Qualcomm is elevating its role as a market leader by bringing breakthrough concepts to LTE’s evolution. We believe that the next significant performance leap will come from heterogeneous networks, or HetNets, which bring the network closer to the user through low-power nodes such as pico and femto-cells. LTE Advanced uses adaptive interference management techniques to further improve the capacity and coverage of these HetNets. There by, ensuring fairness among users and an enhanced mobile experience, especially for those users at the cell edge. LTE Advanced also introduces multicarrier to leverage ultra wide bandwidths up to 100 MHz, supporting very high data rates.
Qualcomm is Committed to Continued LTE Evolution Screenshot from over the over-the-air HetNet demo, showing picocells range expansion, within one macrocell STANDARDS INDUSTRY-FIRST INDUSTRY-FIRST LEADERSHIP DEMOS LTE/3G CHIPSETS A main contributor to key LTE MWC 2011: Live Heterogeneous Commercial launch 4Q 2010 Advanced features Network Demo Major contributor for ITU IMT- MWC 2012: Live Over-The-Air Advanced submission HetNet Demo with Mobility3
LTE Advanced—The Global 4G Solution Small Cells Provide Next Performance Leap Bring the network closer to user and leverage a Heterogeneous network topology LTE Advanced Makes The Leap Bigger It’s not just about adding small cells—need advanced interference management Higher Capacity & Enhanced User Experience Higher network capacity, better macro offload and higher data rates for all users Qualcomm: LTE Advanced Leadership Over-the-Air prototype network, design and standards leadership 4Heterogeneous Networks/HetNets: macro network with added small cells like picocells
Qualcomm is a Leader in 3G and 4G 2012 2013 2014 2015+ Rel-8 Rel-9 Rel-10 Rel-11 & Beyond LTE Leverages wider LTE LTE and unpaired spectrum (FDD and TDD Commercial) Advanced Rel-7 Rel-8 Rel-9 Rel-10 Rel-11 & Beyond HSPA HSPA+ HSPA+ HSPA+ (Future) (Commercial) Advanced CDMA2000 1X 1X Advanced Rev A Multicarrier H/W Upgrade Phase - I Phase - II EV-DO EV-DO Rev. B DO DO Advanced (Commercial) Advanced (Future) Commercial5 Note: Estimated commercial dates. Created 02/08/2012
The Next Leap In Performance—Small Cells Optimizations Makes the LeapAdding small cells likePicocells, Femtocells, and Even Bigger—Smart HetNetsRemote Radioheads Bring Network Closer to Users—Small CellsMore Spectrum Better TechniquesNew bands, Re-farming Such as higher order MIMO,Aggregate TDD spectrum Smart Networks How do we get more capacity? Radio Link approaching theoretical limit 6
LTE Advanced Brings Different Dimensions of Improvements—Most Gain From HetNets Leverage wider Primarily higher bandwidth data rates Carrier aggregation across (bps) multiple carriers and multiple bands Leverage more radio Higher spectral links, more antennas efficiency Downlink MIMO up to 8x8, enhanced (bps/Hz) Multi User MIMO and uplink MIMO up to 4x4 Leverage heterogeneous Higher spectralnetwork topology (HetNet) efficiency per With advanced interference management coverage area (low power picocells with adaptive resource partitioning (bps/Hz/km2) and advanced receiver based devices)7
2.2X LTE Advanced Hetnets Higher Capacity, Enhanced User Experience, User Fairness MEDIAN DATA RATE It’s not just about adding small cells —LTE Advanced makes the leap bigger18 1By applying advanced interference management to HetNets
Increased Network Capacity and Enhanced User Experience 2.8X with Range Expansion LTE Advanced 1.4X Picocell LTE R8 LTE R8 1X Macro Macro+ Macro+ Picocell Only Picos Picos Data Rate Improvement Picocell Median downlink data rate1 Range Expansion BETTER UTILIZATION OF SMALL CELLS Assumptions: 4 Picos added per macro and 33% of users dropped in clusters closer to picos (hotspots) : 10 MHz FDD, 2x2 MIMO, 25 users and 500m ISD. Advanced9 interference management: enhanced time-domain adaptive resource partitioning, advanced receiver devices with enhanced RRM and RLM1Similar gain for the uplink
Range Expansion Allows More Users to Benefit From Small Cells SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER MACRO OFFLOAD Percentage of pico users1 RANGE EXPANSION LTE R8 Range Expansion 82% 57% 37% Small Cell 26% 12% 6% Enabled By: 1) Adaptive Resource Partitioning1 2 4 10 2) Advanced Receiver Devices with Interference Cancellation Number of Picos per Macro cell Assumptions: TR 36.814, Macro ISD=500m, 100 antenna downtilt 25 UEs per Macro cell, uniform random layout, 10 MHz FDD, 2x2 MIMO. 1And enhanced RRM and RLM to allow handover to weak cells, to maintain reliable link with weak cells, and to provide accurate feedback with resource partitioning. Standards name eICIC:10 Enhanced inter-cell interference coordination 1For uniform, random user distribution
Ensures Ubiquitous Broadband Experience EVEN WHEN SMALL CELLS CANNOT BE PLACED AT OPTIMAL LOCATION 78% with Range Expansion with Range Expansion 1.7X LTE Advanced LTE Advanced 1.05X 38% LTE R8 LTE R8 1X LTE R8 Picocell LTE R8 22% Picocell Macro Macro+ Macro+ Macro Macro+ Macro+ Only Picos Picos Only Picos Picos IMPROVES ‘WORST’ SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER Picocell CELL EDGE USER1 % OF USERS WITH >1 Mbps Assumptions: 4 Picos per Macro randomly dropped within macro coverage, see 3GPP R1-101509. Based methodology in TR 36.814: 10 MHz FDD, 2x2 MIMO, 2511 users and 500m ISD . Worst user is defined as 5 percentile user, typically the Cell edge user 1Typically cell edge users, similar gain experienced for the uplink
Adaptive Interference Management Adapts to Network Changes And Actual Network Load Adapts to typically uneven load that changes with time and location Heavy Load Medium Load Light LoadAdapts to added nodes, like Picocells Provides network load balancing Benefits all Hetnets—but necessary for dense HetNets12 1Advanced adaptive interference management : enhanced time-domain adaptive resource partitioning with enhanced RRM/RLM and advanced receiver devices
THE SECRET SAUCE: ENABLES RANGE EXPANSION THAT ALLOWS MORE USERS TO BENEFIT FROM SMALL CELLS ADAPTIVE ADVANCED FULL RESOURCE RECEIVER BACKWARD PARTITIONING DEVICES COMPATIBILITY113 1With almost blank subframes
ADVANCED RECEIVER DEVICES WITH INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION (CANCELLING OVERHEAD CHANNELS1) TO DISCOVER TO ENABLE HIGHER TO ENABLE FULL SMALL CELLS DATA RATES RANGE EXPANSION15 1Device interference cancellation cancels overhead channels such as common reference signal(CRS)
Qualcomm’s LTE Advanced Testbed Over-The-Air HetNet Live since March 2011 Multiple macrocells and picocells in a co-channel deployment Demonstrating e.g. pico discovery and range expansion with mobility Evaluating the design and features EVALUATING THE DESIGN AND FEATURES TO REALIZE to realize the full benefits of heterogeneous networks17 FULL BENEFITS OF HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS
LTE Carrier #3 LEVERAGE WIDER LTE Carrier #1 Aggregated PRIMARILY HIGHER LTE Up to BANDWIDTH Carrier #4 LTE Data Pipe 100 MHz DATA RATES Carrier aggregation across Carrier #2 (bps) multiple carriers and multiple bands LTE Carrier #5 CARRIER AGGREGATION ENHANCES USER HIGHER PEAK AND LEVERAGES ALL EXPERIENCE USER DATA RATES SPECTRUM ASSETS (OVER 1 GBPS POSSIBLE)18
Carrier Aggregation Leverages All Spectrum Assets Aggregation within band Supplemental Downlink E.g. 2.6 GHz E.g. 700MHz Aggregate spectrum within a band to create a fatter data pipe Aggregate across spectrum bands 10 MHz 10 MHz Aggregate more downlink capacity— supplemental downlink (unpaired Carrier #4 LTE Carrier #3 spectrum) Carrier #5 Carrier #2 LTE Carrier #1 LTE LTE LTE Enhances heterogeneous networks (multiple carriers) Aggregated Data Pipe Pico Macro Pico Carrier 2 Example: Carrier 1 used for wide area macro coverage, but also by picocells,19 Carrier 1 carrier 2 used by all nodes, but with lower power around macrocell
Qualcomm: Continued Standards Leadership A leading contributor for LTE performance definition in 20091 Leader in several key LTE standards areas2 A Main contributor to key LTE Advanced features Carrier aggregation, self-organizing network, relay, waveform Major contributor for ITU IMT-Advanced submission First company to show results satisfying IMT-Advanced requirements3 LTE Rel-10 HetNet work item completed June 2011 Enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC) work item completed in Rel-10 Additional eICIC enhancement considered for Rel-11 Notes 1Based on pre-meeting contribution count for 3GPP RAN WG4 (in charge of performance requirements) . 2E.g. for femtocells and positioning across all working groups and areas. Examples of features such as Mobility, access control, local IP access, system definition, security . 3for single point transmission results, also showed that that20 Network-MIMO/CoMP techniques were not required to satisfy those requirements.
Common LTE FDD & TDD Chipset Platform MODEMS & DATA CARDS SMARTPHONES & TABLETS • 50+ designs by 25+ OEMs • Dual-Core CPU (28nm) MDM 9200 • Commercial 4Q 2010 MSM 8960 • Superior graphics & multimedia LTE • 100 Mbps DL/50 Mbps UL LTE • Integrated connectivity (WLAN, GPS, MDM 9600 DC-HSPA+ DC-HSPA+/DOrB Bluetooth, FM) LTE EDGE EDGE DC-HSPA+/DOrB • MSM8960 launches in 2012 EDGE • Handset & tablet launches in 2011 based on MDM9x00+MSM Industry’s First LTE/3G Multimode Chipsets21
Qualcomm: LTE Advanced Leadership IT’S NOT JUST ABOUT ADDING SMALL CELLS —LTE ADVANCED REALIZES FULL BENEFITS OF HETNETS Significantly higher capacity (Range expansion) Enhanced user experience Better macro offload Ensures user fairness A Leading Contributor Spearheading State-of-the-Art to LTE Advanced Technology LTE Advanced Standards Design Efforts OTA Network22 Heterogeneous Networks /HetNets: macro network with added small cells like picocells
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Carrier Aggregation Enhances User Experience LTE Up to 20 MHz Carrier #3 Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #1 LTE Aggregated Up to Up to 20 MHz Carrier #4 LTE Data Pipe 100 MHz Up to 20 MHz Carrier #2 Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #5 LTE Multicarrier Device eNodeB Increased data rates and lower latencies for all users in the cell Can more than double bursty application capacity Data rates scale with bandwidth—over 1 Gbps peak data rate Aggregating 40 MHz to 100 MHz provide peak data rates of 300 Mbps to 750 Mbps1 (2x2 MIMO) and over 1 Gbps (4x4 MIMO) 1LTE R8 supports 4x4 MIMO, which enables 300 Mbps in 20 Mhz. Theoretically, LTE Advanced can support over 1Gbps peak data rates by aggregating at least 4 2025 MHz carriers (up to100 MHz of spectrum) using 4x4 MIMO.
Adaptive Time-Domain Resource Partitioning Adapts to topology, load Ensure fairness and user distribution Flexible and adaptive Mitigates interference partitioning options Time Domain Partitioning Example Adaptive Partitioning Example a.k.a enhanced inter-cell interference coordination 25% Semi static to macro and pico, 50% adaptive Subframes reserved Blank Adaptive subframes, for macro subframes served by pico or macro Macro Macro DL DL Pico Pico DL DL Time-Domain Resources Time-Domain Resources Subframes reserved for pico LTE R8 provides limited interference management; primitive X2-based—adaptive resource partitioning utilizes modified X2. Frequency partitioning is the only option for asynchronous networks (Networks without GPS timing) 1Static and semi static allocation signaled to device. Enables flexible partitioning options, e.g. pico could also use26 reserved macro subframes (without benefits of range expansion)
Advanced Receiver Devices with Interference Cancellation Enable Full Range Expansion Support Legacy Devices1 Continue to transmit overhead channels Legacy device cannot in ‘almost blank’ frames utilize expanded range (LTE R8/9) New device can Subframes reserved for macro utilize full range (LTE R10)Macro DL Pico DL Time-Domain Resources Example with no pico reserved subframes Small cell Range expansion for new devices Subframes not used by macro reduces interference Advanced Receiver Devices2: 1) Discover small cell in ‘expanded range’ 2) Enable higher data rates 3) Effectively expand small cell range 1Adding overhead channels such as synch, broadcast and common reference signal to ‘blank subframes’ to support legacy devices 2Device interference27 cancellation cancels overhead channels such as such as synch, broadcast and common reference signal(CRS) to enable full range expansion.
Relays Extend Coverage and Improve Capacity without Backhaul Expenses 1.8X Advanced Relays use part of macro capacity as Interference backhaul Management (Range Expansion) 1X Relay Node RANGE EXPANSION Macro+ Macro+ Relays Relays Picocell MEDIAN USER Downlink Data Rates28 Assumptions: Results from 3GPP R1-094230; Based on methodology in R1-084026 10 MHz FDD, 2x2 MIMO UE, 10 Layer 3 Relays per Macro cell, uniform random layout. Advanced interference management includes intelligent node association and adaptive resource allocation