Comment les TIC peuvent contribuer à l'évaluation environnemental

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Véronique Bellon-Maurel de Montpellier SupAgro présentent comment les TIC peuvent contribuer à l'évaluation environnementale.

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Comment les TIC peuvent contribuer à l'évaluation environnemental

  1. 1. Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro-How ICT can contribute toenvironmental assessment Pr V. Bellon-Maurel TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010 Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  2. 2. Why carrying outEnvironmental Assessment? Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  3. 3. A big challenge If you can not measure it, you can not improve it!Improving (reducing) our environmental footprint William Thomson (1868) Also named…. Lord Kelvin Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  4. 4. How carrying out Environmental Assessment? Several methods =>Life Cycle Assessment is global and covers the whole cycle Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  5. 5. Life Cycle Assessment (ISO 14040 and 14044) MID-POINT EMISSION ENVIR. IMPACTS -In water - Global warming -In air -In soil - Stratosph ozone depletion 2- LCI: Inventory - Photochemical oxidation of emitted/ consumed - Acidification substances CONSUMPTION - Eutrophication1- Modelling - Energythe studied - Raw material - Toxicity,ecotox system - Land - Resource depletion HUGE NEED OF DATA 3- Convert flux into impacts DAMAGES Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  6. 6. How to get such amount of data? A old story…- In 1999, SETAC created the “Streamlined LCA” group (Todd & Curran, 1999)⇒ LC Inventory (LCI) is the most demanding phase of LCA.-Agricultural system are susceptible to natural variability => generalisation is more difficult and => reliable emissions data hard to collect (Lewis et al., 1999).-In 2009 Finnveden et al. describe recent developments in LCA => confirm that LCI data acquisition remains one of the most labour-and time-intensive stages of LCA. Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  7. 7. Two ways of collecting data in agriculture1- From global (farm level) to specific (one product): the ACCOUNTING APPROACH Input Output Prod 1 Prod 2 Prod 3 Prod 4 Prod 5 Allocation !! Input Output 2- From each step to each product : the ANALYTICAL APPROACH ICT Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  8. 8. Different types of data must be recorded Input OutputData about the process and conditions are to be recordedEmissions vary a lot depending on the environmental conditions, technologies etc Input -> Model (Environmental conditions, technology) -> Emissions Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  9. 9. Variability of emissions with regard to the conditions Example: fertilization / Langevin et al, 2010 Emission levels depends on the technology and on the conditions Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  10. 10. Different types of data must be recorded Input OutputData about the process and conditions are to be recordedEmissions vary a lot depending on the environmental conditions, technologies etc Input -> Model (Environmental conditions, technology) -> Emissions Various steps X various inputs, conditions, technologies => Huge amount of data Example in viticulture Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  11. 11. Viticulture Shoot shredding Tillage (cultivation) Pre-Pruning + Pruning Grass Mowing Deeper Tillage Tillage (cultivation) Fertilisation (Bud-removal) Lifting Harvest Tillage (cultivation) Grass MowingTillage (cultivation) OPERATIONS Vine topping Pesticide Spraying On-the-row cultivation Pesticide spraying Fertilisation Tillage (7 times-14 spraing) Vine management Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  12. 12. Example: Fertilizing in viticulture SOIL Fuel consumption/ emissions NH3 N2O Soil moisture Air moisture Fertilizer buryingSoil-slurry pH TYPE & AMOUNT OF FERTILIZER Leaching NO3- Soil , Rain Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  13. 13. How to feed a LCI database? Manual input SOIL T° Fuel consumption/ Sensor input Wind emissions One-shot input NH3 Weather input Model output N2O Soil moisture Air moisture Fertilizer buryingSoil-slurry pH TYPE & AMOUNT OF FERTILIZER NO3- Soil type Rain Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  14. 14. Where can ICT contribute ?Manual inputSensor input Mobile technologies for data collectionOne-shot input Embedded sensors for data collectionWeather inputModel output Automatic data collection & mapping Data collection and Modelling Databasis Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  15. 15. Mobile technologies for data acquisition• Today: Pocket PCs, PDA, EDA, mobile phones- Pb: Acceptation by farmers- Mobile phones have the interest of having well penetrated the market anywhere (5 billion subscriptions in 2010).• Towards: more automatic data collection?- Bar codes, RFId (ex: pesticide recognition, see Peets et al 2009)- Voice recognition (ex: Talkman for forestry, see Rumble et al, 2009) Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  16. 16. Embedded sensors for data acquisition• Coupling sensor and GPS outputs- Sensors for the operation: digital gauges (fuel), flowmeters (pesticide spraying, irrigation), etc- Sensors for the conditions: soil moisture, air moisture, wind…• Isobus standard- Helps to seamlessly record data from different types of machines as well as working times (Sat-trace);- Very interesting for generating huge amount of data on farm operations; See Steinberger et al. (2009)• Mapping is not a mustGPS is necessary for recognising the field but a unique value –not a map- is needed for LCI. Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  17. 17. Automatic data collection and mapping• Deals with weather data but also with environmental condition data (soil moisture, texture etc)• Use of « regional » weather stations or of local sensor networks.• Mapping increases the precision but is not compulsory (the nearest station data can be used)• Such data are used to surrogate the lack of other data which are more difficult to measure but necessary for impact assessment; for instance soil T°can be modelled fro m air T° Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  18. 18. Databases• Farmers are more and more pushed to record data for traceability purposes: compulsory (ex: pesticide, fertilizers…) and voluntary traceability (ex: );• Use of digital databases• LCI generation would not require too much additional data (environmental data to generate pollution emission from input use) Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  19. 19. Conclusion• ICTs have a great interest for environmental assessment, in particular to generate LCI data (automatic or streamlined data acquisition)• Not only knowledge of input (and technology) is needed but also knowledge of the environmental conditions: Input -> Model (Environmental conditions, technology) -> Emissions• So far, ICTs have not penetrated enough the agricultural market but 3 main drivers exist: - Low cost GPS - Smart phones - Compulsory traceabilityOnly few additional data (environmental data) must be added to traceability data ti generate emission data Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010
  20. 20. Thank you for your attention 2 publications are currently being prepared on that subject:- Streamlining life cycle inventory data generation in agriculture using traceability data and information and communication technologies – Part I: General concepts .- Streamlining life cycle inventory data generation in agriculture using traceability data and information and communication technologies – Part II: Specifications to build up LCI-relevant databases in viticulture. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was carried out as part of a travelling scholarship supported by the European Commission (IRSES program, IRSES project nr 235108), theLanguedoc Roussillon Council (Regional Plat-form GEPETOS – ECOTECH- LR) and PEER (Partnership for European Environmental Research). Information & Technologies for Agro-Processes Agro- TIC & Agriculture – 4-5 Novembre 2010

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