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# Process of science

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• Ask students to generate other hypotheses
• Deductive reasoning goes from general to specificExample of deductive reasoning- If all men are mortal, and Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal. Example of Inductive reasoning- Quarterbacks eat steak, John eats steak, therefore John is a quarterback.
• What part of the if and then statement is the question, what part is the hypothesis, what part is the experiment, and what part is the prediction.
• Brainstorm what are the qualities of a good experiment.
• ### Process of science

1. 1. PROCESS OF SCIENCETesting Water Toxins on Daphina as a Model
2. 2. Simple Dilution• Example Problem: Suppose you have 3 ml of a stock solution of 100 mg/ml ampicillin and you want to make 200uL of solution having 25 mg/ ml. You need to know what volume of the stock to use as part of the 200 ul total volume needed.• C1 = 100mg/mL• V1 = unknown• C2 = 25mg/mL• V2 = 200 uL
3. 3. Serial Dilution
4. 4. There is no single one way thatscientists study the natural world, but there is a general process thatmost scientists use.
5. 5. Key Elements in the Process of Science Are:1. Observations2. Questions3. Hypotheses4. Predictions5. Tests/ Experiments6. Communicating
6. 6. Most people get hypotheses and predictions confused.• Hypothesis: A tentative explanation for a natural phenomenon.• Prediction: A forecasted outcome of an event based on evidence or a hypothesis.
7. 7. Using the Water Toxins Experiment as a Model• Quanina observes that there is a large spike in the concentration of cinnamaldehyde in winter season in the San Diego Bay• So, she questions Does this increase in cinnamaldehyde affect aquatic wildlife living in San Diego Bay?• She hypothesizes: 1. Maybe not because some research has shown that cinnamaldehyde to be fairly non-toxic 2. Maybe it negatively effects aquatic wildlife because there is such a high concentration of cinnamaldehyde
8. 8. Making Predictions Scientists use deductive reasoning to predict the results of new observations and experiments.Deductive reasoning follows: an “if ….and…. then” logic.• If our hypothesis is correct, and we test it, then we can expect a particular outcome.
9. 9. Let’s Use Our First Hypothesis• Quanina observes that there is a large spike in the concentration of cinnamaldehyde in winter season in the San Diego Bay• So, she questions Does this increase in cinnamaldehyde affect aquatic wildlife living in San Diego Bay?• She hypothesizes: 1. Maybe not because some research has shown that cinnamaldehyde to be fairly non-toxic 2. Maybe it negatively effects aquatic wildlife because there is such a high concentration of cinnamaldehyde
10. 10. Making Our Own “If…and…then” Statement• If a high concentration of cinnamaldehyde has no effect on aquatic wildlife,• question and hypothesis• And we expose one set of Daphnia magna to a series of high concentrations of cinnamaldehyde and another set of Daphnia magna to no cinnamaldehyde and measure it’s heartrate,• experiment• Then we should notice no change in the death rates between the two sets of Daphnia and no change in heart rate prediction
11. 11. Qualities of a Good ExperimentIt is controlled.• There are two parallel test groups• The variable of interest is changed in one group (the test group), but everything else remains the same.• Sample size
12. 12. Now you design your own experiment1. Generate three hypotheses2. Choose a hypothesis3. Write an If….and…then statement for your hypothesis.