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Regulating populations

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This presentation was originally rendered as an Apple Keynote presentation designed for use with IB Environmental Systems - For the new IB Environmental Systems and Societies course the topic numbers are incorrect but the content still applies. The presentation is also suitable for use with Ecology and Environmental science Courses. Copyright of sciencebitz.com

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Regulating populations

  1. 1. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density dependent factors tend to act as direct regulators of populations • Negative Feedback
  2. 2. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Population Time
  3. 3. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Population Time
  4. 4. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Resource limit reached Population Resources Plentiful Time
  5. 5. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Equilibrium Point Resource limit reached Population Resources Plentiful Time
  6. 6. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Equilibrium Point Steady State Equilibrium Resource limit reached Population Resources Plentiful Time
  7. 7. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Falco pereginus
  8. 8. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Until the 1940’s the British population of Peregrine falcons had remained fairly constant - about 820 breeding pairs Falco pereginus
  9. 9. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Until the 1940’s the British population of Peregrine falcons had remained fairly constant - about 820 breeding pairs • Limited by available nest sites (same places each year) Falco pereginus
  10. 10. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Until the 1940’s the British population of Peregrine falcons had remained fairly constant - about 820 breeding pairs • Limited by available nest sites (same places each year) • Average brood size was about 2.5 fledged young each summer Falco pereginus
  11. 11. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Until the 1940’s the British population of Peregrine falcons had remained fairly constant - about 820 breeding pairs • Limited by available nest sites (same places each year) • Average brood size was about 2.5 fledged young each summer • Come the next breeding season the population Falco pereginus was back to about 820 pairs
  12. 12. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  13. 13. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms
  14. 14. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms • Mosquitos are plentiful in the summer months
  15. 15. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms • Mosquitos are plentiful in the summer months • When autumn sets in the populations crash
  16. 16. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms • Mosquitos are plentiful in the summer months • When autumn sets in the populations crash • Boom or bust
  17. 17. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms • Mosquitos are plentiful in the summer months Summer Population • When autumn sets in the populations crash Winter • Boom or bust Time
  18. 18. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  19. 19. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Boom or bust may also be driven by density dependent factors
  20. 20. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Boom or bust may also be driven by density dependent factors • Some species are very good at taking full advantage of any opportunity
  21. 21. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Boom or bust may also be driven by density dependent factors • Some species are very good at taking full advantage of any opportunity • Locust populations can explode
  22. 22. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Boom or bust may also be driven by density dependent factors • Some species are very good at taking full advantage of any opportunity • Locust populations can explode • They swarm in thousands eat everything in their path and eventually totally outstrip their food supply
  23. 23. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  24. 24. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Factors that regulate population size can be categorized as INTERNAL or EXTERNAL
  25. 25. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Factors that regulate population size can be categorized as INTERNAL or EXTERNAL • INTERNAL - fertility rates, territory size
  26. 26. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Factors that regulate population size can be categorized as INTERNAL or EXTERNAL • INTERNAL - fertility rates, territory size • EXTERNAL - predation pressure, parasitism, disease
  27. 27. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  28. 28. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust
  29. 29. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified
  30. 30. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified • Equilibrium or K strategy species
  31. 31. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified • Equilibrium or K strategy species • Opportunist or r strategy species
  32. 32. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  33. 33. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust
  34. 34. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified
  35. 35. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified • Equilibrium or K strategy species
  36. 36. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified • Equilibrium or K strategy species • Opportunist or r strategy species
  37. 37. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  38. 38. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations What are K and r
  39. 39. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations What are K and r • The two variables that define a population curve
  40. 40. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations What are K and r • The two variables that define a population curve • K = carrying capacity
  41. 41. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Population What are K and r 120 • The two variables that 100 define a population curve 80 • K = carrying capacity Growth 60 • r = growth rate 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time
  42. 42. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K Population What are K and r 120 • The two variables that 100 define a population curve 80 • K = carrying capacity Growth 60 • r = growth rate 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time
  43. 43. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  44. 44. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists
  45. 45. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate
  46. 46. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care
  47. 47. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity
  48. 48. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity • Slow growth
  49. 49. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  50. 50. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Late successional species • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  51. 51. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Late successional species • Low reproductive rate • Niche specialist • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  52. 52. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Late successional species • Low reproductive rate • Niche specialist • Large investment in parental • Require stable environment care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  53. 53. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Late successional species • Low reproductive rate • Niche specialist • Large investment in parental • Require stable environment care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  54. 54. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  55. 55. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists
  56. 56. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate
  57. 57. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care
  58. 58. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity
  59. 59. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity • Rapid growth
  60. 60. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity • Rapid growth • Small organisms
  61. 61. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • Pioneer species species • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity • Rapid growth • Small organisms
  62. 62. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • Pioneer species species • High reproductive rate • Generalists • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity • Rapid growth • Small organisms
  63. 63. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • Pioneer species species • High reproductive rate • Generalists • Low investment in parental care • Rapidly adapt to environmental variation • Early maturity • Rapid growth • Small organisms
  64. 64. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations The reality is more of a continuum
  65. 65. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations The reality is more of a continuum Zebra Rabbit Bacteria r K
  66. 66. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  67. 67. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  68. 68. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations If life Tables (Survivorship) is plotted for different species three generalised types of life curve form
  69. 69. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations If life Tables (Survivorship) is plotted for different species three generalised types of life curve form Type 1 - Survivorship is high, most mortality later in life span
  70. 70. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations If life Tables (Survivorship) is plotted for different species three generalised types of life curve form Type 1 - Survivorship is high, most mortality later in life span Type II - Constant mortality throughout life span
  71. 71. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations If life Tables (Survivorship) is plotted for different species three generalised types of life curve form Type 1 - Survivorship is high, most mortality later in life span Type II - Constant mortality throughout life span Type III - High mortality early in life, low survivorship into late life span

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