Environmental Systems

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This presentation supports the IB Environmental System and Societies Diploma Programme course.

Extensive support material can be found at www.sciencebitz.com

Additional review and revision material is available as an iTunesU course at
https://itunesu.itunes.apple.com/enroll/DEZ-HWS-HNJ

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  • Environmental Systems

    1. 1. Topic 1: Systems • SYSTEM: an assemblage of parts and their relationship forming a functioning entirety or whole.
    2. 2. Topic 1: Systems • 1970’s James Lovelock proposes the GAIA hypothesis • The planet acts like a single biological being made up of individual and interconnected units • A SYSTEM
    3. 3. Physical Climate System Atmospheric Physics/Dynamics Climate Sun Change Terrestrial Ocean Dynamics Strotspheric Chemistry/ energy/moisture External Forcing Human Activities Dynamics Global Moisture Soil CO2 Land Marine Terrestrial Use Volcanoes Biogeochemistry Ecosystems Tropospheric chemistry CO2 Biogeochemical System Polluntants
    4. 4. Topic 1: Systems • Systems involve: Inputs of Water, Carbon Dioxide and Sunlight Light energy is trapped by the chlorophyll inside the chloroplasts • Inputs • Outputs • Processes Oxygen is realesed Energy is released, splitting to the atmosphere water into hydrogen and oxygen The hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide to make glucose
    5. 5. Topic 1: Systems • Individual systems can be sub-units of bigger systems
    6. 6. Topic 1: Systems • Individual systems can be sub-units of bigger systems Inputs of Water, Carbon Dioxide Light energy is trapped and Sunlight by the chlorophyll inside the chloroplasts • A food chain includes photosynthesising plants Oxygen is realesed Energy is released, splitting to the atmosphere water into hydrogen and oxygen The hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide to make glucose
    7. 7. Topic 1: Systems • All systems include inputs, processes and outputs
    8. 8. Topic 1: Systems • All systems include inputs, processes and outputs Input Output Process
    9. 9. Topic 1: Systems • All systems include inputs, processes and outputs Input Output Input Output Input Output Process Process Process
    10. 10. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System
    11. 11. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System • Open Systems
    12. 12. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System • Open Systems • Closed Systems
    13. 13. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System • Open Systems • Closed Systems • Isolated Systems
    14. 14. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Open Systems • exchange matter and energy with its surroundings. Atmospheric Carbon dioxide Combustion Respiration Photosynthesis Higher Consumers Fossil fuels and Wood Primary Consumers Fossils and Detrivores Detritus Sediments
    15. 15. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Closed Systems • exchange energy but not matter.
    16. 16. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Light Energy Closed Systems From the Sun • exchange energy but not matter.
    17. 17. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Light Energy Closed Systems From the Sun • exchange energy but not matter. Long wave energy (heat) returned to space
    18. 18. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Closed Systems • Biosphere 2
    19. 19. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Isolated Systems • An isolated system exchanges neither matter nor energy. • Isolated systems do not exist naturally • Possible to think of the entire Universe as an isolated system
    20. 20. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems Energy in all systems is subject to the Laws of Thermodynamics
    21. 21. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
    22. 22. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created Incoming solar radiation (light energy) is trapped by plants and converted to sugars (stored chemical energy) nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
    23. 23. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created Consumers (herbivores) eat the plants (producers) and the stored chemical energy gets passed up the food chain nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
    24. 24. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created Consumers (carnivores) eat other consumers (herbivores) and the stored chemical energy gets passed up the food chain again nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
    25. 25. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created No energy has been created or destroyed in the food chain it has only nor destroyed.. moved or changed form • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
    26. 26. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
    27. 27. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created nor destroyed.. • Of the sunlight falling on Earth not all of it is used for photosynthesis.
    28. 28. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
    29. 29. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
    30. 30. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated during work time e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
    31. 31. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated during work time e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
    32. 32. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated Heat generated during work during work time e.g. respiration e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
    33. 33. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated Heat generated during work during work time e.g. respiration e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
    34. 34. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated Heat generated Heat generated during work during work during work time e.g. respiration e.g. respiration e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
    35. 35. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems Heat The Second Law: • Can be thought of as a Input Energy Useful Energy simple word equation Work • Energy = Work + Heat (and other waste products) • Or the spreading out of Conversion energy process
    36. 36. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.4: Equilibria Open systems tend to exist in a state of balance
    37. 37. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.4: Equilibria Two types of Equilibrium •Static •Dynamic
    38. 38. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.4: Equilibria •Static: Where components of the system remain constant over a long period of time
    39. 39. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.4: Equilibria 80 •“Dynamic”: Number of pelts (1000s) 60 Difficult concept 40 A system is in a steady state because the inputs and 20 outputs that affect it approximately balance over a long period of time 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx
    40. 40. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback A system are continually affected by and react to information (stimuli) The final outcome of the process is governed by feedback •Negative •Positive
    41. 41. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Negative feedback
    42. 42. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback 80 Negative feedback Number of pelts (1000s) • tends to damp down, 60 neutralize or counteract any deviation from an equilibrium, 40 and promotes stability. 20 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx
    43. 43. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback 80 Negative feedback Number of pelts (1000s) • tends to damp down, 60 neutralize or counteract any deviation from an equilibrium, 40 and promotes stability. 20 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx
    44. 44. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback 80 Negative feedback Number of pelts (1000s) • tends to damp down, 60 neutralize or counteract any deviation from an equilibrium, 40 and promotes stability. 20 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx
    45. 45. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback 80 Negative feedback Number of pelts (1000s) • tends to damp down, 60 neutralize or counteract any deviation from an equilibrium, 40 and promotes stability. Prey population 20 Prey population falls grows More food Less food 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Less hunting More hunting Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx Predator population Predator population falls grows
    46. 46. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Positive feedback
    47. 47. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Positive feedback • Amplifies or increases change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium.
    48. 48. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback • Amplifies or increases change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium.
    49. 49. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback Land and sea • Amplifies or increases temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium.
    50. 50. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback Land and sea • Amplifies or increases temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium. Increased evaporation
    51. 51. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback Land and sea • Amplifies or increases temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium. Increased evaporation More water vapour
    52. 52. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback Land and sea • Amplifies or increases temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium. Wetter Atmosphere Increased evaporation More water vapour
    53. 53. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback More heat trapped Land and sea • Amplifies or increases by atmosphere temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium. Wetter Atmosphere Increased evaporation More water vapour
    54. 54. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
    55. 55. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems • A transfer is when the flow does not involve a change of form
    56. 56. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems • A transfer is when the flow does not involve a change of form • A transformation is a flow involving a change of form
    57. 57. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems • A transfer is when the flow does not involve a change of form • A transformation is a flow involving a change of form • Both types of flow use energy - transfers being simpler use less
    58. 58. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
    59. 59. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
    60. 60. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
    61. 61. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
    62. 62. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transfers can involve:
    63. 63. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transfers can involve: • The movement of material through living organisms (carnivores eating other animals)
    64. 64. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transfers can involve: • The movement of material through living organisms (carnivores eating other animals) • The movement of material in a non-living process (water being carried by a stream)
    65. 65. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transfers can involve: • The movement of material through living organisms (carnivores eating other animals) • The movement of material in a non-living process (water being carried by a stream) • The movement of energy (ocean currents transferring heat)
    66. 66. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
    67. 67. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transformations can involve:
    68. 68. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transformations can involve: • Matter (glucose converted to starch in plants)
    69. 69. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transformations can involve: • Matter (glucose converted to starch in plants) • Energy (Light converted to heat by radiating surfaces)
    70. 70. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transformations can involve: • Matter (glucose converted to starch in plants) • Energy (Light converted to heat by radiating surfaces) • Matter to energy (burning fossil fuels)
    71. 71. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.7: Flows and Storages Both energy and matter flows (inputs and outputs) through ecosystems but at times is also stored (stock) within the ecosystem:

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