Soil Analysis of Selected Sitesin the Cleveland Botanical Woodland Garden      by Lisa K. Schlag on 6 August 2008
Purpose of Research       • Begin to record baseline values of soil qualityindicators of the Woodland Garden soil for subs...
IntroductionWhat is soil ?       Unconsolidated mineral and organic material on theimmediate surface of the earth that con...
Site CharacteristicsSoil Quality Indicators      evaluate within context of site and climate characteristicsSoil Series: U...
Site Characteristics
Site OneOO - NW quadrant
Site TwoNN - NW quadrant
Site ThreeMM - NW quadrant
Site FourLL - NW quadrant
Site FiveKK - NW quadrant
Site SixJJ - NW quadrant
Properties of Soil -- Soil Quality IndicatorsPhysical Property Indicators   • Soil Texture                 • availability ...
Physical PropertySoil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture                   Proportions of mineral                   separat...
Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture             Procedures
Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture             Procedures
Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture             Procedures
Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture             Procedures
Site OO -- Soil Texture Class          Sandy Loam4% Clay  41% Silt  55% Sand
Site NN -- Soil Texture Class          Sandy Loam3% Clay 39% Silt58% Sand
Site MM -- Soil Texture Class          Loamy Sand 2% Clay22% Silt 76% Sand
Site LL -- Soil Texture Class              Silt Loam4% Clay  57% Silt  39% Sand
Site KK -- Soil Texture Class          Sandy Loam6% Clay  35% Silt  59% Sand           ●
Site JJ -- Soil Texture Class            Sandy Loam4% Clay  25 Silt  71% Sand
Soil Texture Classes of all Sites                               OO: sandy loam                               NN: sandy loa...
Physical Property        Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Structure How soil particles grouped together into stable aggregat...
Site OO -- Soil Structure                                      A horizon                                       >20 cmdark ...
Site NN -- Soil Structure                                       A horizon                                 3 cm//6 cm//11 c...
Site MM -- Soil Structure                                         A horizon                                   8 cm//10 cm/...
Site LL -- Soil Structure                                             A horizon                                        2 c...
Site KK -- Soil Structure                                      A horizon                                        >20 cmdark...
Site JJ -- Soil Structure                                       A horizon                                     13 cm// 20 c...
Physical Property         Soil Quality Indicator -- Bulk DensityMeasurement of soil mass for a volume of soil as it appear...
Soil Quality Indicator -- Bulk Density              Procedures
Bulk Density of all Sites                                    Water          > 20 - 30% organic mattermineral soil densitie...
Physical Property       Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Temperature                                Determined by           ...
Soil Temperature of all SitesSoil Temp/Site OO   NN     MM     LL     KK     JJ<=12”depth   72oF   65oF   63oF   66oF   68...
Soil Temperature of all SitesSoil Temp/Site OO    NN     MM     LL     KK     JJ12”depth      68oF   62oF   61oF   64oF   ...
Chemical Property Soil Quality Indicator -- Electrical ConductivityMeasurement of soil salinityFactors affecting EC  • Por...
Chemical Property  Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil pHIndication of the acidity or basicity of soil
Soil Quality Indicators --       Electrical Conductivity and Soil pH                    Procedures1:1 soil-water suspension
Electrical Conductivity of all Sites Normal Soils < 4 dS/m           Site       EC      Salinity Class           OO       ...
Soil pH of all SitesSoil pH/Site   OO    NN    MM    LL    KK    JJSensor         7.3   7.1   7.1   7.8   6.2   6.2Lab    ...
Chemical PropertySoil Quality Indicator -- Soil Nutrient Availability     Site   OO    NN    MM    LL    KK    JJ    lab  ...
Soil Nutrient Availability of all Sites                  Lab Analysis       Site        Measure of Available Soil Nutrient...
Biological Property      Soil Quality Indicator -- Earthworm Density  Earthworms important, but not necessary soil organis...
Soil Quality Indicator -- Earthworm Density                 Procedures
Soil Quality Indicator -- Earthworm Density                 Procedures
Earthworm Density of four of the six Sites     No Adults/     JuvenilesSite per 13.3cm2       per m2OO        8           ...
Do Differently1. retain core samples taken for soil structure2. collect more core samples3. collect more soil samples for ...
State Soil of Ohio                          Miamian Soil                        Consists of very deep, well drained soils ...
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Soil Analysis Presentation

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This document is a PDF version of my soil analysis research project presentation I gave on 6 August 2008. Field work for this project involved selected sites in the Cleveland Botanical Garden’s Woodland Garden and was conducted during the summer of 2008.

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Soil Analysis Presentation

  1. 1. Soil Analysis of Selected Sitesin the Cleveland Botanical Woodland Garden by Lisa K. Schlag on 6 August 2008
  2. 2. Purpose of Research • Begin to record baseline values of soil qualityindicators of the Woodland Garden soil for subsequentevaluation and comparison; and, in the course of collectingspecific data on earthworm densities, provide pilot testingfor earthworm collection procedures. • In addition to the plant inventory data, collectingdata on Woodland Garden soil will provide additionalinformation that will assist with future management andplanning.
  3. 3. IntroductionWhat is soil ? Unconsolidated mineral and organic material on theimmediate surface of the earth that contains living and nonlivingmatter and serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Functions of soil for plants anchorage • water • oxygen • nutrientsSoil Quality Indicators qualitative and/or quantitative techniques • collect measurements • evaluate patterns, if any • compare results to measurements taken at different time/location
  4. 4. Site CharacteristicsSoil Quality Indicators evaluate within context of site and climate characteristicsSoil Series: UeA (Urban land Elnora complex) Elnora: 0 - 9“ loamy fine sand Oshtemo: 0 - 8“ sandy loam Glenford: 0 - 7“ silt loam Stafford Variant: 0 - 4“ sandy loam Cuyahoga county lies entirely within glaciated part of Ohio. Bedrock underlying glacial deposits is sandstone and shale.Management History: low Slope %: varies with siteClimate Information : 35.4” average annual precipitation
  5. 5. Site Characteristics
  6. 6. Site OneOO - NW quadrant
  7. 7. Site TwoNN - NW quadrant
  8. 8. Site ThreeMM - NW quadrant
  9. 9. Site FourLL - NW quadrant
  10. 10. Site FiveKK - NW quadrant
  11. 11. Site SixJJ - NW quadrant
  12. 12. Properties of Soil -- Soil Quality IndicatorsPhysical Property Indicators • Soil Texture • availability of Oxygen (aeration) • Soil Structure • mobility of water through soil • Bulk Density • ease of root penetration and growth • Soil Temperature • soil fertilityChemical Property Indicators • Electrical Conductivity • availability of nutrients and water • Soil pH • plant growth • Soil Nutrient Availability • macro/micro organism activityBiological Property Indicators • Earthworm Density • all above to a greater or lesser extent
  13. 13. Physical PropertySoil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture Proportions of mineral separates in a particular soil determine soil texture class Sand • house key thickness • small pin head • book page thickness Silt • visible under microscope Clay • most are not visible even under a microscope
  14. 14. Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture Procedures
  15. 15. Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture Procedures
  16. 16. Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture Procedures
  17. 17. Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Texture Procedures
  18. 18. Site OO -- Soil Texture Class Sandy Loam4% Clay 41% Silt 55% Sand
  19. 19. Site NN -- Soil Texture Class Sandy Loam3% Clay 39% Silt58% Sand
  20. 20. Site MM -- Soil Texture Class Loamy Sand 2% Clay22% Silt 76% Sand
  21. 21. Site LL -- Soil Texture Class Silt Loam4% Clay 57% Silt 39% Sand
  22. 22. Site KK -- Soil Texture Class Sandy Loam6% Clay 35% Silt 59% Sand ●
  23. 23. Site JJ -- Soil Texture Class Sandy Loam4% Clay 25 Silt 71% Sand
  24. 24. Soil Texture Classes of all Sites OO: sandy loam NN: sandy loam MM: loamy sand LL: silt loam KK: sandy loam JJ: sandy loam
  25. 25. Physical Property Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Structure How soil particles grouped together into stable aggregates CharacteristicsType (shape) Class (size) Grade (cohesion strength)• angular blocky • very fine • weak• subangular • fine • moderate• granular • medium • strong• columnar • coarse• platy • very coarse• prismatic
  26. 26. Site OO -- Soil Structure A horizon >20 cmdark grayish brown sandy loam, moderate medium and fine granular structure
  27. 27. Site NN -- Soil Structure A horizon 3 cm//6 cm//11 cmdark grayish brown sandy loam, moderate medium and fine granular structure
  28. 28. Site MM -- Soil Structure A horizon 8 cm//10 cm//15 cmdark grayish brown loamy fine sand, weak medium and fine granular structure
  29. 29. Site LL -- Soil Structure A horizon 2 cm//6 cm//9 cmvery dark grayish brown silt loam, moderate medium and fine granular structure
  30. 30. Site KK -- Soil Structure A horizon >20 cmdark grayish brown sandy loam, weak medium and fine granular structure
  31. 31. Site JJ -- Soil Structure A horizon 13 cm// 20 cmdark grayish brown sandy loam, weak medium and fine granular structure
  32. 32. Physical Property Soil Quality Indicator -- Bulk DensityMeasurement of soil mass for a volume of soil as it appearsnaturally, including any air space and organic materials. • Determines if soil layers are too compacted to allow root penetration or adequate aeration • soil mass calculated dry • soils with different bulk densities due to different textures may be equally good for plant growth
  33. 33. Soil Quality Indicator -- Bulk Density Procedures
  34. 34. Bulk Density of all Sites Water > 20 - 30% organic mattermineral soil densities weigh more organic soil densities weigh less OO LL MM JJ 1g/cm3 KK NN Site Bulk Density (g/cm3) Soil Texture Ideal BD for plant growth OO 1.584966 sandy loam < 1.60 NN .749718 sandy loam < 1.60 MM 1.481139 loamy sand < 1.60 LL 1.492541 silty loam < 1.40 KK .918373 sandy loam < 1.60 JJ 1.097283 sandy loam < 1.60
  35. 35. Physical Property Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil Temperature Determined by • Heat supply to soil surface > organic soil covering reduces • Dissipation of heat in soil > if soil water content higher, more heat needed for temperature changesSoil temperature changes with depth and time of day.Daily air temperature fluctuations seldom affect soil deeper than 12 -16” (30 - 40cm).
  36. 36. Soil Temperature of all SitesSoil Temp/Site OO NN MM LL KK JJ<=12”depth 72oF 65oF 63oF 66oF 68oF 68oF
  37. 37. Soil Temperature of all SitesSoil Temp/Site OO NN MM LL KK JJ12”depth 68oF 62oF 61oF 64oF 63oF 63oF18”depth 63oF 60oF 60oF 62oF 63oF 63oF
  38. 38. Chemical Property Soil Quality Indicator -- Electrical ConductivityMeasurement of soil salinityFactors affecting EC • Porosity: greater porosity more easily electricity conducted • Temperature: decrease in temperature toward freezing point of water soil EC decreases • Precipitation: if too low, usually <15" annually, to provide leaching, most or all soluble salts remain in soil • average Cleveland annual precipitation is 35.4"
  39. 39. Chemical Property Soil Quality Indicator -- Soil pHIndication of the acidity or basicity of soil
  40. 40. Soil Quality Indicators -- Electrical Conductivity and Soil pH Procedures1:1 soil-water suspension
  41. 41. Electrical Conductivity of all Sites Normal Soils < 4 dS/m Site EC Salinity Class OO .8 dS/m non saline NN .9 dS/m non saline MM 1.6 dS/m very slight saline LL .9 dS/m non saline KK 1.2 dS/m very slight saline JJ .6 dS/m non saline
  42. 42. Soil pH of all SitesSoil pH/Site OO NN MM LL KK JJSensor 7.3 7.1 7.1 7.8 6.2 6.2Lab 7.1 6.8 6.8 7.4 6.5 6.3
  43. 43. Chemical PropertySoil Quality Indicator -- Soil Nutrient Availability Site OO NN MM LL KK JJ lab pH 7.1 6.8 6.8 7.4 6.5 6.3
  44. 44. Soil Nutrient Availability of all Sites Lab Analysis Site Measure of Available Soil Nutrients P K Ca Mg OO surplus high medium medium NN high high medium medium MM medium high medium medium LL high high medium medium KK high medium medium medium JJ high medium medium mediumNutrient availability appears good
  45. 45. Biological Property Soil Quality Indicator -- Earthworm Density Earthworms important, but not necessary soil organisms in all habitats Earthworm populations vary with food availability and soil conditions Favorable Conditions Unfavorable ConditionsTemperature 10 - 20ºC (50 - 68ºF) 25 - 35ºC (77 - 95ºF)Soil properties medium texture sandy/clayeySoil pH 5-7.4 pH <=4.5pHFood source do NOT eat living vegetation conifer needles -- pine elm, ash, & birch litter eaten and spruce hardly eaten more freely than oak & beechSoil disturbance undisturbed soil system Generally, improve soil quality • increase availability of nutrients in soil • accelerate decomposition of organic matter (can be unfavorable, especially in certain hardwood forest habitats) • improve physical properties
  46. 46. Soil Quality Indicator -- Earthworm Density Procedures
  47. 47. Soil Quality Indicator -- Earthworm Density Procedures
  48. 48. Earthworm Density of four of the six Sites No Adults/ JuvenilesSite per 13.3cm2 per m2OO 8 72NN 7 63MM 8 72LL 7 63(most appeared to be near surface dwellers (epigeic))
  49. 49. Do Differently1. retain core samples taken for soil structure2. collect more core samples3. collect more soil samples for soil texture average4. record slope percentage5. record soil color as indicators of parent material, organic material, and soil conditions, such as water retention6. test bulk density using another method to compare results7. do earthworm sampling in spring or autumn
  50. 50. State Soil of Ohio Miamian Soil Consists of very deep, well drained soils that formed in a thin layer of loess and in the underlying loamy till, which is high in content of lime. The original vegetation consisted of deciduous forest species, principally white oak, maple, elm, ash, and hickory. Most extensive soils in Ohio. They occur on more than 750,000 acres in the state. They are productive soils. Corn, soybeans, and winter wheat are the primary crops. The average annual precipitation ranges from 33 to 42 inches.Ap--0 to 23 cm (0 to 9 inches); brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale brown(10YR 6/3) dry; moderate medium subangular blocky structure parting toweak fine granular; friable; common fine roots; 1 percent gravel; neutral;abrupt smooth boundary. [13 to 25 cm (5 to 10 inches) thick]

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