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Structure of Ecosystems

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This presentation was originally rendered as an Apple Keynote presentation designed for use with IB Environmental Systems - For the new IB Environmental Systems and Societies course the topic numbers are incorrect but the content still applies. The presentation is also suitable for use with Ecology and Environmental science Courses. Copyright of sciencebitz.com

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Structure of Ecosystems

  1. 1. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1: Structure of the Ecosystems
  2. 2. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Atmosphere Producers Wind speed Consumers Humidity Detrivores Light intensity Precipitation Decomposers Temperature Water Interactions ph and salinity Competitors Dissolved Nutrients Parasites Dissolved Oxygen Disolved nutrients Pathogens Symbionts Predators Herbivores Soil Available nutrients Moisture pH Structure Temperature
  3. 3. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Atmosphere Producers Wind speed Consumers Humidity Detrivores Biotic Factors = A living, Light intensity Precipitation Decomposers biological factor that may Temperature Water Interactions influence an organism or ph and salinity Competitors Dissolved Nutrients ecosystem, eg predation, Dissolved Oxygen Parasites Pathogens parasitism, disease, competition. Disolved nutrients Symbionts Predators Herbivores Soil Available nutrients Moisture pH Structure Temperature
  4. 4. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Atmosphere Producers Wind speed Consumers Humidity Detrivores Biotic Factors = A living, Light intensity Precipitation Decomposers biological factor that may Temperature Water Interactions influence an organism or ph and salinity Competitors Dissolved Nutrients ecosystem, eg predation, Dissolved Oxygen Parasites Pathogens parasitism, disease, competition. Disolved nutrients Symbionts Predators Herbivores Abiotic Factor = A non-living, physical factor that may influence an organism or ecosystem, eg temperature, sunlight, pH, salinity, precipitation. Soil Available nutrients Moisture pH Structure Temperature
  5. 5. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors affect animal and plant species, but also interact and change with time themselves
  6. 6. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors affect animal and plant species, but also interact and change with time themselves E.g. Temperature depends upon:
  7. 7. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors affect animal and plant species, but also interact and change with time themselves E.g. Temperature depends upon: solar radiation, wind speed, time of year, time of day, altitude and aspect
  8. 8. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors affect animal and plant species, but also interact and change with time themselves E.g. Temperature depends upon: solar radiation, wind speed, time of year, time of day, altitude and aspect Temperature affects:
  9. 9. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors affect animal and plant species, but also interact and change with time themselves E.g. Temperature depends upon: solar radiation, wind speed, time of year, time of day, altitude and aspect Temperature affects: water loss, respiration, photosynthesis
  10. 10. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors affect animal and plant species, but also interact and change with time themselves E.g. Temperature depends upon: solar radiation, wind speed, time of year, time of day, altitude and aspect Temperature affects: water loss, respiration, photosynthesis Changes in temperature affect:
  11. 11. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors affect animal and plant species, but also interact and change with time themselves E.g. Temperature depends upon: solar radiation, wind speed, time of year, time of day, altitude and aspect Temperature affects: water loss, respiration, photosynthesis Changes in temperature affect: relative humidity and evaporation from soils and water surfaces
  12. 12. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic and Abiotic factors vary both between and within ecosyetems
  13. 13. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Tropical Rain Forests The Biotic Part Dominant Species Trees and Vines Floral community Highest Biodiversity of all Biomes Faunal community Very High biodiversity, mammals, bird, amphibians and arthropods Soil Community Very rich in decomposer species
  14. 14. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Temperature Tropical Rain Forests 30.0 22.5 15.0 7.5 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  15. 15. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Temperature Tropical Rain Forests 30.0 22.5 15.0 7.5 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Rainfall 300 225 150 75 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  16. 16. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors Abiotic conditions within an ecosystem Humidity: 67% Light: 70% Humidity: 75% Light: 50% Humidity: 80% Light: 12% Humidity: 85% Light: 6% Humidity: 90% Light: 1% Humidity: 98% Light: 0%
  17. 17. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.1: Biotic and Abiotic Factors What about these two ecosystems?
  18. 18. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.2: Trophic Levels Trophic level:The position that an organism occupies in a food chain, or a group of organisms in a community that occupy the same position in food chains. It is possible to classify the way organisms obtain energy into two categories. Producers or Autotrophs: These manufacture their own food from simple inorganic substances (plants)
  19. 19. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.2: Trophic Levels Trophic level:The position that an organism occupies in a food chain, or a group of organisms in a community that occupy the same position in food chains. It is possible to classify the way organisms obtain energy into two categories. Producers or Autotrophs: These manufacture their own food from simple inorganic substances (plants) Consumers or Heterotrophs: Feed on autotrophs or other heterotrophs to obtain energy (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detrivores and decomposers But within the consumers their is a feeding hierarchy of feeding
  20. 20. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.2: Trophic Levels Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucose, herbivores eat plants and carnivores eat herbivores - different feeding levels (Greek for food is trophe) Trophic level 1 - producer Trophic level 3 Trophic level 2 - herbivore (primary consumers) Trophic level 3 - carnivore (secondary consumers) Trophic level 2 Trophic level 4 - carnivore (tertiary consumer) The first trophic level, the autotrophs supports the energy requirements of all the other trophic levels Trophic level 1 above.
  21. 21. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.3: Food Chains and Food Webs Ecosystems have an hierarchy of Trophic Level 4 Tertiary Consumer feeding relationships . The energy flow in the ecosystem Trophic Level 3 Secondary Consumer can be illustrated as a Food chain. Trophic Level 2 Primary Consumer The arrows show the direction that energy flows Trophic Level 1 Producer
  22. 22. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.3: Food Chains and Food Webs Food chains are an oversimplification They only show direct feeding relationships within one hierarchy Some organisms can be at different trophic levels in different food chains
  23. 23. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.6: Species, Population, Community, Niche and Habitat Species A group of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
  24. 24. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.6: Species, Population, Community, Niche and Habitat Species A group of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Different genus
  25. 25. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.6: Species, Population, Community, Niche and Habitat Population A group of organisms of the same species living in the same area at the same time, and which are capable of interbreeding Elephants in Kakouma NP, Chad. Population about 3500
  26. 26. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.6: Species, Population, Community, Niche and Habitat Community A group of populations living and interacting with each other in a common habitat
  27. 27. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.6: Species, Population, Community, Niche and Habitat Community
  28. 28. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.6: Species, Population, Community, Niche and Habitat Niche A species’ share of a habitat and the resources in it. An organism’s ecological niche depends not only on where it lives but on what it does.
  29. 29. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.6: Species, Population, Community, Niche and Habitat Habitat The environment in which a species normally lives.

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