Iranian revolution

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Iranian revolution

  1. 1. MONARCHY TO THEOCRACY, SHAH TO AYATOLLAH
  2. 2. <ul><li>Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919 – 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Promised constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly took power from PM </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>(Replaced father, Reza Pahlavi  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to abdicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By Britain & USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendly relations with Nazi Germany) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Crowned himself: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1967 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also crowned his wife: empress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Note: Peacock Throne->) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Built loyal army </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of constitutional powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After assassination attempt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1949 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secret police: “SAVAK”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressed opponents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helped rich at expense of poor </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Ally of the West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not USSR: bordering nation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil deal with U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opponents critical of subservience to US </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>From Shi’ite Muslims Western moderization: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated Qur’anic oaths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of democracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unresponsive to public opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uneven distribution of wealth </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>In 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic clerics, esp. Ayatollah Khomeini </li></ul><ul><ul><li>built on popular discontent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations, riots, strikes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tied these ideas to Islamic principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called for overthrow of the Shah </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Widespread demonstrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1978-’79 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shah’s gov’t. collapsed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan. 16, 1979 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shah fled Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Went to Egypt </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Or theocracy </li></ul><ul><li>= gov’t which supports religion </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Rouhollah Khomeini ……..  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim “ayatollah” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on Islamic fundamentalism </li></ul>

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