Lecture 3 new imperialism 2013


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Lecture 3 new imperialism 2013

  1. 1. NEW IMPERIALISM Lecture 3 by Stephen Evans
  2. 2. What is NEW IMPERIALISM? • New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europe’s powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries. • The expansion approximately took place from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I. (c. 1870– 1914). • The period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of what has been termed "empire for empire's sake”. • Aggressive competition for overseas territorial acquisitions.
  3. 3. CAUSES OF NEW IMPERIALISM ECONOMIC: • Need for raw materials, markets and new areas to exploit. • To provide protected supplies of raw materials. • The need for new outlets of investment. • The quest for markets drove British imperialism. • After 1871 other European countries used tariffs to stop sale of British goods.
  4. 4. CAUSES OF NEW IMPERIALISM POLITICAL: • The competition for greatness. • Growing belief that a nations status was reflected in the size and extent of its colonial empire. • The newly created Germany was determined to prove their status as a great power by being involved in the race for colonies. • For France it provided a distraction from domestic policies at home. (Bismarck was pleased that France was not preoccupied with planning a war of revenge for the 1871 defeat.
  5. 5. CAUSES OF NEW IMPERIALISM OTHER REASONS: • Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest. There was a need to expand empires. • Idealistic Motives: To bring “superior” civilisation to the more “backward” areas of the globe. (In reality there was exploitation). To spread the Christian faith • Strategic Reasons: To safeguard existing colonies and trade routes meant further land was needed. e.g: In 1882 Britain occupied Egypt to protect the Suez Canal.
  6. 6. CAUSES OF NEW IMPERIALISM OTHER REASONS CONTINUED… • The Work of Explorers: Into Africa. (David Livingstone). • Technological Factors: the superior weaponry of European powers meant the native populations of Africa and Asia were forced to submit to their control. The development of railways and steamships opened up Africa to the Europeans.
  7. 7. The Suez Canal
  8. 8. Overview: Causes of New Imperialism Although there are sharp differences of opinion over the reasons for, and the significance of, the “new imperialism,” there is little dispute that at least two developments in the late 19th and in the beginning of the 20th century signify a new departure: (1) Notable speed up in colonial acquisitions. (2) An increase in the number of colonial powers.
  9. 9. Imperial Expansion before 1871 • European expansion began from the sixteenth century onwards. • After American independence territory was lost. • After this loss of territory there was a view that Empire was problematic. • This policy soon changed in the “scramble for Africa”. • Colonial expansion was therefore not totally abandoned. Colonies are wretched and milestones around our necks. (Gladstone)
  11. 11. Britain and New Imperialism • Britain was concerned about her colonies. •Required to defend and police an empire which sprawled across the globe and was home to 235 million people. •Her military forces overstretched and politically impossible to introduce conscription unlike the other great powers. • Economic need for colonies was no longer a priority.
  12. 12. Britain and New Imperialism Despite this, Britain did not give up an existing colony. BUT………. overwhelming naval supremacy and economic superiority led to Britain’s continued interest in colonial expansion. Strategic expansion to protect trade routes and existing colonies.
  13. 13. British Colonialism •It seems that the "Scramble for Africa" began for strategic reasons. •After the Congress of Vienna, Britain acquired the Cape Colony in South Africa. It was an important port on the sea route to India. •In 1867, the Suez Canal was built across Egyptian territory between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. •The Egyptian government became hopelessly unstable and in 1882, Britain took over the administration of the country. This began the "Scramble for Africa".
  14. 14. Popular Imperialism? • Imperial imagery commonplace • Advertising used soldiers to promote goods • Children‘s fiction – emphasis on imperial adventure • Boys‘ magazines – war stories featuring the defence of Empire • Boy Scouts movement • Novels used imperial setting e.g. Rider Haggard‘s ―King Solomon‘s Mines‖.
  15. 15. Popular Imperialism? • Public school ethos - to look after ―less civilised nations • Promote a sense of glory • To promote a sense of duty Christianity • A great example – the poem Vitai Lampada by Sir Henry Newbolt • Public School‘s train officers – Officer Training Corps
  16. 16. Popular Imperialism? BUT Growing realistoc belief that all mpires ultimately fail and decline – Kipling‘s poem ―Recessional‖ 1897 Far-called our navies melt away— On dune and headland sinks the fire— Lo, all our pomp of yesterday Is one with Nineveh and Tyre! Judge of the Nations, spare us yet, Lest we forget—lest we forget!
  17. 17. Popular Imperialism? AND Not as popular amongst the working class The Boer War – 1899 – 1901 Volunteers middle class – leaving well paid jobs Working class through economic necessity Worry by imperialists that Britain unable to beat the Boer farmers quickly
  18. 18. Popular Imperialism? 40,000 Boer fighters –takes Britain 3 years and 500,000 troops Boers financed by Germany – caused tensions between the countries Also the brutal side of British Imperialism – first concentration camps to control the boer population – starvation, illness and cold 28,000 Boer children, women and men dies in British camps.
  19. 19. Popular Imperialism? A government report published shortly after the war found that 40-60 per cent of volunteers for the army had been rejected because they were physically unfit for service. - Causes anxiety especially if following a Social Darwinist approach. Illness, malnutrition and relentless hard work meant that the urban poor were generally shorter, thinner, weaker and sicker than their wealthier compatriots; as a result, many had failed to pass the physical examination for the army.
  20. 20. Popular Imperialism? There was a sense that the British were too liberal and too relaxed to compete with the other great powers. All the other great powers had conscription. ―Invasion literature‖ parallels Germany‘s rising power and attempt to built a navy top rival G.B.‘s Reliance on OTC Baden-Powell founds the Boy Scouts. He stated they were ‗peace Scouts‘, and did not include military drill in their activities. Openly admitted that the Boy Scouts were a ‗potential recruiting ground‘, and claimed that 70 per cent of scouts went into the army.
  21. 21. Popular Imperialism? The rush to volunteer in 1914 is evidence that a sense of duty had been instilled in the general population. Themes of glory and masculinity had been used to create a society which was ready for war, from the men who eagerly enlisted to the women who taunted civilian men with white feathers. However, fear had also played a crucial role in creating an atmosphere in which militarism was seen as essential. Therefore imperialism was one more factor in creating international tensions within G.B. and amongst the other great powers.
  22. 22. Africa before 1870 •It was assumed by countries such as Britain that Africa was barbaric. (Traveller’s “tales”). • BUT in reality numerous Europeans in West Africa mingled and inter-married with Africans. • After 1815 the slave trade declined. • Between 1880-1900, Africa was partitioned and conquered by various European states. • In just 20 years about 90% of Africa was conquered. • Britain clashed with almost every other European power for control.
  23. 23. Britain and France • France resented British rule of Egypt and the Suez in the 1880s. • French trading companies in West Africa challenged British dominance. • France expanded their military control and Britain extended direct control of many parts of West Africa. • France and Germany were resentful of British dominance of Africa. • War was avoided between Britain and France, but at times seemed likely. • In 1898 France demanded a conference over the Sudan and Egypt. France sent a military force to the Nile. France, due to her naval weakness, backed down. • In 1904 Britain and France came to a colonial agreement.
  24. 24. British Colonialism •Little by little the rest of East Africa was occupied by the British, again principally to safeguard the Indian Ocean sea-routes. •At the same time, British colonists in South Africa were interested in extending their possessions northwards, particularly since gold and diamonds had been found in the interior of the region. •One colonial leader, Cecil Rhodes, dreamt of building a railway right across Africa, from Cairo in the north to the Cape in the south.
  25. 25. French Colonialism • In West Africa trade was the main interest. •French colonists were particularly active in West Africa. After defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, some French politicians sought commercial gain and prestige by expanding eastwards into the African interior from Senegal and southwards from Algeria and Tunisia. •There was a need to compensate the loss of Alsace- Lorraine with a large empire.
  26. 26. German Colonialism • Germany arrived very late in the "Scramble". After unification of his country in 1871, Bismarck, the Chancellor, was against colonising distant parts of the world. •In 1881, under pressure from businessmen and nationalists, he was forced to change policy, but it was almost too late.
  27. 27. CHINA
  28. 28. CHINA • Britain’s dominant trade position in trade with China began to be challenged by other European powers. • The focus of Britain, France and Germany was attaining economic dominance and trading posts. • Russia and Japan were interested in expanding onto China for territory. • Japan conquered land in NE China and large parts of Korea. • Russia secured Manchuria. • Britain were concerned about Russian domination. • In 1904 Russia and Japan went to war. Russia had to abandon control of Manchuria. China reasserted their control over their land. • Russian ambitions had been checked.
  29. 29. CHINA • Boxer rebellion 1900. • Alliance of 8 formed to quell the riots in Beijing (Peking). • Shows the emerging role of Japan and the USA on the world stage. • Shows how the Great Powers could cooperate when they had a mutual interest.
  30. 30. THE IMPACT OF NEW IMPERIALISM • Britain’s imperial rivalries with France and Russia poisoned relations with them. • Britain and France on verge of war in 1898 over Egypt. • France backed down and relations did improve and eventually led to the Anglo-French entente in 1904. • After 1904 the focus was on German aggression. • There was hostility between Britain and Russia. • There was much bitterness but they did manage to avoid war. • Colonial disagreements were a distraction from simmering tensions in Europe. • After colonial questions were settled by 1904 European tensions began to reach breaking point.
  31. 31. ASSIGNMENT 1.1 To create a display on “The Impact on Europe of New Imperialism” on A3 paper. Include the following: a. A definition of “New Imperialism”. b. A summary of each of the major European powers territorial gains from 1870-1914. c. An explanation of how “New Imperialism” affected relations between the major powers 1870-1914.