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Succession

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Succession

  1. 1. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes Succession
  2. 2. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Succession Change in the community structure of a particular area over time </li></ul><ul><li>Change in the community structure of a particular area over time </li></ul>
  3. 3. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Succession Three Types </li></ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Gap </li></ul><ul><li>Gap </li></ul>
  4. 4. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Succession Proceeds in stages called seral stages (succession = sere) </li></ul><ul><li>Until a final stable community is formed Climax community </li></ul><ul><li>The final Climax community is controlled by climate (think about biomes) </li></ul><ul><li>The final Climax community is controlled by climate (think about biomes) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Succession Early seral stages are made up of pioneer communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Low diversity, simple structure, wide niches </li></ul><ul><li>Low diversity, simple structure, wide niches </li></ul>
  6. 6. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Succession Later seral stages, Climax communities </li></ul><ul><li>Higher diversity, complex structure, narrow niches </li></ul><ul><li>Higher diversity, complex structure, narrow niches </li></ul>
  7. 7. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Succession For much of Western Europe the climax community is Woodland </li></ul><ul><li>For much of Western Europe the climax community is Woodland </li></ul>
  8. 8. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes Primary Succession
  9. 9. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Primary Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Dunes are a classic example of Primary succession </li></ul>
  10. 10. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Primary Succession </li></ul><ul><li>f primary succession starts on dry land it is a XEROSEREIf it starts in water (a pond) it is a HYDROSERE. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Secondary Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Where a community is suddenly destroyed, such as following fire or flood or even human activity an abridged version of succession occurs.Secondary succession occurs on soils that are already developed and ready to accept seeds carried in by the wind or those already stored in the soil </li></ul>
  12. 12. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.3: Changes <ul><li>Secondary Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary succession in abandoned farmland in North carolina </li></ul>Years after abandonment Dominant species Predominant Forest Vegetation 0 Crabgrass Developing grassland community 1 Crabgrass, Horseweeds, Pigweed Community starts to be dominated by Horseweed 2 Aster, Crabgrass, Ragweed Grass scrub is developing 3-18 Broomsedge, Pine later Developed grass scrub community with later invading pine 18-30 Pine Immature pine forest 30-70 Pine, Young Hickories and Oaks later Mature pine wood with understorey of young hardwoods later 70-100 Pine, Hickories, Oaks Transitional stage between Pine and Hardwood forest 100+ Oak, Hickory Mature mixed hardwood forest

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