Artic energy pathways part 1

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  • Artic energy pathways part 1

    1. 1. Topic 2: Ecosystems Energy Pathways in the Sub-arctic (Tundra and a bit of Tiaga)
    2. 2. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Limited Solar Energy
    3. 3. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Limited Solar Energy At higher latitudes light required for At the Poles the suns energy photosynthesis is spread over a greater is spread over a large area area At the Equator the suns energy is spread over a small area
    4. 4. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Limited Solar Energy At higher latitudes light required for At the Poles the suns energy photosynthesis is spread over a greater is spread over a large area area This means the rate of photosynthesis At the Equator is much lower than at the equator the suns energy is spread over a small area
    5. 5. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Limited Solar Energy At higher latitudes light required for At the Poles the suns energy photosynthesis is spread over a greater is spread over a large area area This means the rate of photosynthesis At the Equator is much lower than at the equator the suns energy is spread over a small area Therefore GPP is also lower
    6. 6. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Limited Solar Energy
    7. 7. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Limited Solar Energy The Earth also tilts at an angle of 23.5˚ Northern Hemisphere Winter Southern Hemisphere Summer 23.5˚ Tilt
    8. 8. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Limited Solar Energy The Earth also tilts at an angle of 23.5˚ Northern Hemisphere Winter Creating summer and winter in each hemisphere Southern Hemisphere Summer 23.5˚ Tilt
    9. 9. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Limited Solar Energy The Earth also tilts at an angle of 23.5˚ Northern Hemisphere Winter Creating summer and winter in each hemisphere During the Northern Winter almost no solar energy reaches the high arctic Southern Hemisphere Summer 23.5˚ Tilt
    10. 10. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Limited Solar Energy The Earth also tilts at an angle of 23.5˚ Northern Hemisphere Winter Creating summer and winter in each hemisphere During the Northern Winter almost no solar energy reaches the high arctic This again reduces productivity at the poles Southern Hemisphere Summer 23.5˚ Tilt
    11. 11. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Extreme seasonality
    12. 12. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Extreme seasonality Temperature (˚c) Precipitation (mm) Tundra experiences very little 30 “rainfall” - making it the driest 20 terrestrial biome 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    13. 13. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Extreme seasonality Temperature (˚c) Precipitation (mm) Tundra experiences very little 30 “rainfall” - making it the driest 20 terrestrial biome 10 Limited solar energy and excessive albedo effect lead to 0 extreme winter temperatures -10 -20 -30 -40 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    14. 14. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Extreme seasonality Temperature (˚c) Precipitation (mm) Tundra experiences very little 30 “rainfall” - making it the driest 20 terrestrial biome 10 Limited solar energy and excessive albedo effect lead to 0 extreme winter temperatures -10 Summers are short but long -20 hours of daylight help to compensate and slightly extend -30 the “actual” growing season -40 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    15. 15. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Survival of the fittest!
    16. 16. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Survival of the fittest! Few plants can survive the extreme conditions found in the tundra
    17. 17. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Survival of the fittest! Few plants can survive the extreme conditions found in the tundra All need adaptations to survive conditions that would freeze the cells of most plants while managing with very little moisture
    18. 18. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Survival of the fittest! Few plants can survive the extreme conditions found in the tundra All need adaptations to survive conditions that would freeze the cells of most plants while managing with very little moisture Lichens - a symbiotic associating between a fungus and a photosynthesising algae are the only available “plant” biomass during the winter
    19. 19. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.4.2: What makes the Tundra biome Survival of the fittest! Few plants can survive the extreme conditions found in the tundra All need adaptations to survive conditions that would freeze the cells of most plants while managing with very little moisture Lichens - a symbiotic associating between a fungus and a photosynthesising algae are the only available “plant” biomass during the winter Hard tough species like cotton grass manage to grow during the summer
    20. 20. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.5.5: Productivity Tundra Productivity
    21. 21. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.5.5: Productivity Comparison of Net productivity in different Biomes Tundra Productivity 2500 Plant biomass can the thought of as the Biomass (g m-2 yr-1) 2000 energy store for the entire ecosystem 1500 1000 500 0 Tropical rain forest Temperate deciduous forest Boreal Forest Savanna Temperate grassland Tundra Based on a table from: Whittaker, R.H. and Likens, G.E.  1975.  The biosphere and man.  In: Leith, H. and Whittaker, R.H. (Eds.), Primary Productivity and the Biosphere, Ecological Studies 14, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 305-328.
    22. 22. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.5.5: Productivity Comparison of Net productivity in different Biomes Tundra Productivity 2500 Plant biomass can the thought of as the Biomass (g m-2 yr-1) 2000 energy store for the entire ecosystem 1500 With the extreme climate and limited 1000 light Tundra biomass is very low 500 0 Tropical rain forest Temperate deciduous forest Boreal Forest Savanna Temperate grassland Tundra Based on a table from: Whittaker, R.H. and Likens, G.E.  1975.  The biosphere and man.  In: Leith, H. and Whittaker, R.H. (Eds.), Primary Productivity and the Biosphere, Ecological Studies 14, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 305-328.
    23. 23. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.3: Food chains - Tundra food system Tundra Foodchain
    24. 24. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.3: Food chains - Tundra food system Tundra Foodchain In winter reindeer survive eating lichen, in particular Cadonia rangiferina (Reindeer Winter Foodchain moss) Solar energy Primary Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer Reindeer moss Reindeer Grey Wolf
    25. 25. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.3: Food chains - Tundra food system Tundra Foodchain In winter reindeer survive eating lichen, in particular Cadonia rangiferina (Reindeer Summer Foodchain moss) Solar energy In the summer there is a greater choice of plants - though all with relatively low NPP Primary Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer Cotton grass Reindeer Grey Wolf
    26. 26. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6: Changes in Ecosystems - Tundra carrying capacity Tundra Populations
    27. 27. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6: Changes in Ecosystems - Tundra carrying capacity Tundra Populations Reindeer population - St Matthew Island, Alaska 6000 Studies of Reindeer populations on islands show: 5000 4000 Population size 3000 2000 1000 1944 1950 1955 1960 1966 Year After Klein 1968
    28. 28. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6: Changes in Ecosystems - Tundra carrying capacity Tundra Populations Reindeer population - St Matthew Island, Alaska 6000 Studies of Reindeer populations on islands show: 5000 That the amount of winter food available sets the carry capacity for that ecosystem 4000 Population size 3000 2000 1000 1944 1950 1955 1960 1966 Year After Klein 1968
    29. 29. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6: Changes in Ecosystems - Tundra carrying capacity Tundra Populations Reindeer population - St Matthew Island, Alaska 6000 Studies of Reindeer populations on islands show: 5000 That the amount of winter food available sets the carry capacity for that ecosystem 4000 Population size The carrying capacity of the herbivore 3000 population controls the size of any predator population 2000 1000 1944 1950 1955 1960 1966 Year After Klein 1968
    30. 30. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6: Changes in Ecosystems - Tundra carrying capacity Tundra Populations Reindeer population - St Matthew Island, Alaska 6000 Studies of Reindeer populations on islands show: 5000 That the amount of winter food available sets the carry capacity for that ecosystem 4000 Population size The carrying capacity of the herbivore 3000 population controls the size of any predator population 2000 1000 The studies also show that without predation to control the population, reindeer numbers often outstrip their food supply 1944 1950 1955 1960 1966 Year After Klein 1968
    31. 31. Topic 2: Ecosystems 1.1.6: Feedback in the Reindeer Wolf cycle Negative Feedback - Wolf and Reindeer Figures from: Kojola, I., Tuomivaara, J., Heikkinen, S., Heikura, K., Kilpeläinen, K., Keränen, J., Paasivaara, A. & Ruusila,V. 2009: European wild forest reindeer and wolves: endangered prey and predators. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 46: 416–422
    32. 32. Topic 2: Ecosystems 1.1.6: Feedback in the Reindeer Wolf cycle Negative Feedback - Wolf and Reindeer In parts of Finland Grey Wolf populations changes appear to follow behind Reindeer population changes Figures from: Kojola, I., Tuomivaara, J., Heikkinen, S., Heikura, K., Kilpeläinen, K., Keränen, J., Paasivaara, A. & Ruusila,V. 2009: European wild forest reindeer and wolves: endangered prey and predators. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 46: 416–422
    33. 33. Topic 2: Ecosystems 1.1.6: Feedback in the Reindeer Wolf cycle Negative Feedback - Wolf and Reindeer In parts of Finland Grey Wolf populations changes appear to follow behind Reindeer population changes Is this evidence of a Negative feedback - predator / prey relationship? Figures from: Kojola, I., Tuomivaara, J., Heikkinen, S., Heikura, K., Kilpeläinen, K., Keränen, J., Paasivaara, A. & Ruusila,V. 2009: European wild forest reindeer and wolves: endangered prey and predators. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 46: 416–422
    34. 34. Topic 2: Ecosystems 1.1.6: Feedback in the Reindeer Wolf cycle Negative Feedback - Wolf and Reindeer In parts of Finland Grey Wolf populations changes appear to follow behind Reindeer population changes Is this evidence of a Negative feedback - predator / prey relationship? While the actual answer is more complex - the population numbers of all predator and prey systems do have an effect on each other Figures from: Kojola, I., Tuomivaara, J., Heikkinen, S., Heikura, K., Kilpeläinen, K., Keränen, J., Paasivaara, A. & Ruusila,V. 2009: European wild forest reindeer and wolves: endangered prey and predators. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 46: 416–422
    35. 35. Topic 2: Ecosystems 1.1.5: Equilibria - Tundra / Tiaga ecosystems Ecosystem Stability
    36. 36. Topic 2: Ecosystems 1.1.5: Equilibria - Tundra / Tiaga ecosystems Ecosystem Stability Low productivity in the Tundra and Tiaga leads to short food chains
    37. 37. Topic 2: Ecosystems 1.1.5: Equilibria - Tundra / Tiaga ecosystems Ecosystem Stability Low productivity in the Tundra and Tiaga leads to short food chains This leads to simple foodwebs which can be prone to disturbance
    38. 38. Topic 2: Ecosystems 1.1.5: Equilibria - Tundra / Tiaga ecosystems Ecosystem Stability Low productivity in the Tundra and Tiaga leads to short food chains This leads to simple foodwebs which can be prone to disturbance The Grey Wolf is reliant on only a few prey species
    39. 39. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.5: Pyramid structure and Tundra / Tiaga ecosystem function Ecosystem Vulnerability - Bioaccumulation
    40. 40. Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.1.5: Pyramid structure and Tundra / Tiaga ecosystem function Ecosystem Vulnerability - Bioaccumulation Canadian researchers have found that even small quantities of POP’s (Persistent Organic Pollutants) increase dramatically in concentration up the Lichen - Caribou (reindeer) - Wolf food chain

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