursuingenemy. The maneuver required superb equestrian skills,since the riders hands were occupied by his bow. As thestirrup had not been invented at the time of the Parthians,the rider relied solely on pressure from his legs to guidehis horse.Which English phrase originates from this? BACK
Which fair?During the late Middle Ages the seaside town of __X__,in Yorkshire, was an important venue for tradesmen fromall over England. It was host to a huge 45-day tradingevent, starting August 15, which was exceptionally longfor a fair in those times. Merchants came to it from allareas of England, Norway, Denmark, the Baltic statesand the Byzantine Empire. Naturally, such a largeoccasion attracted a lot more than just tradesmen; theyneeded to be entertained and fed, therefore large crowdsof buyers, sellers and pleasure-seekers attended the fair.
ID XUnder the Third Succession Act, Elizabeth was the heirtothe English throne, and Henry VIIIs last will andtestament had excluded the Stuarts from succeeding tothe English throne. Yet, in the eyes of many Catholics,Elizabeth was illegitimate, and __X__, as the seniordescendant of Henry VIIIs elder sister, was the rightfulqueen of England.Henry II of France proclaimed his eldest son and hisdaughter-in-law (__X__) king and queen of England, andin France they quartered the royal arms of England withtheir own. Her claim to the English throne was a perennialsticking point between her and Elizabeth I
Which folk tale?The third Crusade was led by king Richard I of Englandagainst the Muslims united under Saladin. During hisabsense, king John seized the throne. He was aconsiderable failure as a king, and failed to inspire trust.The Victorians latched on to Johns moral failings likehis cruelty and his sexual deviancy, taking mistressesmarried to barons, and this repulsed their newly formedidea of medieval knights as perfect gentlemen. This ledto the fixing of the timescale of a certain folklore, withking John as the villain. BACK
What is X?__X__ is any bowed string musical instrument, mostoften the violin. The medieval __X__ emerged in10th-century Europe, deriving from the Byzantine lira.Lira spread widely westward to Europe; in the 11th and12th centuries European writers use the terms __X__and lira interchangeably when referring to bowedinstruments.A popular story from the ancient times records the usageof __X__; however the tale has clearly been fabricated,since __X__ had not been invented yet.
Its all greek to themPtolemy came to power in Egypt afterAlexander. The Ptolemies, throughout theirdynasty, refused to speak in Egyptianlanguages, and spoke Greek. While this habitwas downright insolent, it has proved to bepriceless in recent times. Why? BACK
X&YApart from two or three representations of ritual __X__, nodepictions or preserved __X__ have horns. The myth waspromulgated by 19th century enthusiasts of Geatishsociety, founded in 1811. They promoted the use ofmythology as the subject of high art and moral aims. The__Y__ were depicted wearing clothing taken from classicalantiquity. especially norse gods. This was done tolegitimize the __Y__ by associating them with the classicalworld, which was idealized in Europe.
Which notorious family name?The Order of the Dragon was a monarchicalchivalric order for selected nobility. It wasfashioned after the military orders of theCrusades, requiring its initiates to defend thecross and fight the enemies of Christianity, inparticular the Ottoman Turks. One of the mostimportant rulers of the Basarab dynasty, Mirceacel Bătrân, joined the Order of the Dragon. Thisis how he earned his name __X__.
What is X?In ancient times, __X__ was represented as an armedattendant who sat on the back of an elephant. Theproblem was that in Central Europe elephants were notknown, so they could not recognize the figure. __X__was interpreted differently by the different nations. That iswhy the __X__ came to be known as "Läufer" (runner) inGermany, a "fou" (fool) in France and a "alfiere"(standard-bearer) in Italy. The British felt that projectionsat the top resembled a mitre, and hence called it a __X__ BACK
X,Y and the myth__X__ arrived at Versailles from Austria in 1770. __Y_sConfessions were finished in 1769, so he could not havementioned the young archduchess. Letters from __X__ toher family in Austria at this time reveal an attitude totallydifferent - "It is quite certain that in seeing the people whotreat us so well despite their own misfortune, we aremore obliged than ever to work hard for their happiness.The king seems to understand the truth."Which commonly held myth does this dispel?
Who, and which request?The last Moorish territory in Spain wasGranada. The fall of Granada marked the endof the eight hundred year old Moorishoccupation in the Iberian Peninsula. The kingand queen of Spain, returning from theconquest, were jubilant but tired andfinancially broke. They finally gave in to theimpractical requests of __X__, and the rest ishistory. BACK
Harry Elmer Barnes, an American, was at one time amainstream historian. Between World War I and World War II,Barnes became well known as an anti-war writer and a leaderin the historical revisionism movement, where he had workedclosely from 1924 onwards with Centre for the Study of theCauses of the War. This institute was a pseudo-historicalthink-tank based in Berlin, secretly funded by the Germangovernment and headed by a former völkisch activist namedMajor Alfred von Wegerer, whose sole purpose was to proveGermany was the victim of Allied aggression in 1914Which controversial school of thought did Barnes father afterWW2? BACK
To liberty and beyondAccording to English labour lawyer Peter Benenson, he wastravelling in the London Underground on 19 November 1960,when he read of two Portuguese students from Coimbra whohad been sentenced to seven years of imprisonment inPortugal for allegedly "having drunk a toast to liberty". In 1960,Portugal was ruled by the Estado Novo government of Antóniode Oliveira Salazar. The government was authoritarian innature and strongly anti-communist, supressing enemies ofthe state as anti-Portuguese.This appalling violation of human rights led to Mr. Benensonfounding __X__
In 1540, Gonzalo Pizarro was made the governor of the provenanceof Quito in northern Ecuador. One of Gonzalo Pizarros lieutenants,Francisco de Orellana, set off in 1541 to explore east of Quito intothe South American interior.He was ordered to follow the Coca River and return when the riverreached its confluence. However, his men threatened to mutiny if heturned back; and he carried his journey onwards. Despite threatsfrom the natives, they kept going downstream, and eventuallydiscovered the Amazon.What was the real purpose of the journey, the reason behind themutinous sailors? BACK
The soviet cluster bomb,used in the Winter Warin Finland (1939) wasknown as the __X__bread basket. As a reply,the Finns invented the__X__ __Y__ , “a drinkto go with the food”
IDOnce King Bimbisara decided to give gifts to his children,he gave an 18 fold Divine Necklace to Hallakumara andone White elephant to Vihallakumara, which cost morethan half of Magadha. As the king wanted to surpriseAshokcahandra by giving him the entire kingdom, he didnot give anything to him on that day. Ashokchandra, failingto understand his father, imprisoned him and enthronedhimself. Horrified, Queen Chelna cursed him that for restof his life and in history he will be known as __Y__ i.e.-onewho is an enemy of his own clan from even before hisbirth.
How is this relevant?Scheeles Green was a colouring pigment that had beenused in fabrics and wallpapers from about 1770. Thepigment was easy to make and was a bright green colourbut under certain circumstances the copper arsenitecould be deadly. Gosio discovered that if wallpapercontaining Scheeles Green became damp and thenbecame mouldy, the mould could carry out a chemicalprocess to get rid of the copper arsenite. It converted it toa vapour form of arsenic, normally a mixture of arsine,dimethyl and trimethyl arsine which was very poisonous. BACK