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September 2020 San Diego, CA
The essential role of
technology standards
Driving interoperability, ecosystem
development, and future innovation
2
The virtuous circle of technology innovation
Early R&D and technology inventions essential to leading ecosystem forward
Vision
Identify a problem or need;
establish requirements
Trials
Collaborate on field trials that track
standards development and drive
ecosystem towards rapid commercialization
Invention
Invent new technologies and
end-to-end system architecture
Standardization
Lead ecosystem towards new projects and
drive system design through technology
standardization process
Proof-of-concept
Deliver end-to-end prototypes and
impactful demonstrations
Commercialization
Engage with global ecosystems to deploy
new features with standards-compliant
infrastructure and devices
3
Why leadership in standards is important
The value of standards
44
Standards create significant value for the wireless ecosystem
Communications industry is based on technology standards
Meeting regulatory
requirements
test and certification
procedures are developed
to aid in meeting obligations
Ensuring system
interoperability
while enabling product
differentiation and spurring
transparent industry competition
Lowering
cost
through economies of
scale and multi-
vendor sourcing
Reducing
market risk
especially in areas
of large investments
(e.g., 5G infra)
Improving
technology
multiple companies
participate, collaborate,
compete — best prevails
Creating
new markets
and expanding addressable
markets of existing
products and technology
55
Driving technology forward with new functionalities and efficiencies,
fostering healthy market growth that benefits the broader ecosystem
Industry leaders contribute to technology standards
Better, quicker-
to-market products
Communications standards are very complex
in nature; thus, leadership in designing
technology standards goes hand in hand with
leadership in product development
Valuable
intellectual property (IP)
When inventions are contributed to standards, they
become available to everyone in the ecosystem;
therefore, it is important to have a solid IP framework
that adequately incentivizes inventors to contribute
their innovation to standards bodies
Standards
leadership
66
Addresses the global
market need of solving vital
technology problems
Exceptional leadership in
the standards process
Provides the proper tools
(e.g., testing, certification) for
mass market productization
What are the ingredients of a successful standard?
We have the deep technical expertise, broad ecosystem reach,
and decades of global experience to drive successful standards
Defines great technologies
with superior performance
and efficiency
Allows a wide ecosystem
to address attractive
business opportunities
Garners broad
ecosystem adoption
and implementation
Drives marketing
and regulation
guiding activities
7
We participate in
~200 globalstandards and industry organizations
88
We’re doing what’s right to move standards forward
1 For example, companies put on the U.S. Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) Entity List
Recent events leading to new standardization challenges
COVID-19 preventing in-person
meetings in the foreseeable future
Virtual meetings can be harder to manage
and less efficient for consensus driven work
Global trade tension1 preventing
participation of key standards members
Interim Final Rule in June 2020 partially solved
some issues but needs to be further enhanced
9
Standards in
mobile devices
Complex systems that require
global interoperability
Also broadly applicable across
device categories and industries
10
Many standardized components
and interfaces in a smartphone
Cellular connectivity
3GPP, ATIS, TIA, ETSI, TTA, TTC, ETRI, ARIB,
CCSA, TSDSI, GCF, PTCRB, FCC, GSMA, GSA,
CCF, RED, Future Forum, 5G Forum, CTIA
WLAN & WPAN connectivity
IEEE, WFA, WBA, WAPI Alliance, Bluetooth SIG,
NFC forum
Security and local
content protection
ETSI-SCP, GlobalPlatform, Eurosmart, JHAS-
SOGIS, TCA, GSMA, JEDEC, EMVCo, TCG
Multimedia services
MPEG, 3GPP, Khronos Group, INCITS, DASH-IF,
DVB, CTA WAVE, ATSC, SMPTE, AIS, IVAS
Semiconductor manufacturing
Si2, Accellera, UEFI, GSA, FlexTech, LTAB, CSIA
Wired connectivity
MIPI Alliance, JEDEC, NVMe, PCI-SIG, USB-IF,
DMTF, VESA, UHD Alliance, HDMI, RISC-V, xHCI
Emergency & location services
Galileo, 3GPP, ATIS, CCSA, CEN CENELEC,
CSRIC, ETSI, GUTMA, OMA
And many others…
AI processor
MLPerf/ML-Commons, FIDO, SAE, Khronos,
MPEG, NIST, ORAN-AI, ISO/IEC SC42
11
ADAS/Automated Driving
ISO TC 22, SAE International ORAD Committee, ISO TC 204
WG 14, IEEE 2846 WG, IEEE 2851 WG, Accellera Functional
Safety WG, Khronos Group Safety Critical WG, 5G ADA
ITS/V2X
5GAA, 3GPP, SAE International V2X SC, ETSI TC ITS, IEEE 1609
WG, CAICV, OmniAir Consortium, CAMP, CCSA, C-SAE, NTCAS,
ITS America, ERTICO, C-ITS, ITS Forum, ISO TC 204, NEMA
Telematics/Infotainment
CCC, WFA Automotive Market Segment
TG, AGL, AEC, AESIN, AEIA
Vehicle Security
SAE International Vehicle Electrical System Security
and Vehicle Cybersecurity Systems Engineering
Committees, Auto-ISAC
And many others…
Standardized technology across
components and interfaces in automotive
12
The heart of the mobile ecosystem — leading
standards development and the ecosystem expansion
Cellular standards
13Source: Ericsson Mobility Report, November, 2019
Cellular has revolutionized the way we communicate
From voice only to a plethora of new services that our lives depend on today (e.g., smartphone)
mobile subscriptions
by 2025
1414
* Source: 3GPP Mobile Competence Centre (3GPP Support Team) Summary Report from RAN#86 (RP-192371); Including 3G/4G/5G Release 99/4/5/6/7/8/9/10/11/12/13/14/15/16
3GPP drives global cellular standards
2G, 3G, 4G and 5G
>1.4K
Tech specifications*
700+
Member companies
~20
Technical groups
14
Major releases
22
Years driving cellular tech evolution
2,000+
Man years in cumulative meeting time*
6–8
Working group meetings per year
100,000’s
Technical contributions 3rd Generation Partnership Project
Distributed work-flow
Scale/complexity requires division
of work into smaller, specialized pieces
Member-driven organization
Relies on R&D and tech inventions from
members, e.g., ‘contributions’
Collaborative engineering effort
Consensus-based, tech-driven effort
across 100s of entities
1515
This large scope requires division of work
into smaller, specialized working groups in 3GPP
3GPP defines complete end-to-end system specifications
User Equipment (UEs)
Devices, e.g., smartphones and all types of IoT devices
that connect to services via radio access technology
Radio Access Network (RAN)
Implements radio access technology, e.g., 5G NR, LTE,
managing radio link to connect UEs to networks
Core Network (CN)
Manages macro-mobility, sessions, quality of service, policies, security, and routes traffic
to outside world, e.g., Internet, or local intranet
Services
Framework for service delivery architecture,
multimedia, billing, charging, etc.
Test Requirements
Defines performance and conformance
test procedures to ensure interoperability
used for certification (e.g., GCF)
16
3GPP is a collaborative, system-engineering effort
Analogous to other large-scale engineering efforts
1.
Early R&D and project
proposal to management
2.
Break project into
specialized areas,
e.g., jet engine
3.
Feasibility study and explore
different technical solutions
4.
Develop solution(s) based
on agreed work plan
3GPP projects are similar to other complex system-engineering effort, e.g., designing an airplane.
3GPP develops technical specifications for different parts of the system (vs. jet engines, wings, …), is constrained by meeting time
(vs. OPEX) and is a collaborative, consensus-based effort across 100s of different entities with diverse interests/incentives
(vs. collaboration of teams and suppliers in a single company).
17
Concept
contribution(s)
A typical workflow in 3GPP
Early R&D
Change requests
(corrections)
Tech report tracking
decisions and
agreementsApproval
Product developmentInside 3GPP
Ongoing, iterative member R&D that tracks 3GPP development
Tech specs
Technical contributions
Vision and
concept
1 2 3 4 5
Project
proposal
Feasibility
‘Study Item’
Development
‘Work Item(s)’
Commercial
deployments
Individual 3GPP members
Outside 3GPP
1818
Some assert 3GPP leadership based on # of contributions
Analogous to asserting
leadership in sports on the
basis of time-of-possession
Analogous to assessing the
impact of an author by counting
the # pages written
Analogous to assessing the
quality of an artist by counting
the # paintings completed
19
Qualcomm has led the evolution and expansion of LTE
Delivering fundamental systems-level inventions that are essential to 5G
Leading in 5G requires
4G LTE
Leadership
Carrier aggregation
(FDD, TDD, FDD+TDD)
Hybrid
ARQ
CoMP
LTE IoT
(eMTC, NB-IoT)
MulteFireLTE in
Unlicensed
(LAA/eLAA)
HetNets with Small Cells and
Interference Management
LTE Direct and
C-V2X
Positioning
VoLTE
Advanced MIMO
technologies, e.g. UL MIMO
OFDMA,
SC-FDMA
Handover
procedure
Security
Fast link
adaptation
Broadcast
(eMBMS, enTV)
20
3G/4G
foundation
Our wireless inventions are leading the 5G evolution
21
Virtual Central Unit
Control and user plane separation
control plane
user plane
E1
Distributed Unit
Remote radio head w/
centralized baseband
Remote radio head +
PHY with centralized
baseband
Access point with scheduler;
allows for interworking with
third party CU
PDCP
High
RLC
Low
RLC
High
MAC
Low
MAC
High
PHY
Low
PHY
RF
SDAP
RRC
Radio Unit
option 1
Active antenna
systems
Core Network
option 2 option 6 option 7 option 8
CU: Central unit; DU: Distributed unit; MAC: Medium
access control; PDCP: Packet data convergence
protocol; PHY: Physical layer; RF: Radio frequency; RLC:
Radio link control; RRC: Radio resource control; SDAP:
Service data adaptation protocol
Designed for
unprecedented
flexibility and
cost-effective
network
deployments
22
Driving the technology evolution of
wireless local area networking
Wi-Fi Standards
23
Wi-Fi has revolutionized the way we access the internet
Cutting-the-wire for a wide range of devices — PCs, tablets, TVs, smartphones, etc…
2424
Wi-Fi complements
cellular connectivity
for local broadband
access
Utilizes unlicensed spectrum
(e.g., 2.4/5/6/60 GHz)
Focuses on indoor
use cases
For human and machine
communications (i.e., IoT)
Supports fixed
and mobile devices
Retail and hospitality Transportation hubs
Venue connectivity Schools and libraries
Home broadband Enterprise networking
25
Evolving networks from speed to capacity
Core technology evolution and Qualcomm Technologies leadership
The first 10 Billion
Enabling mobility
Speed #s prioritized
Increased bandwidth
Introduced modulation schemes
Introduced MIMO
Network efficiency
Usable performance at device
Value when AP/Clients reach critical mass
Scheduled access
MU-MIMO / OFDMA
Up to 4x4 MIMO
40 MHz
2.4 / 5 GHz
OFDM
20 MHz
Up to 8x8 MIMO
80 MHz
5 GHz only
256 QAM
2015
11ac | Wi-Fi 5
2018/19
11ax | Wi-Fi 6
8x8 MIMO
OFDMA
Scheduled Access
2.4 / 5 GHz
1024 QAM
DL MU-MIMO
5GHz only
Wi-Fi
2007
11n
2003
11g
1999
11a/b
2013
11ac (w1)
The next 20 Billion
Connecting everythingWi-Fi
1997
802.11
26
IEEE 802.11
Working Groups
Wi-Fi Alliance
(WFA)
Symbiotic
relationship
since 1999
Develops and maintains
backward compatible global MAC
and PHY standards
Defines spectrum use for Wi-Fi:
2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, 6 GHz, 60 GHz,
and sub-1 GHz unlicensed bands
Releases key MAC and PHY
performance upgrades with
4-6 year cadence
Develops test plans, manage
interoperability test programs,
and organizes industry plug fests
Develops industry specifications
complementary to IEEE standards
Drives Wi-Fi technology
marketing activities
Conducts regulatory advocacy
for Wi-Fi technologies
Feedback on standards
and market requirements
Industry standards
27
IEEE 802.11
Working Groups
Holds key leadership positions in
working/task groups, e.g., 802.11
Vice Chair, 802.11be Chair, etc.
Actively drives Wi-Fi technology
standardization process
Leads in quality contributions to
Wi-Fi standards (e.g., 802.11ax)
Wi-Fi Alliance
(WFA)
Consistently selected to be part of
industry interoperability testbeds
Received “Wi-Fi Alliance 2020
Industry Impact Award” and
“Outstanding Leadership and
Contribution” awards for sponsor
members in multiple years
Holds key leadership positions
on the Board of Directors (since
2008) and WFA task groups
We are committed in pushing standardized Wi-Fi technology forward
281 Based on 802.11a; 2 Including Airgo, Atheros, and Wilocity
A rich history of leading key Wi-Fi innovations
Advanced R&D | Standardization | Successful commercialization
802.11g
Wi-Fi 4: 802.11n
Wi-Fi 5: 802.11ac Wi-Fi 6: 802.11ax
802.11ad / ay
Continued leadership
in IEEE and WFA
Drove OFDM into the 802.11g standard
Implemented OFDM in 1st commercial CMOS
5GHz product1, then rapidly ported to 2.4 GHz
Enabled successful proliferation of 802.11g
that greatly expanded the Wi-Fi ecosystem
MIMO-OFDM (spatial multiplexing) and transmit
beamforming
Implemented MIMO-OFDM system architecture for
mass market products2 (e.g., PCs, routers)
Drove the success of “pre-standard” MIMO products
Drove MU-MIMO — the foundational
technology — into the 802.11ac standard
Proved to the ecosystem on the viability
and value of MU-MIMO for Wi-Fi systems
Pioneered mmWave beam forming & antenna designs
Delivered the highest performing mmWave
implementation, proving the viability of mmWave
Drove mmWave into the 802.11ad and brought wider
bandwidths via channel bonding in 802.11ay
Drove key UL OFDMA and UL MU-MIMO
designs into the 802.11ax standards
Developed synchronized AP scheduling,
trigger-based OFDMA and MU-MIMO
802.11ah
Wi-Fi Mesh
Pioneered multi access point (AP)
technology
Led contributions to the Wi-Fi
EasyMesh industry specification
Nominal work on Wi-Fi 7
/ 802.11be is just starting
Drove key technologies
enabling extended range, small
battery operation and low-power
for Wi-Fi operating in sub-1 GHz
Facilitated opening of spectrum
for 802.11ah sensors in Europe
2929
UBICOM
4B+
Berkana
Wireless, Inc.
Airgo Networks, Inc
Atheros Communications, Inc Wilocity
CSR
Our historical Wi-Fi pedigree
Wi-Fi chips shipped since 2015
20112007 20082005 2006 2009 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 20192004 2013
First MIMO chip
500M Wi-Fi
chipsets shipped
1st Wi-Fi attach to
Qualcomm®
Snapdragon™
1st Wi-Fi
5 products
1st 4-stream
MU-MIMO Network
1st Wi-Fi
Mesh
Networks
Launched
Wi-Fi SON
1st Wi-Fi 6
SoC for Auto
1st 11ad chipset
2010
1st Mobile
Wi-Fi solution
1st 2x2 MU-MIMO
mobile platform
1st 11ay
products
1st 8x8 Wi-Fi
6 network
1st Wi-Fi 6
Mobile solution
11n Wi-Fi 4 Wi-Fi 5 Wi-Fi 6
Launched
Mesh Voice
20202003
Product milestones
Acquisitions
1st Wi-Fi 6E
products
Standardization
timeline
Qualcomm Snapdragon is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries.
30
Connecting wireless
personal area networks
Bluetooth Standards
31
Smart city
AutomotiveAudio and entertainmentPhones, tablet, PC
6.2Bannual device
shipment by 2024
Audio streaming
Data transfer
Location services
Device network
Bluetooth supports
broad use cases
across a wide
range of industries
Source: Bluetooth SIG Market Update 2020
Connected IoT Smart buildings
Smart industry Smart home Smart city
32
Product qualification
World-class programs that drive product interoperability,
and give access to technology and trademark licensing
Technology standardization
~15 promoter/associate members actively contributing to
Core WG meetings to evolve Bluetooth specifications2
Brand promotion
Campaigns to increase the awareness, understanding,
and adoption of Bluetooth technology
BluetoothSpecial Interest Group (SIG)
Founded in 1998
14
Working Groups
(WG)1
Driving the technology evolution
and commercial success
Source: Bluetooth SIG Market Update 2020;
1 Audio/Telephony/Auto, Automation, Core Specification, Direction Finding, Discovery of Things, Easy Pairing, Generic
Audio, Hearing Aid, HID, Internet, Medical Devices, Mesh, PUID, Sports and Fitness
2 Based on 6 months attendance records, analysis done in June 2020
80
Active specification
projects
33
Leading the way in Bluetooth SIG
Working Group/committee leadership and participation
Awarded “Outstanding
Technical Contributor” in
2011, 2012, 2014, 2015
(x2), 2016, 2017 (x3)
Awarded “Working
Group and
Committee Chair of
the Year” in 2010,
2018, 2019
Awarded “Bluetooth
Core Specification
Team Award” in
2014, 2016
Inducted to
“Bluetooth Hall of
Fame” in 2017 (x2),
2010, 2011
Current working groups
Core Specification (CSWG) — Chair
Generic Audio (GAWG) — Chair
Bluetooth Test and
Interoperability (BTI) — Chair
Automotive, Telephony, Audio (ATA)
Mesh
Current committees
Bluetooth Architecture Review
Board (BARB)
Bluetooth Qualification Review
Board (BQRB)
Bluetooth (Qualification)
Technical Advisory Board (BTAB)
Past leadership positions
Board member: 2012-2014 (CSR),
2014-2016 (Qualcomm)
Chairs or vice chairs: BARB, BQRB, Regulatory, ATA,
Automation, Mesh, Internet, HID, HCI, Radio
Improvements
Contributing member: Regulatory, Automation,
Direction Finding, HID, Internet, Medical Devices,
PUID, Sports and Fitness, HCI, Radio Improvements
Key recognitions for our leadership role
3434
Also actively involved in creation/revisions of various Bluetooth SIG processes
(e.g., Bluetooth Specification Development Process, Qualification Process)
A rich history of leading key Bluetooth innovations
Advanced R&D | Standardization | Successful commercialization
Bluetooth 1.2
Adaptive frequency
hopping
Bluetooth 2.0
Enhanced data rate design
(EDR)
Joined BT SIG as
associate member
since 2000
Bluetooth 2.1
Secure pairing/
connection
Bluetooth 4.1
Dual mode devices
Bluetooth 5.2
Enhanced Attribute
Protocol
Bluetooth 4.0
Low energy (LE) design
Attribute protocol (ATT)
Generic attribute profile
(GATT)
Bluetooth 5.0
Long range PHY
Advertising extensions
Bluetooth 5.1
Location services
(AoA/AoD2)
1 As part of Mesh Networking specifications v1.0 first adopted on July 13, 2017; 2 Angle of Arrival/Departure
Mesh networking
Mesh design1
Continued leadership
in Bluetooth SIG
3535
Silicon Wave / RFMD
Atheros
Communications, Inc CSR
Our legacy of Bluetooth leadership
Open
Interface
Stone
Street One
Key product
milestones
First single-chip
Bluetooth controller1
First Bluetooth controllers
qualified for new releases
First Bluetooth
mesh product2
1st demonstration of
a single Bluetooth IC
using standard
processes1
1st MSM modem
with integrated
Bluetooth 1.1
support
1st Bluetooth
3.0 controller
and host
subsystem
stacks
Bluetooth 4.0 low-energy
controller chip
1st Bluetooth 4.2
dual mode device
1st MSM modem
with integrated
Bluetooth 4.2 support
1st Bluetooth
5.0 controller
Bluetooth 5.1 + mesh
device qualified
1st Bluetooth 5.2 with
isochronous Channel feature
Bluetooth 1.2
controller qualified
Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR
controller qualified
Bluetooth 2.0 +
EDR controller
qualified
1st Bluetooth 1.1
controller
1st Bluetooth
4.1 dual
mode device
BT 2 BT 3 BT 4 BT 5BT 1
20112007 20082004 2006 2009 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019201320102002 20202000 2001 2003 2005
Product milestones
Acquisitions
MSM is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries.
CMOS from CSR, BiCMOS from Silicon Wave: https://www.eetimes.com/cambridge-silicon-radio-demonstrates-single-chip-bluetooth-radio-
ic/; https://www.eetimes.com/silicon-wave-radio-modem-ic-gets-bluetooth-qualification/# 3. CSRMesh
Standardization
timeline
36
Powering the creation and consumption of rich digital
media experiences
Video Coding Standards
37
of internet traffic will
be video by 20221
Video technology revolutionized how we create and consume media
Enhanced video quality with less bits lead to broad adoption across a wide range of devices and services
1. Cisco Annual Internet Report, 2018–2023
38
SC 29 (MPEG)
Motion Picture Experts Group
Founded in 1988 as part
of ISO/IEC JTC 1
Developing international standards for
compression, decompression, processing,
and coded representation of moving pictures,
audio, and their combination, in order to
satisfy a wide variety of applications
VCEG
Video Coding Experts Group
A long and rich history in visual compression
coding work focusing on video and still image,
with three ITU standards before working jointly
with MPEG
Developed first spec
in1984 as part of ITU-T
Collaborative
video standard
development
Generic coding of moving
pictures and associated
audio information
H.262
Advanced video
coding (AVC)
H.264
Versatile Video
Coding (VVC) H.266*
High efficiency video
coding (HEVC) H.265
Expert working groups Technology standardization Product interoperability
Driving the technology evolution and commercial success
*not the official name yet
391. On a 1080p video at 30 frames per second; EVC = Essential Video Coding, VVC = Versatile Video Coding,
Technical innovation drives video evolution
A regular cadence of technical advancement in video codecs has led to massive reduction in file size
The first evolution
Introduced flexibility
Focused initially on optical disc media
Increased efficiency
Introduced internet video
Emerging video applications and technology
Robust network efficiency
Enabling user experiences as demand surges
Continued technical advancement
2013
HEVC
2020
EVC and VVC
Video
Compression
2003
AVC
1995
MPEG-2
Evolution transformed
Enriched experiences and proliferation
Video
Compression
Reduction in
file size with
VVC versus no
compression1
~1000x
DVD, digital TV Blu-ray, HDTV, internet
~50% compression ↑
Streaming, 4k, HDR, 360˚
~50% compression ↑
8k, immersive video
~30% ~40%
compression ↑
40
Key contributions across video technologies
A rich heritage
of leading video
innovation
Standard video
codecs
Next generation
video codecs
Coding performance
and efficiency
Video
delivery
H.265/HEVC
In addition to being a key
contributor to HEVC
initiation, our innovations
provide broad impact
across coding features
VVC and EVC
Continued industry leadership
in contributing fundamental
innovations in next generation
high performance video
codec standards
Implementation
Contributions facilitate
coding efficiency and low
computational complexity at
reduced power consumption
for video codec implementors
DASH and file format
Innovations, such as
adaptive streaming and
extensible file formats
41
HEVC complexity
reduction leadership
Our innovations contributed to tools that provide
more efficient processing
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Flexible block
partitioning
Inter-coding Intra-coding Sample
adaptive
offset filter
Coefficient
coding
Parallel processing
Real-time encoding and decoding of UHD signals through coarse and fine
granularity parallel processing provisions.
Deblocking filter
Selection of filtered block boundaries, and hierarchical filtering
decisions efficiently avoiding filtering in unwarranted situations.
Coefficient coding
Coefficient grouping into 4x4 sized subblocks harmonizing transform block
processing design and enabling use of a common scan pattern.
Key
contributor
to HEVC’s
seed ideas
Entropy coding (CABAC)
Reduced number of context coded bins, context sharing, grouping bypass
bins, and grouping bins with the same context.
Inter-coding
Higher level of parallelism for merge mode processing of neighboring blocks
through the use of configurable merge mode motion estimation region.
HEVC coding
gain leadership
Our innovations contributed to coding tools
that provide significant gain
Codinggain
42
VVC coding
gain leadership
Initial or a main contributor to tools that provide
80% of VVC’s rate reduction
VVC complexity
reduction leadership
Our innovations contributed to tools that provide
more efficient processing
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Screen
content tools
Advanced
block
partitioning
Adaptive
loop filter
Affine
motion
model
Adaptive
motion vector
resolution
Parallel processing
Parallel processing within a picture through the use of tile partitioning and/or
wavefront parallel processing (WPP), as well as virtual pipeline data units
(VPDU) at an even finer granularity.
Intra-coding
Simplified calculation of position-dependent intra prediction sample combining
(PDPC) weights through the use of position dependent integer shift operations.
Transforms
Low Frequency Non-Separable Transform (LFNST) use through zeroing out
the transform coefficients outside LFNST support region.
Entropy coding (CABAC)
Efficient multi-hypothesis weighted probability estimation through the use of
estimator functions incorporating integer shift operations rather than division
operations.
Viewport-dependent 360° video coding
Efficient tiled streaming of 360˚ video content through the use of subpictures
(independent coded regions) and scalability features, enabling simple extraction
and merging.
Key
contributor
to VVC
Codinggain
4343
A prominent contributor to 3GPP DASH and MPEG DASH
Enabled streaming at scale
Our key
contributions
Reach
Flexibility to create a variety of encoded
media and use a common protocol to
serve any device, under virtually any
network condition
Quality
Decreased start-up time, faster seeking,
and quicker buffer fills to reduce video
freeze while maintaining the highest
video quality
Scalability
Adaptive bit-rate to serve many clients in a
scalable and cost-efficient manner without
network architecture changes – smart and
power clients
Continued leadership in MPEG and 3GPP
Created Internet video delivery service in 2007
Best technology for quality, latency, stall rates,
but not scalable due to cloud compute
Re-design based on deployment experience
In 2010, the 3GPP solution backed by 20+ companies was accepted as
baseline for MPEG DASH
3GPP and MPEG collaborated to create the first and only global
streaming standard—DASH
We were the main contributor and spec editor
First published in 2012, 4th edition in 2019
Standard globally adopted and deployed
In 2017, CMAF project launched to support convergence
towards DASH content formats for remaining two streaming
solutions, DASH and HLS
In 2019, the second edition published with co-editing by
Apple, Netflix, and us
We are driving the interop through CTA WAVE and DASH-IF
In 2009, we were the main contributor to the
first Adaptive HTTP Streaming standard
Specification designed for streaming at scale and
varying mobile network conditions
In 2013, we were the initiator and founder of
DASH-IF to catalyze the adoption of MPEG-DASH
80 charter members with a focus on interop, test, reference and
promotion – we have lead interop group since 2012
4444
20112007 20082005 2006 2009 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 20192004 20132010 20212003
Our legacy of video product leadership
First 4K AVC
encode and decode
First 4K HEVC encode
and decode
First HEVC 10-bit
and HDR10
2020
Key product
milestones
MPEG-2 AVC HEVC EVC/VVC
Qualcomm®
MSM6550
CIF AVC encode /
decode
Snapdragon 805
1st 4k HEVC
decoder HW
Snapdragon 820
1st 4k wireless
display
Snapdragon 835
HEVC 10-bit
and HDR10
Snapdragon 855
2x decoder
throughput, 30%
encoder compression
rate improvement
Snapdragon 865
8k playback /
capture capable
mobile platform
Snapdragon 800
1st 4k AVC encode
/ decode capable
mobile platform
1st demo of HEVC
decoder on
Snapdragon (MWC)
Snapdragon S3
(Qualcomm® MSM8660)
1080p AVC
encode / decode
Snapdragon S1
(Qualcomm®
QSD8650)
720p AVC
encode / decode
Snapdragon S1
(Qualcomm® MSM7627)
WVGA AVC encode /
decode
Qualcomm®
MSM6100
QCIF MPEG-4
encode / decode
Snapdragon 810
1st 4k HEVC
encoder HW
Snapdragon 845
4k60 encoder,
480fps slow motion
Snapdragon S1
(Qualcomm® MSM7625)
VGA AVC encode
/ decode
Standardization
timeline
Qualcomm MSM6100, Qualcomm MSM6500, Qualcomm MSM7625, Qualcomm MSM7627, Qualcomm QSD8650 and Qualcomm MSM8660 are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries.
45
Technology leadership
Driving cutting-edge R&D and taking bold bets
to address fundamental challenges and deliver
industry-changing breakthroughs
Ecosystem support
Supporting ecosystem development through
higher membership levels and close collaboration
with 80+ leading universities on future research
Standards leadership
Taking leadership positions in standards and
industry organizations to set guiding directions
and do what’s right to move the industry forward
Leading technology standardization
in a complex global ecosystem
— key for future innovations
Follow us on:
For more information, visit us at:
www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog
Thank you
Nothing in these materials is an offer to sell any of the
components or devices referenced herein.
©2019-2020 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its
affiliated companies. All Rights Reserved.
Qualcomm, Snapdragon and MSM are trademarks or
registered trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated. Other
products and brand names may be trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective owners.
References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean
Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or
other subsidiaries or business units within the Qualcomm
corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated
includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast
majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.,
a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates,
along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s
engineering, research and development functions, and
substantially all of its product and services businesses, including
its semiconductor business, QCT.

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The essential role of technology standards

  • 1. September 2020 San Diego, CA The essential role of technology standards Driving interoperability, ecosystem development, and future innovation
  • 2. 2 The virtuous circle of technology innovation Early R&D and technology inventions essential to leading ecosystem forward Vision Identify a problem or need; establish requirements Trials Collaborate on field trials that track standards development and drive ecosystem towards rapid commercialization Invention Invent new technologies and end-to-end system architecture Standardization Lead ecosystem towards new projects and drive system design through technology standardization process Proof-of-concept Deliver end-to-end prototypes and impactful demonstrations Commercialization Engage with global ecosystems to deploy new features with standards-compliant infrastructure and devices
  • 3. 3 Why leadership in standards is important The value of standards
  • 4. 44 Standards create significant value for the wireless ecosystem Communications industry is based on technology standards Meeting regulatory requirements test and certification procedures are developed to aid in meeting obligations Ensuring system interoperability while enabling product differentiation and spurring transparent industry competition Lowering cost through economies of scale and multi- vendor sourcing Reducing market risk especially in areas of large investments (e.g., 5G infra) Improving technology multiple companies participate, collaborate, compete — best prevails Creating new markets and expanding addressable markets of existing products and technology
  • 5. 55 Driving technology forward with new functionalities and efficiencies, fostering healthy market growth that benefits the broader ecosystem Industry leaders contribute to technology standards Better, quicker- to-market products Communications standards are very complex in nature; thus, leadership in designing technology standards goes hand in hand with leadership in product development Valuable intellectual property (IP) When inventions are contributed to standards, they become available to everyone in the ecosystem; therefore, it is important to have a solid IP framework that adequately incentivizes inventors to contribute their innovation to standards bodies Standards leadership
  • 6. 66 Addresses the global market need of solving vital technology problems Exceptional leadership in the standards process Provides the proper tools (e.g., testing, certification) for mass market productization What are the ingredients of a successful standard? We have the deep technical expertise, broad ecosystem reach, and decades of global experience to drive successful standards Defines great technologies with superior performance and efficiency Allows a wide ecosystem to address attractive business opportunities Garners broad ecosystem adoption and implementation Drives marketing and regulation guiding activities
  • 7. 7 We participate in ~200 globalstandards and industry organizations
  • 8. 88 We’re doing what’s right to move standards forward 1 For example, companies put on the U.S. Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) Entity List Recent events leading to new standardization challenges COVID-19 preventing in-person meetings in the foreseeable future Virtual meetings can be harder to manage and less efficient for consensus driven work Global trade tension1 preventing participation of key standards members Interim Final Rule in June 2020 partially solved some issues but needs to be further enhanced
  • 9. 9 Standards in mobile devices Complex systems that require global interoperability Also broadly applicable across device categories and industries
  • 10. 10 Many standardized components and interfaces in a smartphone Cellular connectivity 3GPP, ATIS, TIA, ETSI, TTA, TTC, ETRI, ARIB, CCSA, TSDSI, GCF, PTCRB, FCC, GSMA, GSA, CCF, RED, Future Forum, 5G Forum, CTIA WLAN & WPAN connectivity IEEE, WFA, WBA, WAPI Alliance, Bluetooth SIG, NFC forum Security and local content protection ETSI-SCP, GlobalPlatform, Eurosmart, JHAS- SOGIS, TCA, GSMA, JEDEC, EMVCo, TCG Multimedia services MPEG, 3GPP, Khronos Group, INCITS, DASH-IF, DVB, CTA WAVE, ATSC, SMPTE, AIS, IVAS Semiconductor manufacturing Si2, Accellera, UEFI, GSA, FlexTech, LTAB, CSIA Wired connectivity MIPI Alliance, JEDEC, NVMe, PCI-SIG, USB-IF, DMTF, VESA, UHD Alliance, HDMI, RISC-V, xHCI Emergency & location services Galileo, 3GPP, ATIS, CCSA, CEN CENELEC, CSRIC, ETSI, GUTMA, OMA And many others… AI processor MLPerf/ML-Commons, FIDO, SAE, Khronos, MPEG, NIST, ORAN-AI, ISO/IEC SC42
  • 11. 11 ADAS/Automated Driving ISO TC 22, SAE International ORAD Committee, ISO TC 204 WG 14, IEEE 2846 WG, IEEE 2851 WG, Accellera Functional Safety WG, Khronos Group Safety Critical WG, 5G ADA ITS/V2X 5GAA, 3GPP, SAE International V2X SC, ETSI TC ITS, IEEE 1609 WG, CAICV, OmniAir Consortium, CAMP, CCSA, C-SAE, NTCAS, ITS America, ERTICO, C-ITS, ITS Forum, ISO TC 204, NEMA Telematics/Infotainment CCC, WFA Automotive Market Segment TG, AGL, AEC, AESIN, AEIA Vehicle Security SAE International Vehicle Electrical System Security and Vehicle Cybersecurity Systems Engineering Committees, Auto-ISAC And many others… Standardized technology across components and interfaces in automotive
  • 12. 12 The heart of the mobile ecosystem — leading standards development and the ecosystem expansion Cellular standards
  • 13. 13Source: Ericsson Mobility Report, November, 2019 Cellular has revolutionized the way we communicate From voice only to a plethora of new services that our lives depend on today (e.g., smartphone) mobile subscriptions by 2025
  • 14. 1414 * Source: 3GPP Mobile Competence Centre (3GPP Support Team) Summary Report from RAN#86 (RP-192371); Including 3G/4G/5G Release 99/4/5/6/7/8/9/10/11/12/13/14/15/16 3GPP drives global cellular standards 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G >1.4K Tech specifications* 700+ Member companies ~20 Technical groups 14 Major releases 22 Years driving cellular tech evolution 2,000+ Man years in cumulative meeting time* 6–8 Working group meetings per year 100,000’s Technical contributions 3rd Generation Partnership Project Distributed work-flow Scale/complexity requires division of work into smaller, specialized pieces Member-driven organization Relies on R&D and tech inventions from members, e.g., ‘contributions’ Collaborative engineering effort Consensus-based, tech-driven effort across 100s of entities
  • 15. 1515 This large scope requires division of work into smaller, specialized working groups in 3GPP 3GPP defines complete end-to-end system specifications User Equipment (UEs) Devices, e.g., smartphones and all types of IoT devices that connect to services via radio access technology Radio Access Network (RAN) Implements radio access technology, e.g., 5G NR, LTE, managing radio link to connect UEs to networks Core Network (CN) Manages macro-mobility, sessions, quality of service, policies, security, and routes traffic to outside world, e.g., Internet, or local intranet Services Framework for service delivery architecture, multimedia, billing, charging, etc. Test Requirements Defines performance and conformance test procedures to ensure interoperability used for certification (e.g., GCF)
  • 16. 16 3GPP is a collaborative, system-engineering effort Analogous to other large-scale engineering efforts 1. Early R&D and project proposal to management 2. Break project into specialized areas, e.g., jet engine 3. Feasibility study and explore different technical solutions 4. Develop solution(s) based on agreed work plan 3GPP projects are similar to other complex system-engineering effort, e.g., designing an airplane. 3GPP develops technical specifications for different parts of the system (vs. jet engines, wings, …), is constrained by meeting time (vs. OPEX) and is a collaborative, consensus-based effort across 100s of different entities with diverse interests/incentives (vs. collaboration of teams and suppliers in a single company).
  • 17. 17 Concept contribution(s) A typical workflow in 3GPP Early R&D Change requests (corrections) Tech report tracking decisions and agreementsApproval Product developmentInside 3GPP Ongoing, iterative member R&D that tracks 3GPP development Tech specs Technical contributions Vision and concept 1 2 3 4 5 Project proposal Feasibility ‘Study Item’ Development ‘Work Item(s)’ Commercial deployments Individual 3GPP members Outside 3GPP
  • 18. 1818 Some assert 3GPP leadership based on # of contributions Analogous to asserting leadership in sports on the basis of time-of-possession Analogous to assessing the impact of an author by counting the # pages written Analogous to assessing the quality of an artist by counting the # paintings completed
  • 19. 19 Qualcomm has led the evolution and expansion of LTE Delivering fundamental systems-level inventions that are essential to 5G Leading in 5G requires 4G LTE Leadership Carrier aggregation (FDD, TDD, FDD+TDD) Hybrid ARQ CoMP LTE IoT (eMTC, NB-IoT) MulteFireLTE in Unlicensed (LAA/eLAA) HetNets with Small Cells and Interference Management LTE Direct and C-V2X Positioning VoLTE Advanced MIMO technologies, e.g. UL MIMO OFDMA, SC-FDMA Handover procedure Security Fast link adaptation Broadcast (eMBMS, enTV)
  • 20. 20 3G/4G foundation Our wireless inventions are leading the 5G evolution
  • 21. 21 Virtual Central Unit Control and user plane separation control plane user plane E1 Distributed Unit Remote radio head w/ centralized baseband Remote radio head + PHY with centralized baseband Access point with scheduler; allows for interworking with third party CU PDCP High RLC Low RLC High MAC Low MAC High PHY Low PHY RF SDAP RRC Radio Unit option 1 Active antenna systems Core Network option 2 option 6 option 7 option 8 CU: Central unit; DU: Distributed unit; MAC: Medium access control; PDCP: Packet data convergence protocol; PHY: Physical layer; RF: Radio frequency; RLC: Radio link control; RRC: Radio resource control; SDAP: Service data adaptation protocol Designed for unprecedented flexibility and cost-effective network deployments
  • 22. 22 Driving the technology evolution of wireless local area networking Wi-Fi Standards
  • 23. 23 Wi-Fi has revolutionized the way we access the internet Cutting-the-wire for a wide range of devices — PCs, tablets, TVs, smartphones, etc…
  • 24. 2424 Wi-Fi complements cellular connectivity for local broadband access Utilizes unlicensed spectrum (e.g., 2.4/5/6/60 GHz) Focuses on indoor use cases For human and machine communications (i.e., IoT) Supports fixed and mobile devices Retail and hospitality Transportation hubs Venue connectivity Schools and libraries Home broadband Enterprise networking
  • 25. 25 Evolving networks from speed to capacity Core technology evolution and Qualcomm Technologies leadership The first 10 Billion Enabling mobility Speed #s prioritized Increased bandwidth Introduced modulation schemes Introduced MIMO Network efficiency Usable performance at device Value when AP/Clients reach critical mass Scheduled access MU-MIMO / OFDMA Up to 4x4 MIMO 40 MHz 2.4 / 5 GHz OFDM 20 MHz Up to 8x8 MIMO 80 MHz 5 GHz only 256 QAM 2015 11ac | Wi-Fi 5 2018/19 11ax | Wi-Fi 6 8x8 MIMO OFDMA Scheduled Access 2.4 / 5 GHz 1024 QAM DL MU-MIMO 5GHz only Wi-Fi 2007 11n 2003 11g 1999 11a/b 2013 11ac (w1) The next 20 Billion Connecting everythingWi-Fi 1997 802.11
  • 26. 26 IEEE 802.11 Working Groups Wi-Fi Alliance (WFA) Symbiotic relationship since 1999 Develops and maintains backward compatible global MAC and PHY standards Defines spectrum use for Wi-Fi: 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, 6 GHz, 60 GHz, and sub-1 GHz unlicensed bands Releases key MAC and PHY performance upgrades with 4-6 year cadence Develops test plans, manage interoperability test programs, and organizes industry plug fests Develops industry specifications complementary to IEEE standards Drives Wi-Fi technology marketing activities Conducts regulatory advocacy for Wi-Fi technologies Feedback on standards and market requirements Industry standards
  • 27. 27 IEEE 802.11 Working Groups Holds key leadership positions in working/task groups, e.g., 802.11 Vice Chair, 802.11be Chair, etc. Actively drives Wi-Fi technology standardization process Leads in quality contributions to Wi-Fi standards (e.g., 802.11ax) Wi-Fi Alliance (WFA) Consistently selected to be part of industry interoperability testbeds Received “Wi-Fi Alliance 2020 Industry Impact Award” and “Outstanding Leadership and Contribution” awards for sponsor members in multiple years Holds key leadership positions on the Board of Directors (since 2008) and WFA task groups We are committed in pushing standardized Wi-Fi technology forward
  • 28. 281 Based on 802.11a; 2 Including Airgo, Atheros, and Wilocity A rich history of leading key Wi-Fi innovations Advanced R&D | Standardization | Successful commercialization 802.11g Wi-Fi 4: 802.11n Wi-Fi 5: 802.11ac Wi-Fi 6: 802.11ax 802.11ad / ay Continued leadership in IEEE and WFA Drove OFDM into the 802.11g standard Implemented OFDM in 1st commercial CMOS 5GHz product1, then rapidly ported to 2.4 GHz Enabled successful proliferation of 802.11g that greatly expanded the Wi-Fi ecosystem MIMO-OFDM (spatial multiplexing) and transmit beamforming Implemented MIMO-OFDM system architecture for mass market products2 (e.g., PCs, routers) Drove the success of “pre-standard” MIMO products Drove MU-MIMO — the foundational technology — into the 802.11ac standard Proved to the ecosystem on the viability and value of MU-MIMO for Wi-Fi systems Pioneered mmWave beam forming & antenna designs Delivered the highest performing mmWave implementation, proving the viability of mmWave Drove mmWave into the 802.11ad and brought wider bandwidths via channel bonding in 802.11ay Drove key UL OFDMA and UL MU-MIMO designs into the 802.11ax standards Developed synchronized AP scheduling, trigger-based OFDMA and MU-MIMO 802.11ah Wi-Fi Mesh Pioneered multi access point (AP) technology Led contributions to the Wi-Fi EasyMesh industry specification Nominal work on Wi-Fi 7 / 802.11be is just starting Drove key technologies enabling extended range, small battery operation and low-power for Wi-Fi operating in sub-1 GHz Facilitated opening of spectrum for 802.11ah sensors in Europe
  • 29. 2929 UBICOM 4B+ Berkana Wireless, Inc. Airgo Networks, Inc Atheros Communications, Inc Wilocity CSR Our historical Wi-Fi pedigree Wi-Fi chips shipped since 2015 20112007 20082005 2006 2009 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 20192004 2013 First MIMO chip 500M Wi-Fi chipsets shipped 1st Wi-Fi attach to Qualcomm® Snapdragon™ 1st Wi-Fi 5 products 1st 4-stream MU-MIMO Network 1st Wi-Fi Mesh Networks Launched Wi-Fi SON 1st Wi-Fi 6 SoC for Auto 1st 11ad chipset 2010 1st Mobile Wi-Fi solution 1st 2x2 MU-MIMO mobile platform 1st 11ay products 1st 8x8 Wi-Fi 6 network 1st Wi-Fi 6 Mobile solution 11n Wi-Fi 4 Wi-Fi 5 Wi-Fi 6 Launched Mesh Voice 20202003 Product milestones Acquisitions 1st Wi-Fi 6E products Standardization timeline Qualcomm Snapdragon is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries.
  • 30. 30 Connecting wireless personal area networks Bluetooth Standards
  • 31. 31 Smart city AutomotiveAudio and entertainmentPhones, tablet, PC 6.2Bannual device shipment by 2024 Audio streaming Data transfer Location services Device network Bluetooth supports broad use cases across a wide range of industries Source: Bluetooth SIG Market Update 2020 Connected IoT Smart buildings Smart industry Smart home Smart city
  • 32. 32 Product qualification World-class programs that drive product interoperability, and give access to technology and trademark licensing Technology standardization ~15 promoter/associate members actively contributing to Core WG meetings to evolve Bluetooth specifications2 Brand promotion Campaigns to increase the awareness, understanding, and adoption of Bluetooth technology BluetoothSpecial Interest Group (SIG) Founded in 1998 14 Working Groups (WG)1 Driving the technology evolution and commercial success Source: Bluetooth SIG Market Update 2020; 1 Audio/Telephony/Auto, Automation, Core Specification, Direction Finding, Discovery of Things, Easy Pairing, Generic Audio, Hearing Aid, HID, Internet, Medical Devices, Mesh, PUID, Sports and Fitness 2 Based on 6 months attendance records, analysis done in June 2020 80 Active specification projects
  • 33. 33 Leading the way in Bluetooth SIG Working Group/committee leadership and participation Awarded “Outstanding Technical Contributor” in 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015 (x2), 2016, 2017 (x3) Awarded “Working Group and Committee Chair of the Year” in 2010, 2018, 2019 Awarded “Bluetooth Core Specification Team Award” in 2014, 2016 Inducted to “Bluetooth Hall of Fame” in 2017 (x2), 2010, 2011 Current working groups Core Specification (CSWG) — Chair Generic Audio (GAWG) — Chair Bluetooth Test and Interoperability (BTI) — Chair Automotive, Telephony, Audio (ATA) Mesh Current committees Bluetooth Architecture Review Board (BARB) Bluetooth Qualification Review Board (BQRB) Bluetooth (Qualification) Technical Advisory Board (BTAB) Past leadership positions Board member: 2012-2014 (CSR), 2014-2016 (Qualcomm) Chairs or vice chairs: BARB, BQRB, Regulatory, ATA, Automation, Mesh, Internet, HID, HCI, Radio Improvements Contributing member: Regulatory, Automation, Direction Finding, HID, Internet, Medical Devices, PUID, Sports and Fitness, HCI, Radio Improvements Key recognitions for our leadership role
  • 34. 3434 Also actively involved in creation/revisions of various Bluetooth SIG processes (e.g., Bluetooth Specification Development Process, Qualification Process) A rich history of leading key Bluetooth innovations Advanced R&D | Standardization | Successful commercialization Bluetooth 1.2 Adaptive frequency hopping Bluetooth 2.0 Enhanced data rate design (EDR) Joined BT SIG as associate member since 2000 Bluetooth 2.1 Secure pairing/ connection Bluetooth 4.1 Dual mode devices Bluetooth 5.2 Enhanced Attribute Protocol Bluetooth 4.0 Low energy (LE) design Attribute protocol (ATT) Generic attribute profile (GATT) Bluetooth 5.0 Long range PHY Advertising extensions Bluetooth 5.1 Location services (AoA/AoD2) 1 As part of Mesh Networking specifications v1.0 first adopted on July 13, 2017; 2 Angle of Arrival/Departure Mesh networking Mesh design1 Continued leadership in Bluetooth SIG
  • 35. 3535 Silicon Wave / RFMD Atheros Communications, Inc CSR Our legacy of Bluetooth leadership Open Interface Stone Street One Key product milestones First single-chip Bluetooth controller1 First Bluetooth controllers qualified for new releases First Bluetooth mesh product2 1st demonstration of a single Bluetooth IC using standard processes1 1st MSM modem with integrated Bluetooth 1.1 support 1st Bluetooth 3.0 controller and host subsystem stacks Bluetooth 4.0 low-energy controller chip 1st Bluetooth 4.2 dual mode device 1st MSM modem with integrated Bluetooth 4.2 support 1st Bluetooth 5.0 controller Bluetooth 5.1 + mesh device qualified 1st Bluetooth 5.2 with isochronous Channel feature Bluetooth 1.2 controller qualified Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR controller qualified Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR controller qualified 1st Bluetooth 1.1 controller 1st Bluetooth 4.1 dual mode device BT 2 BT 3 BT 4 BT 5BT 1 20112007 20082004 2006 2009 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019201320102002 20202000 2001 2003 2005 Product milestones Acquisitions MSM is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries. CMOS from CSR, BiCMOS from Silicon Wave: https://www.eetimes.com/cambridge-silicon-radio-demonstrates-single-chip-bluetooth-radio- ic/; https://www.eetimes.com/silicon-wave-radio-modem-ic-gets-bluetooth-qualification/# 3. CSRMesh Standardization timeline
  • 36. 36 Powering the creation and consumption of rich digital media experiences Video Coding Standards
  • 37. 37 of internet traffic will be video by 20221 Video technology revolutionized how we create and consume media Enhanced video quality with less bits lead to broad adoption across a wide range of devices and services 1. Cisco Annual Internet Report, 2018–2023
  • 38. 38 SC 29 (MPEG) Motion Picture Experts Group Founded in 1988 as part of ISO/IEC JTC 1 Developing international standards for compression, decompression, processing, and coded representation of moving pictures, audio, and their combination, in order to satisfy a wide variety of applications VCEG Video Coding Experts Group A long and rich history in visual compression coding work focusing on video and still image, with three ITU standards before working jointly with MPEG Developed first spec in1984 as part of ITU-T Collaborative video standard development Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information H.262 Advanced video coding (AVC) H.264 Versatile Video Coding (VVC) H.266* High efficiency video coding (HEVC) H.265 Expert working groups Technology standardization Product interoperability Driving the technology evolution and commercial success *not the official name yet
  • 39. 391. On a 1080p video at 30 frames per second; EVC = Essential Video Coding, VVC = Versatile Video Coding, Technical innovation drives video evolution A regular cadence of technical advancement in video codecs has led to massive reduction in file size The first evolution Introduced flexibility Focused initially on optical disc media Increased efficiency Introduced internet video Emerging video applications and technology Robust network efficiency Enabling user experiences as demand surges Continued technical advancement 2013 HEVC 2020 EVC and VVC Video Compression 2003 AVC 1995 MPEG-2 Evolution transformed Enriched experiences and proliferation Video Compression Reduction in file size with VVC versus no compression1 ~1000x DVD, digital TV Blu-ray, HDTV, internet ~50% compression ↑ Streaming, 4k, HDR, 360˚ ~50% compression ↑ 8k, immersive video ~30% ~40% compression ↑
  • 40. 40 Key contributions across video technologies A rich heritage of leading video innovation Standard video codecs Next generation video codecs Coding performance and efficiency Video delivery H.265/HEVC In addition to being a key contributor to HEVC initiation, our innovations provide broad impact across coding features VVC and EVC Continued industry leadership in contributing fundamental innovations in next generation high performance video codec standards Implementation Contributions facilitate coding efficiency and low computational complexity at reduced power consumption for video codec implementors DASH and file format Innovations, such as adaptive streaming and extensible file formats
  • 41. 41 HEVC complexity reduction leadership Our innovations contributed to tools that provide more efficient processing 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Flexible block partitioning Inter-coding Intra-coding Sample adaptive offset filter Coefficient coding Parallel processing Real-time encoding and decoding of UHD signals through coarse and fine granularity parallel processing provisions. Deblocking filter Selection of filtered block boundaries, and hierarchical filtering decisions efficiently avoiding filtering in unwarranted situations. Coefficient coding Coefficient grouping into 4x4 sized subblocks harmonizing transform block processing design and enabling use of a common scan pattern. Key contributor to HEVC’s seed ideas Entropy coding (CABAC) Reduced number of context coded bins, context sharing, grouping bypass bins, and grouping bins with the same context. Inter-coding Higher level of parallelism for merge mode processing of neighboring blocks through the use of configurable merge mode motion estimation region. HEVC coding gain leadership Our innovations contributed to coding tools that provide significant gain Codinggain
  • 42. 42 VVC coding gain leadership Initial or a main contributor to tools that provide 80% of VVC’s rate reduction VVC complexity reduction leadership Our innovations contributed to tools that provide more efficient processing 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Screen content tools Advanced block partitioning Adaptive loop filter Affine motion model Adaptive motion vector resolution Parallel processing Parallel processing within a picture through the use of tile partitioning and/or wavefront parallel processing (WPP), as well as virtual pipeline data units (VPDU) at an even finer granularity. Intra-coding Simplified calculation of position-dependent intra prediction sample combining (PDPC) weights through the use of position dependent integer shift operations. Transforms Low Frequency Non-Separable Transform (LFNST) use through zeroing out the transform coefficients outside LFNST support region. Entropy coding (CABAC) Efficient multi-hypothesis weighted probability estimation through the use of estimator functions incorporating integer shift operations rather than division operations. Viewport-dependent 360° video coding Efficient tiled streaming of 360˚ video content through the use of subpictures (independent coded regions) and scalability features, enabling simple extraction and merging. Key contributor to VVC Codinggain
  • 43. 4343 A prominent contributor to 3GPP DASH and MPEG DASH Enabled streaming at scale Our key contributions Reach Flexibility to create a variety of encoded media and use a common protocol to serve any device, under virtually any network condition Quality Decreased start-up time, faster seeking, and quicker buffer fills to reduce video freeze while maintaining the highest video quality Scalability Adaptive bit-rate to serve many clients in a scalable and cost-efficient manner without network architecture changes – smart and power clients Continued leadership in MPEG and 3GPP Created Internet video delivery service in 2007 Best technology for quality, latency, stall rates, but not scalable due to cloud compute Re-design based on deployment experience In 2010, the 3GPP solution backed by 20+ companies was accepted as baseline for MPEG DASH 3GPP and MPEG collaborated to create the first and only global streaming standard—DASH We were the main contributor and spec editor First published in 2012, 4th edition in 2019 Standard globally adopted and deployed In 2017, CMAF project launched to support convergence towards DASH content formats for remaining two streaming solutions, DASH and HLS In 2019, the second edition published with co-editing by Apple, Netflix, and us We are driving the interop through CTA WAVE and DASH-IF In 2009, we were the main contributor to the first Adaptive HTTP Streaming standard Specification designed for streaming at scale and varying mobile network conditions In 2013, we were the initiator and founder of DASH-IF to catalyze the adoption of MPEG-DASH 80 charter members with a focus on interop, test, reference and promotion – we have lead interop group since 2012
  • 44. 4444 20112007 20082005 2006 2009 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 20192004 20132010 20212003 Our legacy of video product leadership First 4K AVC encode and decode First 4K HEVC encode and decode First HEVC 10-bit and HDR10 2020 Key product milestones MPEG-2 AVC HEVC EVC/VVC Qualcomm® MSM6550 CIF AVC encode / decode Snapdragon 805 1st 4k HEVC decoder HW Snapdragon 820 1st 4k wireless display Snapdragon 835 HEVC 10-bit and HDR10 Snapdragon 855 2x decoder throughput, 30% encoder compression rate improvement Snapdragon 865 8k playback / capture capable mobile platform Snapdragon 800 1st 4k AVC encode / decode capable mobile platform 1st demo of HEVC decoder on Snapdragon (MWC) Snapdragon S3 (Qualcomm® MSM8660) 1080p AVC encode / decode Snapdragon S1 (Qualcomm® QSD8650) 720p AVC encode / decode Snapdragon S1 (Qualcomm® MSM7627) WVGA AVC encode / decode Qualcomm® MSM6100 QCIF MPEG-4 encode / decode Snapdragon 810 1st 4k HEVC encoder HW Snapdragon 845 4k60 encoder, 480fps slow motion Snapdragon S1 (Qualcomm® MSM7625) VGA AVC encode / decode Standardization timeline Qualcomm MSM6100, Qualcomm MSM6500, Qualcomm MSM7625, Qualcomm MSM7627, Qualcomm QSD8650 and Qualcomm MSM8660 are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries.
  • 45. 45 Technology leadership Driving cutting-edge R&D and taking bold bets to address fundamental challenges and deliver industry-changing breakthroughs Ecosystem support Supporting ecosystem development through higher membership levels and close collaboration with 80+ leading universities on future research Standards leadership Taking leadership positions in standards and industry organizations to set guiding directions and do what’s right to move the industry forward Leading technology standardization in a complex global ecosystem — key for future innovations
  • 46. Follow us on: For more information, visit us at: www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog Thank you Nothing in these materials is an offer to sell any of the components or devices referenced herein. ©2019-2020 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliated companies. All Rights Reserved. Qualcomm, Snapdragon and MSM are trademarks or registered trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated. Other products and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsidiaries or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s engineering, research and development functions, and substantially all of its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QCT.