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Information Literacy In The Eyes Of Teachers And Librarians


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Quezon City Librarians Association Inc sponsored forum on information literacy. Forum speaker is Ms. Elvie B. Lapuz of University of the Philippines Diliman Library.

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Information Literacy In The Eyes Of Teachers And Librarians

  1. 1. INFORMATION LITERACY through the eyes of Teachers and Librarians ELVIRA B. LAPUZ [email_address]
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To institutionalize teaching of information literacy in schools and libraries </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance the information literacy capabilities of teachers and librarians </li></ul><ul><li>To have information literate teachers, librarians and students </li></ul>
  3. 3. The concept of Information Literacy <ul><li>First discussed in the U.S. in 1974 in response to the rapidly increasing amount of information and the complexities of doing search </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Zurkowski, president of Information Industry Association introduced the concept </li></ul>
  4. 4. Information literacy defined…
  5. 5. To encourage Information Literacy ask the students… <ul><li>to summarize or paraphrase what was read </li></ul><ul><li>to pin-point the main idea of what was read </li></ul><ul><li>to compare/contrast information from two or more sources </li></ul><ul><li>to read and evaluate a piece of writing or specific information – do you agree or disagree? </li></ul><ul><li>to write a well researched essay </li></ul><ul><li>to find information on the internet </li></ul><ul><li>to use library resources </li></ul><ul><li>to use a library database </li></ul><ul><li>to determine the usefulness of a source </li></ul><ul><li>to comment on the validity, the legitimacy, or the relevance of a source </li></ul><ul><li>to find a “scholarly” source </li></ul><ul><li>to make connections between readings </li></ul><ul><li>to cite sources </li></ul>-- Dr. Judith Kizzie & Laura Yoo
  6. 6. “ to be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information.” - Final Report of American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy, 1989. p.1.
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Key IL skills <ul><li>Recognizing the need for information </li></ul><ul><li>Able to find and evaluate information </li></ul><ul><li>Can think critically to synthesize and assimilate information </li></ul><ul><li>Can communicate information effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable using the necessary tools and technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Understands and applies ethical principles </li></ul>
  9. 9. It is all about…
  10. 10. Critical Thinking <ul><li>the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information … as a guide to belief and action. </li></ul><ul><li>( </li></ul>
  11. 11. Be a critical thinker by … <ul><li>Being observant </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from experience </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating </li></ul>
  12. 12. It includes the ability to… <ul><li>set goals </li></ul><ul><li>adjust strategies </li></ul><ul><li>carry out tasks </li></ul><ul><li>distinguish fact from opinion </li></ul><ul><li>establish the authority of sources </li></ul><ul><li>assess accuracy and relevance of information </li></ul><ul><li>detect bias and underlying assumptions </li></ul>
  13. 13. &quot;Within today's information society, the most important learning outcome for all students is their being able to function as independent lifelong learners. The essential enabler to reaching that goal is information literacy.&quot; Breivik, Patricia. &quot;Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning: The Magical Partnership.&quot; International Lifelong Learning Conference, Central Queensland University, 2000. 7 December 2001. <>
  14. 14. Models of Information Literacy <ul><li>SCONUL’s Seven (7) Pillars of Information Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenberg and Berkowitz’s Big 6 Model </li></ul><ul><li>IFLA’s Empowering 8 </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Big 6 ™ Model /.../traincbas/research-models.html
  16. 17. IFLA’s Empowering 8 Model <ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Explore </li></ul><ul><li>Select </li></ul><ul><li>Organize </li></ul><ul><li>Create </li></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Assess </li></ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul>
  17. 18. IL and other literacy Source:
  18. 19. Cultural Literacy <ul><li>the ability to understand and appreciate the similarities and differences in the customs, values, and beliefs of one’s own culture and the cultures of others </li></ul>
  19. 20. Cultural Literacy <ul><li>“ the ability to be informed by beliefs and behaviors that have been shared from one generation to another in an oral or written form. Cultural literacy can create a knowledge and awareness that brings distinct commitment to social justice, responsibility to defend human dignity, and respect for cultures and languages associated with different nations and lifestyles.” </li></ul>- from the American National Council of the Professors of Educational Administration
  20. 21. Visual literacy <ul><li>“ to understand and use images, including the ability to think, learn and express oneself in terms of images” [Braden & Hortin, 1982] </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to understand and use visual images in our daily lives </li></ul>
  21. 22. Media literacy <ul><li>The ability to use various media to access, analyze and produce information for specific outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>A media literate person can decode, evaluate, analyze and produce both print and electronic media </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the influence of television, film, radio, recorded music, newspapers, and other media </li></ul>
  22. 23. Computer literacy <ul><li>Knowing/understanding how to use a PC </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to create and manipulate documents and data via word processing, spreadsheets, databases and other software applications </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT about the ability to write computer programs </li></ul>
  23. 24. Digital literacy <ul><li>The ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers or other digital technology, i.e cellphones </li></ul>
  24. 25. Network literacy <ul><li>An understanding of the systems by which networked information is generated, managed and made available </li></ul>
  25. 26. Information Literacy Standards <ul><li>Focus on implementing concepts of IL across the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Competency standards that include performance indicators and outcomes based on the acknowledged definition of being information literate, i.e. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AASL’s Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. ACRL Competency Standards <ul><li>5 standards </li></ul><ul><li>Performance indicators for each standard </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes for each indicator </li></ul>
  27. 28. ACRL Competency Standards <ul><li>Standard 1- The information literate student determines the nature and extent of the information needed </li></ul><ul><li>Standard 2 - The information literate student accesses needed information effectively and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Standard 3 - The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Standard 4 - The information literate student, individually or as a member of a group, uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Standard 5 - The information literate student understands many of the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally </li></ul>ACRL Competency Standards
  29. 30. Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning <ul><li>AASL (American Association of School Librarians) and AECT (Association of Educational Communications Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Published in Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>Nine (9) standards categorized under three (3) headings: Information Literacy, Independent Learning, Social Responsibility </li></ul>
  30. 31. Heading 1 : Information Literacy <ul><li>The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively </li></ul><ul><li>The student who is information literate evaluates information critically and competently </li></ul><ul><li>The student who is information literate uses information accurately and creatively </li></ul>
  31. 32. Heading 2 : Independent Learning Standards <ul><li>4. The student who is an independent learner is information literate and pursues information related to personal interests </li></ul><ul><li>5. The student who is an independent learner is information literate and appreciates literature and other creative expressions of information </li></ul><ul><li>6. The student who is an independent learner is information literate and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation </li></ul>
  32. 33. Heading 3 : Social Responsibility Standards <ul><li>7. The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society </li></ul><ul><li>8. The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology </li></ul><ul><li>9. The student who contributes to the learning community and to society is information literate and participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information </li></ul>
  33. 34. Information Literacy Instruction (ILI) <ul><li>Stand alone courses or classes </li></ul><ul><li>Self-paced tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Online tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Workbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Course-related instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Course-integrated instruction </li></ul>
  34. 35. IL from the Library
  35. 37. beyond
  36. 38.
  37. 39. Online tutorials
  38. 42. Guides and how to’s
  39. 45. Guides to citing sources
  40. 46. Toolkit for Teaching
  41. 47. Typical modules of instruction that meet ACRL Competency Standards <ul><li>Choosing and deciding on a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of different types of information sources </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Online Catalog (tutorials on how to use OPAC) </li></ul><ul><li>How to search databases to find articles </li></ul><ul><li>Keyword vs. controlled vocabulary searching </li></ul><ul><li>Complex search instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledging and Citing sources properly </li></ul><ul><li>Internet search engines (Google NOT!) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating information sources </li></ul><ul><li>What is plagiarism? </li></ul>
  42. 48. No more “one shot” IL classes <ul><li>Provide for a variety of approaches to delivering IL </li></ul><ul><li>Make use of web-based resources that are accessible 24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>Develop free standing IL courses that covers multiple sessions for in-depth exploration and learning </li></ul>
  43. 49. Confusion!
  44. 50. WEB 2.0 <ul><li>the network as platform </li></ul><ul><li>software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it </li></ul><ul><li>Thrives on the &quot;architecture of participation&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>-- [Tim O’Reilly 2006] </li></ul>
  45. 51. WEB 2.0 <ul><li>“ The phrase Web 2.0 was created by O'Reilly Media to refer to a supposed second generation of Internet-based services that let people collaborate and share information online in a new way—such as social networking sites, wikis, communication tools, and folksonomies…” [Wikipedia 2006] </li></ul>
  46. 53. Web 2.0 tools <ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>RSS feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts and podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Social bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging </li></ul>
  47. 54. Blogs <ul><li>Short for web log </li></ul><ul><li>an online journal where information (not only text, but also audio, photographs and video) is posted on a regular basis and appears in chronological order </li></ul><ul><li>Way to share one’s thoughts to the world </li></ul>
  48. 58. RSS feeds <ul><li>Stands for R eally S imple S yndication </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the glue that links us to the content we want to read </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;feed,&quot; &quot;web feed,&quot; or &quot;channel,&quot; containing either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text </li></ul><ul><li>often used by bloggers to alert users to new postings </li></ul>
  49. 59. wikis <ul><li>type of website that allows collaborative creating, editing and storage of content by a group of users </li></ul><ul><li>ideal for specific projects and collaborative knowledge sharing, especially if group members are in more than one location </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia – most well known wiki; free online encyclopedia </li></ul>
  50. 63. Podcasts <ul><li>Derived from the terms iPod and broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>a collection of digital media files distributed over the Internet, often using syndication feeds, for playback on portable media players and personal computers </li></ul>
  51. 65. Social bookmarking <ul><li>a method for Internet users to store, organize, search, and manage bookmarks of web pages with the help of metadata – [wikipedia] </li></ul><ul><li>Can be both public and private </li></ul>
  52. 66. Social networks <ul><li>metaphor to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social systems at all scales, from interpersonal to international – [wikipedia] </li></ul>
  53. 67. Library 2.0 in the framework of Web 2.0 <ul><li>Making use of web 2.0 tools to market and promote library services </li></ul><ul><li>Give emphasis on user control, radical trust, flexibility and user autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Work on real time and asynchronous communication </li></ul><ul><li>Use social networking sites and multi-media application </li></ul>
  54. 68. Library 2.0 <ul><li>incorporating aspects of Web 2.0 into the library’s service delivery models </li></ul><ul><li>making the library’s space (virtual and physical) more interactive, collaborative, and driven by community needs. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic drive is to get people back into the library by making the library relevant to what they want and need in their daily lives [Cohen 2006] </li></ul>
  55. 69. Library 2.0 is about… <ul><li>Creating experiences for users </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a meeting place </li></ul><ul><li>Being human – understanding users and getting closer to the user </li></ul><ul><li>User generated content </li></ul><ul><li>Radical trust </li></ul><ul><li>Community of users and staff </li></ul>
  56. 70. Fichter, Darlene. “Web 2.0, Library 2.0 and Radical Trust: A First Take.” Blog on the Side. <>.
  57. 71. Library 2.0 tools: blogs <ul><li>Help to develop writing skills, encourage creation of communities and reflections </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in teaching with student contents being collected into the teachers aggregators </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping a blog as a way of recording progress and managing time </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to build up evidence and gather opinions from peers or instructors </li></ul>
  58. 72. Library 2.0 tools: RSS feeds <ul><li>Feeds can allow students and researchers to subscribe to regular content from news services </li></ul><ul><li>Students can create their own information world </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of looking for specific types of information, the most current information find you </li></ul>
  59. 73. Library 2.0 tools: wikis <ul><li>No preventing its use </li></ul><ul><li>A good starting point for research </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage group work and peer review </li></ul><ul><li>A good way to introduce how easy it is to be posting information on the web </li></ul>
  60. 75. Library 2.0 tools: podcasts <ul><li>Can be used for library instructions, especially for distance learners </li></ul><ul><li>Can be effective in accommodating school performances </li></ul><ul><li>Allows time shifting and can be used in non-conventional learning set-ups </li></ul>
  61. 76. Library 2.0 tools: social bookmarking <ul><li>Can be used as a research tool to help students organize materials they find and bookmark </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in referencing and encourages tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in sharing resources </li></ul>
  62. 77. Sharing/organizing in LibraryThing
  63. 78. “ bookmarks” in
  64. 79. Library 2.0 tools: social networking <ul><li>Venues for students to explore collaborative research endeavors </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to organize and present class content </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging can become part of critical thinking, creating links which involves evaluation, categorizing and formulating keywords </li></ul>
  65. 82. Library News on Flickr
  66. 83. Library Instruction on YouTube
  67. 86. Networked teacher
  68. 87. Web 2.0, Library 2.0 and IL <ul><li>Helps in connecting the library with the Net generation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for new tools to enhance delivery of library service </li></ul><ul><li>This is a world of perpetual Beta – a work in progress, providing the need to do further experiments and explorations </li></ul>
  69. 88. Information Literacy Program <ul><li>More than just teaching how to use the library </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to develop information competencies and the skills for life long learning </li></ul>
  70. 89. Why plan for an IL Program? <ul><li>There’s just too much information </li></ul><ul><li>IL skills are essential for life-long learning </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the importance of instructions in the search for and use of information </li></ul><ul><li>Library as the ideal venue for instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians as instructors and mentors </li></ul>
  71. 90. A comprehensive information literacy plan is a concrete proof of an institutions commitment to educating users of information.
  72. 91. Learning institution of all kinds should initiate efforts to plan a comprehensive information literacy program for all its constituents.
  73. 92. IL and management <ul><li>Activities should clearly focus on an IL standard or standards </li></ul><ul><li>Seek assistance of experts when designing and formulating a new course </li></ul><ul><li>Be resourceful and creative in promoting the IL program </li></ul><ul><li>Work as a team but identify someone to lead the group </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear about IL objectives in any type of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Always put in mind that the IL program is not the sole domain of the library </li></ul>
  74. 93. The development of an Information Literacy program relies on transforming a library based program into a school campus enterprise with wider ownership and engagement, seeking not just buy-in but leadership and engagement beyond the walls of the library -- Information Literacy Programs : Success and Challenges / Durisin, 2002
  75. 98. Planning the Plan <ul><li>Identify and analyze information needs of the community of learners </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on timelines and schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on who shall write the plan </li></ul>
  76. 99. Planning to write <ul><li>Start with an outline </li></ul><ul><li>Identify audience </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with experts in the fine art of writing </li></ul>
  77. 100. Write the Plan <ul><li>Work on the key point of the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Write the body of the plan in such a way that it will serve as a manual for implementing the IL program </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to set timetables </li></ul>
  78. 101. Assessment and evaluation <ul><li>to ensure that an IL plan is well implemented, mechanisms should be formulated to determine how well it is meeting its goals and by letting all concerned know how it is doing </li></ul><ul><li>Consider both quantitative and qualitative methods of assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Be open for feedbacks and evaluations </li></ul>
  79. 102. Market the plan <ul><li>Get approval from the approving body </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reports and updates </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce and promote the plan to all members of the community </li></ul>
  80. 103. Information Literacy Instruction (ILI) <ul><li>Stand alone courses or classes </li></ul><ul><li>Self-paced tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Online tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Workbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Course-related instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Course-integrated instruction </li></ul>
  81. 104. No more “one shot” IL classes <ul><li>Provide for a variety of approaches to delivering IL </li></ul><ul><li>Make use of web-based resources that are accessible 24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>Develop free standing IL courses that covers multiple sessions for in-depth exploration and learning </li></ul>
  82. 105. Library orientation <ul><li>To inform students about the services provided by the library and when, where and how these can be accessed </li></ul><ul><li>The students first meeting with the library staff </li></ul><ul><li>Timing is crucial! </li></ul>
  83. 106. Typical contents <ul><li>Location of the library and operating hours </li></ul><ul><li>Library rules and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Services offered </li></ul><ul><li>Resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions on how to locate materials </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowing procedures </li></ul>
  84. 107. Typical modules of instruction that meet ACRL Competency Standards <ul><li>Choosing and deciding on a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of different types of information sources </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Online Catalog (tutorials on how to use OPAC) </li></ul><ul><li>How to search databases to find articles </li></ul><ul><li>Keyword vs. controlled vocabulary searching </li></ul><ul><li>Complex search instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledging and Citing sources properly </li></ul><ul><li>Internet search engines (Google NOT!) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating information sources </li></ul><ul><li>What is plagiarism? </li></ul>
  85. 108. Preparing to teach <ul><li>Plan your teaching session </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate your learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Items in your Lesson Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Course title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details of the session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required pre-session preparations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructors notes </li></ul></ul>
  86. 109. Plan your teaching session <ul><li>Effective planning = successful teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow enough time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about how much students can learn; don’t make session too content heavy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be creative and innovative! </li></ul></ul>
  87. 110. Formulate your learning outcomes <ul><li>Clear and precise statements of what the learner will know or be able to do after attending the session </li></ul><ul><li>Task based or generic </li></ul><ul><li>Three parts: task, standards and conditions </li></ul>
  88. 111. Think about your learners <ul><li>Existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skill levels </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Support needed </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible! </li></ul>
  89. 112. Teaching aids <ul><li>Print and online teaching resources </li></ul><ul><li>Flip charts and whiteboards </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Powerpoint presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Handouts </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  90. 113. Presentations using Powerpoint ™ <ul><li>Limit information to key points only </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the number of lines </li></ul><ul><li>Use keywords and short sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Use normal sentence case and readable fonts </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid abbreviations and acronyms </li></ul><ul><li>Do not apologize for any slide. Redo if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Do spell check and proof read </li></ul><ul><li>Use clip art and pictures to enhance content </li></ul><ul><li>Include video clips to make it more interesting </li></ul>
  91. 114. Handouts <ul><li>Useful as memory aids </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages good note taking practice </li></ul><ul><li>Allow students to recap on key points during a presentation </li></ul><ul><li>May take the form of information sheets, worksheets, workbook or evaluation sheets </li></ul>
  92. 115. When preparing handouts <ul><li>Use readable fonts, at least 12pt Arial or Times New Roman </li></ul><ul><li>Use bold texts for headings </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive use of capitalization, underlining and italicization </li></ul><ul><li>Leave space between texts </li></ul><ul><li>Use good paper </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an electronic copy for distribution, if requested </li></ul>
  93. 116. Presentation techniques <ul><li>Be confident! </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear and coherent </li></ul><ul><li>Engage your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Be yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy yourself! </li></ul>
  94. 117. Evaluate teaching <ul><li>Reflective practice </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback from students </li></ul><ul><li>Feedbacks from peers </li></ul>
  95. 118. think about instruction… <ul><ul><li>ILI is integrated across the curriculum and provides opportunities for instructions outside the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The library as an instructional center on campus and serves as the hub for campus-wide efforts of helping students acquire information skills </li></ul></ul>
  96. 119. Librarians concerned with IL <ul><li>Thoroughly aware of the needs of the Net Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Gives 2.0 tools a try to connect to this generation </li></ul><ul><li>Explains how information is created and communicated and help students develop a sense of context when using information </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>The “Blended Librarian” </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian 2.0?  </li></ul>
  97. 120. Bear in mind… <ul><li>Information Literacy is more than just a set of skills </li></ul><ul><li>Information Literacy teachings should be integrated in the school curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Information Literacy is essential to student success </li></ul>
  98. 121. References: <ul><li>Eisenberg, Michael (2004). Information Literacy : Essential Skills for the Information Age. Westport, Conn. Libraries Unimited. </li></ul><ul><li>Grafstein, Ann. Information literacy and technology : an examination of some issues. Portal : Libraries and the Academy vol. 7, no. 1 (2007), pp. 51-64 </li></ul><ul><li>Information literacy meets Library 2.0. (2008). Godwin, Peter and Jo Parker. London : Facet Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin, A., and Rader, H. (2002). Information and IT Literacy : enabling learning in the 21 st century. London : Facet. </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, J. (2006). Information Literacy and the School Media Center. Wesport, Connecticut : Libraries Unlimited. </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO Information for All Programme. Understanding information literacy : a primer. Paris : UNESCO, 2007. </li></ul>
  99. 122. ELVIRA B. LAPUZ University of the Philippines [email_address]