The 1000x Mobile Data Challenge


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Mobile data traffic is growing explosively and the industry is preparing for an astounding 1000x increase. Qualcomm is leading the charge through its compelling technologies and path breaking innovations in preparing the industry to meet this "1000x challenge." The solution to this formidable challenge is obviously is a combination of more resources such as more spectrum and more small cells, but also new ways of acquiring, deploying, operating and managing these resources. But it is not just about adding spectrum resources and small cells, the whole is much more than sum of its parts if can make all entities work efficiently together, to squeeze even more out of finite spectrum resources.

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  • Challenges bring out the best in us, and we are facing a formidable one: The 1000x challenge. The genesis of this goes back to the phenomenal mobile broadband data growth in the last few years. Globally, the mobile traffic has been approximately doubling each year during last few years. However, the industry is now preparing for a staggering 1000x increase. But Qualcomm is not in the business of predicting when we will reach the 1000x demand, we are working on the solutions to enable the 1000x supply over the next decade.There is no doubt there will be increasing data demandfuelled for example by increased smartphone penetration, proliferation of mobile computing and ‘Internet of Everything’ connections~5B cumulative smartphone sales estimated in 2012-2016 (Gartner, Mar. ‘12)650M+ tablets and notebooks expected to ship in 2016 (average of Gartner, Strategy Analytics and ABI, all Mar. ‘12)120M+ cellular Machine-to-Machine modules expected to ship in 2016 (average of ABI (Mar. ‘12) and IMS (Apr. ‘12))There is also increased data utilization per deviceThe average amount of traffic per smartphone nearly tripled in 2011; 150 MB/Mo, versus 55 MB/Mo in 2010 (Cisco, Feb. ‘ 12)In 2011, the typical smartphone generated 35X more mobile data traffic than the typical basic-feature cell phone (Cisco, Feb. ‘12)Many wireless operators have seen a much stronger demand then the global doubling in mobile data we have seen the last couple of yearsOver the past five years, AT&T’s wireless data traffic has grown 200X (AT&T, Feb. ‘12)China Mobile expects data traffic on its mobile network to surge >150% this year, and the company expects the sharp rise to continue in coming years (WSJ, Jun. ‘12)The FCC projected 35x growth from 2009 to 2014, using an average of industry projections
  • Challenges of this magnitude obviously need marshaling of new resources, but also require a different approach to acquiring, deploying and managing these resources. Conceptually, all the efforts can be summed up in to three main groups:1) More spectrum; across the available spectrum band, but to get much more spectrum, we also need to look into higher spectrum bands.Spectrum is the life blood of wireless networks; more of it is always welcome. But the question is how to get more, which bands, licensed or unlicensed, and how to get it in a timely manner? 2) We need small cells basically everywhere, and new ways to deploy much more small cells indoor where the majority of the traffic is. How dense can the small cells deployments get?, and where indoor, outdoor or both? All the indications are that most of the mobile traffic will be indoors. Small cells are a good match there. Does this mean a small cell in every house, shop or office? What about the interference? How about any new deployments models? 3) On top of spectrum and small cells, we need higher efficiency of across the system, end-to-end;The notion that “whole is much more than sum of its parts” hold true in this case and it is not just about adding spectrum resources and small cells. How can we get higher efficiency from all the networks, devices, applications and services to squeeze more out of finite spectrum resources? The end goal of 1000x challenge is to show that the mobile wireless industry can cost-effectively face the challenge, while continuing to provide the best possible mobile broadband experience to users.
  • The benefit of small cells and the bringing of the network closer to the users, and providing capacity where needed, is understood. So are the challenges and solutions for managing the interference in today’s HetNets. Enhancements such as “Range Expansion” introduced in LTE Advanced and possible in HSPA+ today increases the overall network capacity much more than that can be achieved by mere adding small cells. The interference management techniques already developed for LTE Advanced make adding more small cells possible without affecting each other’s and overall network performance. To reach the 1000x capacity goal, we need whole lot more of small cells. We need them everywhere—indoors and outdoors, at all possible venues—residences, enterprises, all technologies—3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, all types—femtos, picos, relays, remote radio heads, distributed antenna systems etc. All these small cells complement the traditional macro networks, and allow denser use of spectrumExtremely low-cost indoor small cells solutions that can be used at homes, offices, enterprises, shopping malls etc., and even installed by users themselves. They can also be deployed by operators as hotspots, cost-effectively serving highly concentrated indoor/outdoor traffic. Self-backhauled relays are an ideal solution for back-haul challenged areas, as they use part of their capacity for backhaul’No matter what kind of 3G/4G small cells is deployed, integrating Wi-Fi into all of them is a no brainer. Wi-Fi can offload substantial amount of data traffic from 3G/4G, be it indoor deployments, outdoor, or hotspotPossible additional point:We may all have heard that the wireless air link is reaching the theoretical limit and that we are approaching the Shannon capacity limit. Does this mean that we have maxed out on possible capacity gains in the wireless evolution? For starters, if we replicate the Shannon law with many more radio links by adding small cells everywhere, we get huge gains through a much denser use of spectrum. We can also futrthermitigate interference in various ways to get even higher capacity,whuch is key in dense HetNets.
  • Base station cost is a key issue as the number of cell sites increases by several orders of magnitude, so we need very low cost solutions that are easy to deploy, both indoor and outdoor. The picture in the slide shows an indoor small cell that is powered by Qualcomm’s chipset solutionsSize is always an area of focus, as small cells need to be deployed everywhere, many in a viral or ad-hoc manner. An indoor small cell might end up being:A dongle-type deviceA HomePlug-enabled smart plugIntegrated into gateways (Internet routers, cable modems or set-top-boxes)Qualcomm is working to bring cost and size of the small cell down through its work in highly capable ASICs for the complete range of small cell types:As the small cell integrates many of the functions of a cell phone, Qualcomm can utilize take some of its cellular modem technologies and incorporate base-station specific functionality, such as interference management, to offer compelling small cell chip solutions.With a 3G product already in the marketplace, Qualcomm is working on a LTE version of its small cell ASICQualcomm further strengthened our small cell offering with the acquisition of Design Art Networks in 2012As we already discussed; no matter what kind of 3G/4G small cells is deployed, integrating Wi-Fi into all of them is given. Wi-Fi can offload substantial amount of data traffic from 3G/4G.
  • To meet the 1000x challenge we need much more indoor and hotspot small cells, but also make use of higher spectrum bands 3GHz and beyond. Because of the smaller coverage of these higher bands, it is suitable for small cell deployments. And as the small cell deployment becomes denser, there is less difference in performance between a lower and higher band and the higher bands becomes even more attractiveThe higher bands can also be used for macro capacity expansions, but are not suitable for macro based coverage expansions. However, the spectrum around 2GHz bands and below are the foundation for excellent wide area coverage with macro networks and for the densification with many more small cells. The path towards 1000x begins with densification of the existing spectrum available by deploying more small cells.A good example of higher bands is spectrum around 3.5 GHz (ranging from 3.4 to 3.8 GHz depending on the market), which is likely the first ‘higher’ band in discussion for small cell deployments, to the point that some people already call it the ‘small cell band’. Then we need to look into even higher bands to be able to access even more spectrum in the future.Wi-Fi – small cells will also integrate Wi-Fi to make use of unlicensed spectrum resources; 2.4GHz is widely used and 5GHz brings additional capacity and wider channels and 60GHz is another unlicensed band for in-room delivery (802.11 ad).
  • When looking to offer this huge increase in capacity, lining up more resources given. But it is equally importantto ensure that all of them not only operate at their peak performance point, but also work intelligently togethre to offer the best possible overall network performance and user experience. Basically, we need to squeeze more out of finite Spectrum resources.The first and the most straight forward step is to evolve all the airlink technologies—3G/4G/Wi-Fi, which have well-established long-term roadmaps. This means upgrading LTE to LTE Advanced, HSPA+ to HSPA+ Advanced, EV-DO to DO Advanced, CDMA 1X to 1X Advanced, WCDMA to WCDMA+, Wi-Fi to 11ac and beyond etc. These evolutions improve capacity, data rates, and bring new levels of user experience.Turning to Wi-Fi, which has been the most successful offload strategy so for operators. Wide adoption 802.11ac should be a corner stone of any operator’s future plan. 11ac is finally making 1Gbps user rate a reality. It also is making HD quality wireless video streaming in the entire home, (not just next to the router) possible. There are many more enhancements that are in the works to make the interoperability between 3G/4G and Wi-Fi more robust and seamless. Heterogeneous networks with small cells have the major role to play for 1000x. An efficient way to manage the interference among the small cells and between the macro network is a major component in increasing their efficiency. That is exactly what the airlinkevolution is also focused on. These combined with the next generation of advanced receivers will take the hetnets to the next level.Finally, smart devices and more efficient applications/services that devices use make a difference. For example, when all sorts of connectivity options are available for the device—3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Small Cells, Macro network, selecting the best possible access method based on the performance of each of those options, type of application/service being used and intelligently and seamlessly switching between them, takes the user experience and the overall network performance to the level.
  • Mobile networks run on wireless spectrum and the wireless industry is always eying to get more of it at bands that are suitable for their usein a cost-effective way. There are three main approaches to make new spectrum available: 1) Traditional licensing for 3G and 4G through auctions of cleared spectrum; Exclusive use of Spectrum2) A new and innovative regime called ASA – Authorized Shared Access; Shared Exclusive use of Spectrum3) Unlicensed approach for Wi-Fi (and other unlicensed users such as Bluetooth). Shared use of SpectrumEach of these approaches has their specific usage scenarios. The licensed spectrum gives full and exclusive rights to the licensee. The exclusive use allows planned and orderly deployment withpredictable performance. Identifying, allocating and clearing this spectrum could be a longand arduous process. Globally, regulators are successfully doing it to the best of their abilities. In cases when the spectrum can’t be cleared for licensing within a reasonable timeframe, or on a nationwide basis, Qualcomm along with partners is proposing a new approach called ASA Authorized Shared Access. ASA can potentially unlock a large quantity of underutilized spectrum for 3G/4G services, in a timely manner. It grants secondary rights to 3G/4G operators to use underutilized spectrum with incumbent such as government and military, whenever and wherever it’s available. The shared, but exclusive use, ensures quality of service and predictability for long-term investments.Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum globally in 2.4 GHZ and 5 GHz bands. In this spectrum, by definition, no single entity has control over how the networks are planned, deployed and used. Because of this, the interference scene for dense deployments is unpredictable, making it hard to guarantee QoS (Quality of Service). But for many cases, Wi-Fi works perfectly fine, and hence the popularity of Wi-Fi is skyrocketing prompting additional spectrum allocation. There is an effort in e.g. the USA to allocate additional 195 MHz of spectrum in the 5GHz band. Also, 60 GHz band is already earmarked for specific Wi-Fi applications such as wireless displays. The wireless evolution enhancements such as spectrum aggregation and supplemental downlink can further increase the usability of all the three kinds of spectrum mentioned above. Spectrum aggregation can be between different bands of the same technology (e.g. 900 MHz and 2.1 GHz of HSPA+), which is possible today, or across different technologies (e.g. LTE with Wi-Fi) in the future. Supplemental downlink, on the other hand combines unpaired spectrum with the downlink of paired spectrum augmenting down link capacity.
  • Traditional licensing through auction of cleared spectrum is the main solution towards making more spectrum available, but a challenge today is that repurposing and vacating spectrum takes longer and longer time. How can we speed up access and make use of underutilized spectrum faster?Spectrum holders such as government users, may not be using the entire allocated spectrum in every part of their geographic boundaries on a 24x7 basis. For example, spectrum for military radar may have been allocated on countrywide basis, but the radar operations may only be utilizing the spectrum at certain places such as coastline, or at certain times. There are many such instances in defense, satellite communications, public safety and many more. ASA (Authorized Shared Access) can help multiple fronts to access the underutilized spectrum;ASA can accelerate spectrum harmonization and speed up the potential re-farming of underutilized bands; ASA could be a first step towards eventual complete clearing of the spectrum for immediate access to part of the spectrum.ASA can also enable access to underutilized spectrum which may always have incumbent spectrum holders. In some cases, complete clearing of spectrum is not possible and ASA I necessary to enablesaccess at all to the underutilized spectrum.
  • Spectrum is a finite resource and every effort should be made to utilize it to the fullest extent possible. But, spectrum holders such as government users, may not be using the entire allocated spectrum in every part of their geographic boundaries on a 24x7 basis. For example, spectrum for military radar may have been allocated on countrywide basis, but the radar operations may only be utilizing the spectrum at certain places such as coastline, or at certain times. There are many such instances in defense, satellite communications, public safety and many more. ASA propose a new regulatory regime that grants secondary rights to the 3G/4G operators to use this underutilized spectrum whenever and wherever it’s available, subject to the usage needs of the primary incumbent. Since it is critical for the 3G/4G operators not interfere with the incumbent; small cells are the ideal options because of their small transmit power (coverage), and their indoor or low-height outdoor deployments. This is important as it allows small cell deployments geographically closer to incumbents operations. Macro cell deployments are also possible, but need to be farther away.In a simple process, the incumbent spectrum holder, the 3G/4G operator and the regulator sign a definitive, compensation bearing agreement. The agreement will delineate the timing and/or the locations where 3G/4G operators can use the spectrum on an exclusive basis. There will only be one stakeholder using the spectrum at any given time within the defined geographical boundary. The shared exclusive use ensures predictability in terms of availability and performance (because of guaranteed non-interference) for 3G/4G operators. This predictability offers protection for long-termoperator investments. From the incumbents’ perspective, ASA offers an opportunity to monetize their underutilized spectrum assets without hampering their operations in any way, as the agreement ensures that there will absolutely be no undue interference from the 3G/4G operations while using the ASA spectrum. Everybody is a winner with ASA— compensation for incumbents, cost-effective high-quality spectrum for 3G/4G operators, fast and simple solution for regulators to address the ever increasing demand for new spectrum.
  • ASA can potentially unlock hundreds Mega Hertzs of high-quality spectrum for 3G and 4G. Qualcomm along with its partners is already working on identifying globally harmonized spectrum bands for ASA. The initial focus is to target bands for which commercial devices are either already available in the market or will soon be available. For example, the 2.3GHz band is a prime ASA candidate for Europe as this band is earmarked for LTE in China and India, and for which commercial devices will soon be available. The advantage of using harmonized bands with commercial device support is that operators can quickly start using the ASA spectrum, and leverage large economies of scale. Moreover, ASA doesn’t need any standards change, making it simple to deploy, and hence even more attractive.The 3.4 to 3.8 GHz band is emerging as an initial key band for 3G/4G small cells in the effort to move to higher bands. Some parts of 3.4 to 3.8 GHz can be traditionally licensed, the availability is country specific, but some parts need to be ASAlicensed, such as the spectrum around 3.5 GHz. ASA candidate for the spectrum around 3.5GHz includes the USA, Europe, Latin America and Southeast Asia regionsASA targets initially spectrum bands where we already have, or will have, commercial 4G solutions, but the concept can be applied generally to all spectrum bands and other technologies
  • With small cells going everywhere, providing high capacity backhaul is a challenge. Especially in developing countries where the fixed infrastructure is either sparse or not existent. Wireless backhaul comes therefore in very handy. It is relatively easy to install, requires much less time to deploy and very flexible and scalable. Microwave based LoS (Line of Site) wireless backhauls have been used for macro cells for a long time now. But the same concept is extended to small cells, and also expanded to include non-LoS, solutions and spectrum beyond microwave (e.g. sub 6 GHz).Relays take the wireless backhaul concept even further. They use part of their capacity for backhaul and remaining for user traffic. In essence, they are small cell and backhaul solution all woven in one entity. There are different deployment options for relays, for example, they could use one carrier (spectrum) for the backhaul and the other for user traffic, or use the same carrier for both. Even a wired small cell can provide the relay backhaul to another relay small cell node.A special case of relays is the concept of “Velcro-Relays.” These tie together a LTE small cell for backhaul with LTE or another access such as HSPA+/EV-DO small cell for user traffic. These can be very helpful in using LTE spectrum to rapidly increase in the network when there is no substantial penetration of LTE devices the market. For example, in markets like India, where the fixed backhaul infrastructure is limited, initial LTE networks are being deployed, and HSPA/HSPA+/EV-DO penetration is growing at an enormous pace
  • To meet the 1000x challenge, we need to support much more small cells everywhere. Traditionally, operators plan a cellular network initially for coverage with macro sites and then expand for capacity with cell splitting of macro sites and additional small cells. This is typically done by using an outside approach, providing the capacity from an outside location to both outside users as well as indoor users.It may actually be possible to reach a 1000x for an outside approach with more spectrum and additional technologies under development, but the reality is that a network will have a mix of indoor, outdoor, small cell types and deployment models, so the discussion of these extreme cases are more conceptual to show the potential of these deployment models and technologies.Since most of the data usage indoor, it makes sense to move much more small cells indoor, so how can we deploy more indoor small cells cost-effectively and how far can we get from the inside?
  • The challenge of the magnitude of 1000x needs new level of thinking and a new approach—provide much more capacity from indoor small cells, in addition to macros and outdoor hotspots. The huge increase in indoor data usage combined with the relatively small size and cost of small cells is fueling the move towards complementing traditional macro network with indoor deployments of 3G/4G small cells and Wi-Fi.There are multiple deployment models for indoor small cells. An extreme example of this indoor focus is a concept called “Open Neighborhood Small Cells” that Qualcomm is proposing where the indoor small cells are deployed by the user and leverages the available broadband connection.Imagine a neighborhood with sizable penetration of user deployed indoor small cells, providing huge quantum of capacity that can not only support all the indoor usage but also the outdoor usage in the entire neighborhood, including people walking around on the road, people in the park, people passing by in slow-moving vehicles etc. These small cells provide good outdoor coverage all around the neighborhood, supporting seamless handovers between themselves as well as with the macro network. Is that possible? Our simulations, prototyping and testing suggest that this indeed is possible, provided the network is configured properly.
  • Qualcomm is proposing an indoor focus deploymentconcept called “Open Neighborhood Small Cells” where the indoor small cells are deployed by the user to leverage the available broadband connection. As the we can see in the slide, the network is build up virally by the users, which is unplanned from an operator point of view. Even for small cell household penetrations of as little as 2% of households, approximately 50% of the users can offloaded to the small cells, and we can achieve impressive capacity gains for larger small cell penetrations. As the name suggests, all of these small cells have be open, which means any authorized user of the larger 3G/4G network should be able to access them. The small cells have advanced interference and mobility techniques to maximize their coverage and capacity and support seamless handoffs, under the umbrella of Self Organizing Networks (SON) that are part of Qualcomm’s UltraSON suite. There should be sufficient coverage and capacity from the macro network to support any fast moving transient users as well as outdoor users that don’t have good small cell coverage. The model is attractive to network operators since it lowers the deployment cost; small low cost base stations deployed by the users that can use the existing broadband connection at users premises. Even if these small cells are deployed by the user, it does not mean that theoperator hands over the control of the small cells; the small cells are an integral part of the wirelesses network and controlled by the operators which ensures high quality of service.
  • As an example of the potential of a neighborhood small cell model, our initial studies using dedicated spectrum for the small cell network (different than the spectrum used by macro network) have shown that one could get up to 500 times the capacity with mere 9% household penetration and potentially 1000 times with as low as 20% household penetration, with an additional 10 times spectrum than macro only deployment model. The further studies are focused on making the neighborhood small cell network model work more efficiently for shared spectrum (using same spectrum for both macro and small cell networks). The example uses a dense residential area with multi story apartment buildings.Neighborhood small cell is one key enabler towards 1000x but not the only solution; there will typicallybe a mix of different small cells; indoor/outdoor, types, user/operator deployed to reach 1000x, but this example clearly shows the potential of this deployment model.Where to find this 10 times more spectrum? The answer is higher bands. The bands such as 3.4 – 3.8 GHz were previously not mainstream bands for mobile networks, mainly because of their small coverage. But, for small cells they are most suited, as, by design small cells have smaller coverage footprint. In fact, smaller coverage is beneficial in reducing the interference. The 3.4 – 3.8 GHz is by no means the only answer to higher spectrum bands, we will gradually need to look at even higher bands
  • Qualcomm currently has an over-the-air “Open Neighborhood Small Cell” test network in San Diego, and has demonstrated its performance at many major international exhibitions, and plan to show further enhancements in the future. As we can see in the picture, we can drive around our campuses and enjoy seamless service from the indoor small cells, the red/orange depicts the approximate cioverage area
  • See slide for talking points
  • The most straight forward step to squeeze more out of finite Spectrum resources is to evolve the airlink technologies—3G/4G/Wi-Fi, which have well-established long-term roadmaps. This means upgrading LTE to LTE Advanced, HSPA+ to HSPA+ Advanced, EV-DO to DO Advanced, CDMA 1X to 1X Advanced, WCDMA to WCDMA+, Wi-Fi to 11ac and beyond etc. These evolutions improve capacity, data rates, and bring new levels of user experience.As discussed earlier, Heterogeneous networks with small cells have the major role to play in bringing the 1000x increase. An efficient way to manage the interference among the small cells and between the macro network is a major component in increasing their efficiency. That is exactly what the evolution of the airlink technologies are also focused on. These combined with the next generation of advanced receivers will take the hetnets to the next level.
  • We may all have heard that the wireless air link is reaching the theoretical limit and that we are approaching the Shannon capacity limit. Does this mean that we have maxed out on possible capacity gains in the wireless evolution? For starters, if we replicate the Shannon law with many more radio links by adding small cells everywhere, we get huge gains as shown earlier. We can also mitigate interference in various ways to get much higher capacity. But there are also certain classes of traffic where we can demonstrate significant gains and we are working on specific enhancements that address the changing landscape of mobile broadband usage. HSPA+ Advanced has mechanisms that can achieve more than 10x increase in the capacity for bursty applications such as web browsing, machine-to-machine etc. compared to HSPA+(which already introduces substantial improvements in this area, mostly not even deployed yet). eMBMS, a broadcast/multicast LTE technology that can bring enormous amounts of capacity for mass consumption of multimedia in the near future. But it can also provide significant gains for just a few users;eMBMS can provide 3 times more capacity than unicast (normal video streaming) for just two users served on average in the cells, yYou actually benefit if you can find just one user on average per cell that need the same content. And we are working on solutions such that we dynamically can trigger broadcast—on the fly—when multiple user happens to demand the same content.Another example is LTE-Direct that is an innovative technology for direct device-to-device (peer-to-peer) services. There are many more such tailor-made enhancements that vastly increase capacity and performance for specific services, especially in the area of discovery.
  • Turning to Wi-Fi, which has been the most successful offload strategy for operators. Wide adoption 802.11ac should be a corner stone of any operator’s future plan. 11ac is finally 1Gbps user rate a reality. It also is making HD quality wireless video streaming in the entire home, (not just next to the router) possible. Qualcomm is Driving the 802.11ac End-To-End Ecosystem from both the network and the device and provides chipsetssolutions at both ends.Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum globally in 2.4 GHZ and 5 GHz bands and 802.11 ac leverages the relatively interference free 5 GHz. 802.11 ac can leverage wide contiguous spectrum of up to 160MHz which is available at 5GHz, but more unlicensed spectrum dedicated to Wi-Fi is always welcome; there is an effort in e.g. the USA to allocate additional 195 MHz of spectrum in the unlicensed 5GHz band.802.11 ac is an excellent example how we can squeeze more out of spectrum, it provides ~3 times higher capacity per stream compared to 802.11 n, but it also evolves MIMO into multi user MIMO such that we can address multiple, but spatially separated users, to reach even higher capacity gains.
  • There are many more enhancements that are in the works to make the interoperability between 3G/4G and Wi-Fi robust and seamless, but also make Wi-Fi more integrated into the wireless network. We take a systems approach to increasing capacity in mobile networks, the device plays a key role in maximizing capacity. Gradually there will be improved support for more integrated Wi-Fi in the network, and future enhancements even more so, such a possibility to manage the Wi-Fi access via 3G/4G and simultaneous aggregation of Wi-FI with LTE.With macrocells, smallcells of different types and Wi-Fi links available, in many cases simultaneously, there is significant intelligence that could be added in the device to improve whole-system capacity.As the device is ‘network-aware’, it can perform a number of traffic optimization functions and select the best access, or even multiple accesses,based on:3G/4G network quality for small cells and macroWi-Fi quality, not just the strongest access pointbut the access point with best capacity available (backhaul)Operator provided preferences, e.g. to achieve best offload Traffic/App characteristics, e.g. one best effort application could use Wi-Fi and VoIP could use 3G/4G 
  • All the building blocks mentioned here have their own merits. Operators, based on their existing assets, business models, competitive positioning and market dynamics can employ a mix of these to achieve the 1000x increase, there is not just one single path. Some of these enhancements are being deployed today while the others have a robust development and commercial roadmap.Achieving higher efficiency to squeeze more out of our finite spectrum resources is really the low-hanging fruit. To gradually add capacity, more small cells of different types in indoor and outdoor location adds capacity and make denser use of the spectrum. Spectrum can be added gradually as it becomes available, but we need to start to make use of the existing spectrum and add small cells sharing the spectrum with the macro network. To raise to meet the 1000x challenge, we need small cells everywhere; deployed by operators outdoor but also indoor where we have to provide backhaul; be it wireless, wired are new relay types. And much more indoor cells where new the deployment models such as neighborhood small cells make us of the available fixed broadband connections an allows the users to virally deploy the indoor small cells.
  • Mobile data traffic has seen an impressive growth in the last few years, approximately doubling every year. The growth is going to continue and the industry now is preparing for an astounding 1000x increase. Qualcomm believes thatwireless technologies have answers to effectively counter this formidable challenge, some of which are already developed and there is a clear roadmap for others. Our vision to address the 1000x challenge is comprised of three main components:1) More spectrum – traditional licensed and unlicensed approaches, as well as innovative approaches such as ASA to acquire new high-quality, underutilized spectrum in a cost-effective and timely manner; 2) More small cells – extreme densification of small cells, be it through indoor or outdoor, user deployed or by operators, all enabled by the innovative interference management techniques. New indoor deployment models through “open neighborhood small cells” are needed to provide more capacity from the inside—also benefiting the outside. Integrating Wi-Fi into all types of small cells is a no brainier as it immensely helps to offload non QoS traffic from 3G/4G networks. There will be more seamless interoperability between 3G/4G and Wi-Fi; 3) Higher efficiency – bringing in enhancements that not only provide excellent performance of all components of the system but also enable intelligent interplay between each other and provide the best possible overall efficiency and user experience. Continuously evolving the wireless 3G/4G/Wi-Fi networks, and enhancements such as eMBMS and LTEDirect. Obviously, there is no single solution that is ideal for all the players. Operators based on their market conditions, business model, and assets, will have to devise a strategy with the mix of these solutions that suits their need. However, the bottom line is, no matter how extraordinary the 1000x challenge appears, it is clear that that it is possible to successfully address the challenge and achieve the 1000x capacity increase. Qualcomm is at the forefront of developing and bringing solutions to the market and enable the industry to meet and beat the 1000x challenge. Through our technologies and products we are enabling small cells everywhere, bringing in new deployment models, introducing innovations to make more spectrum available, and continuously increasing the efficiency of wireless networks, end-to-end.
  • The 1000x Mobile Data Challenge

    1. 1. 1 The 1000x Mobile Data Challenge More Small Cells, More Spectrum, Higher Efficiency June 2014
    2. 2. 2 Mobile data traffic growth— industry preparing for 1000x 1000xdata traffic growth* Industry preparing for More devices everything connected Richer Content more video Cumulative smartphone forecast between 2014-20181 8~ Billion Movie (High Definition) 5.93 GB Movie (Standard Definition) 2.49 GB Game for Android 1.8 GB Soundtrack 0.14 GB Book 0.00091 GB Interconnected device forecast in 20202 25~ Billion 1Gartner,; Mar’14 2Machina Research/GSMA, Dec. ’12. 3Cisco, Feb. ‘13 *1000x would be e.g. reached if mobile data traffic doubled ten times, but Qualcomm does not make predictions when 1000x will happen, Qualcomm and its subsidiaries work on the solutions to enable 1000x of mobile traffic will be video by 201732/3~ Bestseller example, richer content:
    3. 3. 3 Evolve 3G/4G/Wi-Fi HetNets Interference Mgmt/SON Intelligently Access 3G/4G/Wi-Fi Higher efficiency Rising to meet the 1000x mobile data challenge More spectrum In low and higher bands More small cells Everywhere! More ad-hoc small cells And inside-out deployment
    4. 4. 4 More small cells Hyper-dense deployments 1
    5. 5. 5 Bringing the network closer to the user is key to 1000x Small cells everywhere—hyper densification in licensed spectrum User deployed 3G/4G Typically indoor small cells Operator deployed 3G/4G Indoor/outdoor small cells1 Leveraging unlicensed spectrum opportunistically Wi-Fi and LTE for unlicensed spectrum integrated with 3G/4G small cells 1 Such as relay and Pico/Metro/RRH small cells for hotspots. RRH= Remote Radio Heads, in addition Distributed Antenna Systems are used in HetNets RESIDENTIAL/NEIGHBORHOOD ENTERPRISE METRO/PICO 4G Relays & Wireless Backhaul SMALL BUSINESS
    6. 6. 6 Key technology enablers to small cells everywhere 1 Using e.g. 3GPPs ICIC (Inter Cell Interference Coordination) between small cells primarily in the frequency domain. In addition, FeICIC interference management in the time-domain between small cell and macro with advanced receiver devices provides small cell range expansion and more capacity Qualcomm Technologies’ UltraSON solves multiple challenges: Self Organizing Networks (SON) Interference Management Backhaul—drives Small Cell Solution Highly Compact, Low-cost Small Cells Taking plug and play to the next level So that capacity scales with small cells added Operator Provided: fixed, wireless, relays Enables hyper-dense small cell deployments Best with device and network features such as range expansion FeICIC/IC User Provided enables user installed small cells SON for all small cell deployment scenarios Inter-small cell resource management (ICIC)1 Backhaul prioritization/ management Tight integration with Qualcomm Technologies’ FSM platform UltraSON and FSM are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
    7. 7. 7 Possible With HSPA+ Today and with LTE Advanced (FeICIC/IC) ~3X 4 Small Cells + Range Expansion ~1.6X 4 Small Cells added 1X Macro, Dual-Carrier Median Gain1 For same amount of Spectrum HSPA+ example, similar gain for LTE Advanced 1 Gain in median downlink data rate, 4 small cells of pico type added per macro and 50 % of users dropped in clusters closer to picos (within 40m), Model PA3 full buffer ISD 500m. Enabling range expansion features: reduced power on second macro carrier, Dual-Carrier devices and mitigating uplink and downlink imbalance (3dB Cell-individual offset (CIO) and pico noise-figure pad) 1000x begins with existing spectrum and available techniques —small cell range expansion further increase capacity Small Cell
    8. 8. 8 Capacity scales with small cells deployed - thanks to advanced interference management SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL LTE Advanced with ‘FeICIC/IC’ interference management and with 2x Spectrum added1 +4 Small Cells ~6X +16 Small Cells ~21X +32 Small Cells ~37X ~11X +8 Small Cells 1 Assumptions: Pico type of small cell, 10MHz@2GHz + 10MHz@3.6GHz,D1 scenario macro 500m ISD, uniform user distribution scenario. Gain is median throughput improvement, from baseline with macro only on 10MHz@2GH, part of gain is addition of 10MHz spectrum. Users uniformly distributed—a hotspot scenario could provide higher gains. Macro and outdoor small cells sharing spectrum (co-channel)
    9. 9. 9 Enables ‘unplanned’ deployments, robust mobility and reliable user experience By providing solutions for self-configuration, mobility management, resource and transmit power management, backhaul aware operation Includes 3GPP defined SON Implements algorithms for 3GPP features such as ANR, MLB, MRO1 Self- Configuration ‘Unplanned’ UltraSON enables hyper-dense small cell deployments Supports all deployment scenarios Residential/NSC, Enterprise, Metro/Pico Distributed/hybrid SON Co-channel with macro or dedicated spectrum 1 ANR - Automatic Neighbor Relations, MLB - Mobility Load Balancing, MRO - Mobility Robustness Optimization MobilityReliable coverage Coordination Qualcomm Technologies’ UltraSON Backhaul aware UltraSON is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
    10. 10. 10 ENTERPRISE METRO/PICO RESIDENTIAL/ NEIGHBORHOOD Qualcomm Technologies Inc.’s small cell solutions for all venues Complete 3G/4G chipsets (multimode baseband, RF, power) Wi-Fi hosting Software solutions enabling UltraSONTM, eICIC and HotSpot™ 2.0 Wireless backhaul HomePlug®, PLC,PON, Ethernet backhaul UltraSON, FSM and DAN are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. FSM92xx FSM92xx FSM92xx FSM98xx FSM98xx FSM98xx FSM99xx DAN3xxx DAN3xxx DAN3xxx FSM99xx FSM99xx eICIC=enhanced Inter Cell Interference Coordination PLC=Power-line communications, PON=Passive Optical Networks. Neighborhood Small Business Enterprise Metro Pico SMALL BUSINESS
    11. 11. 11 More ‘unplanned ’ad-hoc small cells Lower cost deployments in licensed spectrum, coordinated and managed by the operator
    12. 12. 12 ENTERPRISE METRO/PICO Small cell hyper densification requires more unplanned, ad-hoc deployments ‘UNPLANNED’ —OPERATOR DEPLOYED Indoor/outdoor, lampposts, walls, malls, anywhere… ‘UNPLANNED’ —USER DEPLOYED Indoor also covering outdoor ‘neighborhood small cells’ Viral, ad-hoc, ’unplanned’, e.g. where backhaul exists—more like Wi-Fi Plug & play, self organizing, coordinated small cells Managed by operator in licensed spectrum Note: Unplanned from an RF perspective, there may still be other planning aspects (like permits etc.) RESIDENTIAL/ NEIGHBORHOOD ‘UNPLANNED’ —PARTNER DEPLOYED Such as utility provider, contractor or enterprise IT department SMALL BUSINESS
    13. 13. 13 We need more indoor deployments—also covering the outside Capacity from the outside —to outside/inside users INSIDE-OUT And new deployment models like neighborhood small cells TRADITIONAL OUTSIDE-IN Capacity from the inside – also serving outside users >70% of mobile data traffic is consumed indoors and steadily increasing Power & Backhaul available
    14. 14. 14 Inside-out, ‘unplanned’ small cell deployment example ADD 10x SPECTRUM Example for LTE FDD, 2x2 MIMO. Assumptions: 70% indoor users, 200 Active users per macrocell, small cells randomly dropped in households in a mix of 2 to 6 story apartments.1Small cells on dedicated spectrum used in this example, but we envision future neighborhood small cells also sharing the spectrum with macro and other small cells. 20% household penetration equals ~ 144 small cells, and 9% penetration equals ~ 65 small cells. 90Mhz for femtos 3.5GHz INSIDE-OUT RESIDENTIAL DEPLOYMENT ‘NEIGHBORHOOD SMALL CELLS’ Median throughput gain versus Macro only baseline Negligible loss in coverage and capacity at high small cell density Example with higher band: 10Mhz for macros @ 2GHz 100MHz dedicated to small cells @ 3.6GHz1 ~ 20 % Household penetration 500x ~ 9% Household penetration 1000X ALSO SERVING OUTSIDE USERS
    15. 15. 15 Neighborhood small cells opens up new opportunities Cost-saving opportunity means that business solutions will emerge  Natural extension for operators offering fixed broadband  Opportunity to partner with fixed broadband provider  Fixed broadband provider can add wireless  New low cost broadband access networks  Leverage lower cost ASA spectrum  Wholesale small cell network  Paid local access  Reciprocal access LOWER COST FOR EXISTING OPERATOR NEW ENTRANTS NEW BUSINESS MODELS Note: Neighborhood small cells is Qualcomm’s name for viral, ad-hoc user deployed indoor small cells also covering the outside ‘inside-out’, typically a residential area.
    16. 16. 16 Excellent Performance Very Good Performance Acceptable Performance Tests show indoor small cells providing coverage outside -55 to -65* -65 to -75 -75 to -85 -85 to -95 -95 to -105 -105 to -115 Signal Strength [dBm] ~7% Household small cell penetration Shows actual measured received pilot strength for a small cell deployment: -115dBm results in ~700kbps for Rel-7 5MHz in thermal noise limited case; Points less than -115dBm are not shown on the plots.
    17. 17. 17 Bringing 1000x closer to reality: hyper-dense small calls If ‘unplanned’ hyper-dense deployments work at NASCAR venue—it should work everywhere 0 40m20 World’s densest LTE outdoor network1 Extreme localized data demand, challenging RF conditions 40x more capacity than alt. solutions Compared to traditional portable macro solution2 Enabled by UltraSONTM Unplanned deployment, robust mobility, reliable user experience 31 small cells equivalent to 1000 cells/km2 in the garage area— 22m average site-to-site distance, and as little as 7m Dedicated spectrum (LTE TDD band 41) 1 World’s densest LTE outdoor small cell network as of 4/2014, based on prior publicly announced deployments. 2Compared to a Portable ‘cell on wheels’ site. Sprint/Nascar/Airspan/Qualcomm small cell demo took place March 2nd 2014 at the Phoenix international raceway UltraSON is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. ~7m
    18. 18. 18 More spectrum A new way to access underutilized spectrum: Authorized Shared Access (ASA)—suited for small cells 2
    19. 19. 19 Current spectrum provides the foundation of 1000x – with more small cells and higher efficiency UMTS/CDMA AWS UMTS/CDMA1900 UMTS/CDMA850 LTE700 LTE AWS LTE2600 (B41) LTE2000 (MSS S-Band) North America UMTS850/1800 UMTS1900/2100 LTE2600 South America UMTS900/2100 LTE800/1800 LTE2600 Europe UMTS900/2100 LTE800/1800/2600 LTE2300 MENA UMTS/CDMA2100 CDMA850 TD-SCDMA1900/2000 TD-SCDMA2300 LTE1900/2300 LTE2600 (B38) China CDMA850 UMTS900/2100 LTE2300 India UMTS850/900 UMTS2100 LTE700/1800/2600 LTE2300 Australia CDMA800/2100 UMTS800/900 UMTS1500/1700/2100 LTE700/800/900 LTE1500/1700/2500 Japan CDMA800/1800 LTE800/e850 LTE900/1800 UMTS2100 LTE2100 South Korea Harmonization and global standards drive economies of scale
    20. 20. 20 Higher spectrum bands suitable for small cells 1 Some parts can be traditionally licensed, some parts need to be ASA licensed, such as ~3.5GHz in the US/EU1. 3GPP has already defined 3G/4G bands 42/43 for 3.4 GHz to 3.8 GHz, 3.5GHz in the US defined as 3550 – 3650 MHz. In addition, Wi-Fi in unlicensed such as 2.4GHz, 5GHz (802.11 ac) and 60GHz (802.11 ad). INDOOR HOTSPOT ~450 MHz 60GHz ~3GHz Very High Bands enable Access In Every Room Wide Area Spectrum 3.4 to 3.8 GHz Emerging as a new small cell band1
    21. 21. 21 We need to make best use of all spectrum types for 1000x Exclusive use Shared exclusive use Shared use Shared Licensed Spectrum Complementary licensing for 3G/4G: Authorized Shared Access (ASA) Unlicensed Spectrum Multiple technologies (Wi-Fi, LTE in unlicensed, BT & others) ASA required when government spectrum cannot be cleared within a reasonable timeframe, or at all locations Industry’s top priority, ensures quality of service (QoS), mobility and control Unpredictable QoS, ideal for local area access, and opportunistic use for mobile broadband Licensed Spectrum Auctions of cleared spectrum for 3G/4G
    22. 22. 22 Allocated spectrum may be underutilized Incumbents (e.g. government) may not use spectrum at all times and locations Defense 27.2% Aeronautical 17.1% Maritime 3.6% Other Public 1.4%Public Safety 0.9% Broadcasting 8.2% Mobile 15.0% Other Commercial 26.7% Defense Aeronautical Maritime Other Public Public Safety Broadcasting Mobile Other Commercial Challenge today Repurposing and vacating spectrum takes longer and longer time. Accelerate harmonization and potential re-farming. Access underutilized spectrum, which may always have incumbent spectrum holders. Shows Spectrum Allocation by Sector within in a typical EU country 108 MHz – 6 GHz ASA opportunity
    23. 23. 23 ASA leverages underutilized spectrum for exclusive use 1No device impact due to ASA, just a regular 3G/4G device supporting global harmonized bands targeted for ASA. Carrier aggregation would be beneficial to aggregate new ASA spectrum with existing spectrum, but is not required. Incumbent user Regular Multi-band Device1 3G/4G Small Cells Exclusive use at locations and times not used by incumbents (e.g. government, defense) Exclusive use—protects incumbents And a regulatory framework, database to ensure binary use of spectrum Incentive-based cooperation Small cells can be closer to incumbent than macros without interfering Used in both macro and small cells Such as 2.3 GHz where implementation is underway in Europe using existing products and existing 3GPP standards Targets harmonized spectrum 3G/4G Macro Base Station
    24. 24. 24 ASA CANDIDATE EXAMPLES Applicable Regions EUROPE (Traditionally licensed in e.g. India) MENA (Traditionally licensed in e.g. Europe) USA, EU, LATAM, SEAP Incumbent Users Telemetry, public safety, cameras Various Naval Radar (US) Satellite (EU, LATAM. SEAP) Suitable Technology LTE TDD LTE FDD/TDD LTE TDD Possible Launch ~2015 ASA targets harmonized spectrum—suitable for small cells Leveraging global, available 4G technologies to ensure economies of scale 2.6 GHz (100+ MHz) 2.3 GHz (100 MHz) ~3.5 GHz (100-200 MHz) Key band for licensed small cells Traditional licensed in most regions ASA licensed in US 3.4-3.8 GHz 1 3GPP has already defined bands 42/43 for 3.4 GHz to 3.8 GHz, 3.5GHz in the US defined as 3550 – 3650 MHz, but up to 200MHz could be targeted for ASA in e.g. SEAP/LATAM. Note that ASA targets IMT spectrum bands, but the concept can be applied generally to all spectrum bands and other technologies 2.3-2.4 GHz LSA (Licensed Shared Access) Endorsed by EU 27 member states Endorsed by CEPT Standardized by ETSI
    25. 25. 25 Higher efficiency3 More efficient data pipe —evolve 3G4G/Wi-FiMore efficient apps & services Smart Pipe Intelligently access 3G/4G/Wi-Fi Wi-Fi 802.11 ac, MU-MIMO LTE in unlicensed spectrum LTE Advanced LTE Broadcast HSPA+ Evolution Device-to-device
    26. 26. 26 2.8x Utilizing finite spectrum resources better Wi-Fi 802.11 ac Squeezing more out of unlicensed spectrum LTE in unlicensed Unified LTE network for licensed and 5GHz unlicensed spectrum 1X/DO Advanced 1X Adv. quadruples voice efficiency to free up data 4x Voice users LTE Advanced Realizing the true potential of 4G WCDMA+ Triples voice efficiency to free up resources for data Freed up for data Voice HSPA+ Evolution Maximizing the investments in 3G HSPA+ Evolution HSPA+ HSPA Evolve 3G/4G/Wi-Fi 5 GHz
    27. 27. 27Source: Qualcomm Research. 2GHz carrier frequency, site-to-site distance is 500meter, cluster eMBMS deployment (19 sites in single frequency network), comparison with unicast is based on the same amount of resource allocation. LTE Broadcast Virtually unlimited number of users can receive same content Gain even for few user—becoming dynamic and even more useful * Avg. users per site in network with same content 1* 1.7x* 2 3x 5 7x * Throughput gain vs. unicast
    28. 28. 28 Extending the benefits of LTE Advanced to unlicensed spectrum Features to protect Wi-Fi neighbors Longer range and increased capacity1 Thanks to LTE Advanced anchor in licensed spectrum with robust mobility Common LTE network with common authentication, security and management. Coexists with Wi-FiUnified LTE Network Better network performance Enhanced user experience Carrier aggregationIdeal for small cells F1 LTE in Licensed spectrum LTE in Unlicensed spectrum 5 GHz 700MHz to 3.8GHz 1 Compared to carrier Wi-Fi
    29. 29. 29 Intelligently utilize best and multiple accesses—3G/4G/Wi-Fi Smart Offload Engine commercialized through Qualcomm’s CnE, Connection Engine, with Qualcomm unique optimizations and standards based features. 1Seamless Wi-Fi access with Passpoint/Hotspot 2.0 for automatic discovery and connectivity. Operator policies .preferences based on 3GGG ANDSF and OMA-DM (3GPP R8). Seamless mobility enabled using GTP in core network (EPC), and refined ANDSF (3GPP R9/10/11) for selective traffic/flow mobility. Further 3G/4G and Wi-Fi interworking targeted 3GPP R12, such as managing Wi-Fi access through 3G/4G Over-the-air congestion Internet connectivity Backhaul congestion Smart Offload Engine + Passpoint1 + More… 3G/4G Quality Wi-Fi Quality Operator preferences Traffic/App Characteristics (e.g. different traffic on different access) 3G/4G 3G/4G/ Wi-Fi3G/4G Wi-Fi Seamless interworking
    30. 30. 30 The low hanging fruit! There are multiple ways to reach 1000x Higher efficiency More spectrum In low and higher bands More small cells Everywhere! More ad-hoc small cells And inside-out deployment Different mixes of spectrum, multiple small cell deployment scenarios to reach 1000x
    31. 31. 31 Qualcomm® technologies are at the forefront to enable 1000x Enabling technologies and chipset solutions Standardization leadership Spectrum Innovation, such as ASA Driving higher efficiency end-to-end Evolving 3G/4G and Wi-Fi New deployments models: Inside-out, more ad-hoc, neighborhood small cells Prototyping and demos 1000x
    32. 32. 32 Will There Be 1000x Demand? It’s Just a Matter of Time…
    33. 33. 33 Pushing wireless boundaries to learn more, go to More details provided at: 1) 1000x: More Spectrum 2) 1000x: More Small Cells 3) 1000x: Higher efficiency
    34. 34. 34 @Qualcomm_tech Questions? - Connect with Us BLOG
    35. 35. 35 For more information on Qualcomm, visit us at: & © 2014 QUALCOMM Incorporated and/or its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved. Qualcomm, UltraSON, and FSM are trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries, used with permission. Other products or brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsidiaries or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s engineering, research and development functions, and substantially all of its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QCT. Thank you Follow us on: