1000x: More Spectrum—Especially for Small Cells


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In our quest for solutions to the 1000x mobile data challenge, the next stop is to explore options for more spectrum, the lifeblood of mobile networks. No wonder network operators are always hungry for more and regulators are hard at work to identify, clear, and allocate new spectrum. This presentation discusses new bands for small cells and innovative methods needed to unlock more spectrum. It covers the three paths to more spectrum, 1) licensed and exclusive use of cleared spectrum, 2) unlicensed use, dedicated to Wi-Fi et. al., and 3) authorized shared access (ASA), which is needed when spectrum cannot be cleared 24/7 or nationwide, still for licensed exclusive, but used at certain locations and times. To make use of all spectrum assets, we also need spectrum aggregation and solutions such as supplemental downlink.

For more information, see also www.qualcomm.com/1000x
Download the presentation here: http://www.qualcomm.com/media/documents/1000x-more-spectrum-especially-small-cells

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  • Bariloche, Argentina
  • Challenges bring out the best in us, and we are facing a formidable one: The 1000x challenge. The genesis of this goes back to the phenomenal mobile broadband data growth in the last few years. Globally, the mobile traffic has been approximately doubling each year during last few years. However, the industry is now preparing for a staggering 1000x increase. But Qualcomm is not in the business of predicting when we will reach the 1000x demand, we are working on the solutions to enable the 1000x supply over the next decade.There is no doubt there will be increasing data demandfuelled for example by increased smartphone penetration, proliferation of mobile computing and ‘Internet of Everything’ connections~5B cumulative smartphone sales estimated in 2012-2016 (Gartner, Mar. ‘12)650M+ tablets and notebooks expected to ship in 2016 (average of Gartner, Strategy Analytics and ABI, all Mar. ‘12)120M+ cellular Machine-to-Machine modules expected to ship in 2016 (average of ABI (Mar. ‘12) and IMS (Apr. ‘12))There is also increased data utilization per deviceThe average amount of traffic per smartphone nearly tripled in 2011; 150 MB/Mo, versus 55 MB/Mo in 2010 (Cisco, Feb. ‘ 12)In 2011, the typical smartphone generated 35X more mobile data traffic than the typical basic-feature cell phone (Cisco, Feb. ‘12)Many wireless operators have seen a much stronger demand then the global doubling in mobile data we have seen the last couple of yearsOver the past five years, AT&T’s wireless data traffic has grown 200X (AT&T, Feb. ‘12)China Mobile expects data traffic on its mobile network to surge >150% this year, and the company expects the sharp rise to continue in coming years (WSJ, Jun. ‘12)The FCC projected 35x growth from 2009 to 2014, using an average of industry projections
  • Challenges of this magnitude obviously need marshaling of new resources, but also require a different approach to acquiring, deploying and managing these resources. Conceptually, all the efforts can be summed up in to three main groups:1) More spectrum; across the available spectrum band, but to get much more spectrum, we also need to look into higher spectrum bands.Spectrum is the life blood of wireless networks; more of it is always welcome. But the question is how to get more, which bands, licensed or unlicensed, and how to get it in a timely manner? 2) We need small cells basically everywhere, and new ways to deploy much more small cells indoor where the majority of the traffic is. How dense can the small cells deployments get?, and where indoor, outdoor or both? All the indications are that most of the mobile traffic will be indoors. Small cells are a good match there. Does this mean a small cell in every house, shop or office? What about the interference? How about any new deployments models? 3) On top of spectrum and small cells, we need higher efficiency of across the system, end-to-end;The notion that “whole is much more than sum of its parts” hold true in this case and it is not just about adding spectrum resources and small cells. How can we get higher efficiency from all the networks, devices, applications and services to squeeze more out of finite spectrum resources? The end goal of 1000x challenge is to show that the mobile wireless industry can cost-effectively face the challenge, while continuing to provide the best possible mobile broadband experience to users.
  • Base station cost is a key issue as the number of cell sites increases by several orders of magnitude, so we need very low cost solutions that are easy to deploy, both indoor and outdoor. The picture in the slide shows an indoor small cell that is powered by Qualcomm’s chipset solutionsSize is always an area of focus, as small cells need to be deployed everywhere, many in a viral or ad-hoc manner. An indoor small cell might end up being:A dongle-type deviceA HomePlug-enabled smart plugIntegrated into gateways (Internet routers, cable modems or set-top-boxes)Qualcomm is working to bring cost and size of the small cell down through its work in highly capable ASICs for the complete range of small cell types:As the small cell integrates many of the functions of a cell phone, Qualcomm can utilize take some of its cellular modem technologies and incorporate base-station specific functionality, such as interference management, to offer compelling small cell chip solutions.With a 3G product already in the marketplace, Qualcomm is working on a LTE version of its small cell ASICQualcomm further strengthened our small cell offering with the acquisition of Design Art Networks in 2012As we already discussed; no matter what kind of 3G/4G small cells is deployed, integrating Wi-Fi into all of them is given. Wi-Fi can offload substantial amount of data traffic from 3G/4G.
  • To meet the 1000x challenge we need much more indoor and hotspot small cells, but also make use of higher spectrum bands 3GHz and beyond. Because of the smaller coverage of these higher bands, it is suitable for small cell deployments. And as the small cell deployment becomes denser, there is less difference in performance between a lower and higher band and the higher bands becomes even more attractiveThe higher bands can also be used for macro capacity expansions, but are not suitable for macro based coverage expansions. However, the spectrum around 2GHz bands and below are the foundation for excellent wide area coverage with macro networks and for the densification with many more small cells. The path towards 1000x begins with densification of the existing spectrum available by deploying more small cells.A good example of higher bands is spectrum around 3.5 GHz (ranging from 3.4 to 3.8 GHz depending on the market), which is likely the first ‘higher’ band in discussion for small cell deployments, to the point that some people already call it the ‘small cell band’. Then we need to look into even higher bands to be able to access even more spectrum in the future.Wi-Fi – small cells will also integrate Wi-Fi to make use of unlicensed spectrum resources; 2.4GHz is widely used and 5GHz brings additional capacity and wider channels and 60GHz is another unlicensed band for in-room delivery (802.11 ad).
  • Today’s available spectrum for 3G and 4G is the foundation of 1000x, and the obvious first step is to make more efficient use of the spectrum by evolving 3G/4G and add more small cells.This means evolving HSPA/+ to HSPA+ Advanced, LTE to LTE Advanced, EV-DO to DO Advanced, 1X to 1x Advanced, WCDMA to WCDMA+. These upgrades improve capacity, data rates and user experience. The evolution also makes all the parts work better together, one important example is HetNets interference management.Adding small cells sharing the spectrum with the macro networks is the key avenue to increase the utilization of the existing spectrum. Thanks to the advanced interference management and SON (Self Optimizing Network) techniques, the overall network capacity scales with the level of densification of small cell deployments.
  • Mobile networks run on wireless spectrum and the wireless industry is always eying to get more of it at bands that are suitable for their usein a cost-effective way. There are three main approaches to make new spectrum available: 1) Traditional licensing for 3G and 4G through auctions of cleared spectrum; Exclusive use of Spectrum2) A new and innovative regime called ASA – Authorized Shared Access; Shared Exclusive use of Spectrum3) Unlicensed approach for Wi-Fi (and other unlicensed users such as Bluetooth). Shared use of SpectrumEach of these approaches has their specific usage scenarios. The licensed spectrum gives full and exclusive rights to the licensee. The exclusive use allows planned and orderly deployment withpredictable performance. Identifying, allocating and clearing this spectrum could be a longand arduous process. Globally, regulators are successfully doing it to the best of their abilities. In cases when the spectrum can’t be cleared for licensing within a reasonable timeframe, or on a nationwide basis, Qualcomm along with partners is proposing a new approach called ASA Authorized Shared Access. ASA can potentially unlock a large quantity of underutilized spectrum for 3G/4G services, in a timely manner. It grants secondary rights to 3G/4G operators to use underutilized spectrum with incumbent such as government and military, whenever and wherever it’s available. The shared, but exclusive use, ensures quality of service and predictability for long-term investments.Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum globally in 2.4 GHZ and 5 GHz bands. In this spectrum, by definition, no single entity has control over how the networks are planned, deployed and used. Because of this, the interference scene for dense deployments is unpredictable, making it hard to guarantee QoS (Quality of Service). But for many cases, Wi-Fi works perfectly fine, and hence the popularity of Wi-Fi is skyrocketing prompting additional spectrum allocation. There is an effort in e.g. the USA to allocate additional 195 MHz of spectrum in the 5GHz band. Also, 60 GHz band is already earmarked for specific Wi-Fi applications such as wireless displays. The wireless evolution enhancements such as spectrum aggregation and supplemental downlink can further increase the usability of all the three kinds of spectrum mentioned above. Spectrum aggregation can be between different bands of the same technology (e.g. 900 MHz and 2.1 GHz of HSPA+), which is possible today, or across different technologies (e.g. LTE with Wi-Fi) in the future. Supplemental downlink, on the other hand combines unpaired spectrum with the downlink of paired spectrum augmenting down link capacity.
  • The main approach to license more spectrum is through auctions of cleared spectrum; Auctions can take place before or after the spectrum has been cleared, but it can also be used as a way to clear the spectrum; an example of this approach is the upcoming US voluntary incentive auction in the 600MHz TV band But if spectrum cannot be cleared within a reasonable time frame, at all times, nationwide, or by a certain date? Then we need a new license model called, namely ASA Authorized Shared Access.
  • Traditional licensing through auction of cleared spectrum is the main solution towards making more spectrum available, but a challenge today is that repurposing and vacating spectrum takes longer and longer time. How can we speed up access and make use of underutilized spectrum faster?Spectrum holders such as government users, may not be using the entire allocated spectrum in every part of their geographic boundaries on a 24x7 basis. For example, spectrum for military radar may have been allocated on countrywide basis, but the radar operations may only be utilizing the spectrum at certain places such as coastline, or at certain times. There are many such instances in defense, satellite communications, public safety and many more. ASA (Authorized Shared Access) can help multiple fronts to access the underutilized spectrum;ASA can accelerate spectrum harmonization and speed up the potential re-farming of underutilized bands; ASA could be a first step towards eventual complete clearing of the spectrum for immediate access to part of the spectrum.ASA can also enable access to underutilized spectrum which may always have incumbent spectrum holders. In some cases, complete clearing of spectrum is not possible and ASA I necessary to enablesaccess at all to the underutilized spectrum.
  • Spectrum is a finite resource and every effort should be made to utilize it to the fullest extent possible. But, spectrum holders such as government users, may not be using the entire allocated spectrum in every part of their geographic boundaries on a 24x7 basis. For example, spectrum for military radar may have been allocated on countrywide basis, but the radar operations may only be utilizing the spectrum at certain places such as coastline, or at certain times. There are many such instances in defense, satellite communications, public safety and many more. ASA propose a new regulatory regime that grants secondary rights to the 3G/4G operators to use this underutilized spectrum whenever and wherever it’s available, subject to the usage needs of the primary incumbent. Since it is critical for the 3G/4G operators not interfere with the incumbent; small cells are the ideal options because of their small transmit power (coverage), and their indoor or low-height outdoor deployments. This is important as it allows small cell deployments geographically closer to incumbents operations. Macro cell deployments are also possible, but need to be farther away.In a simple process, the incumbent spectrum holder, the 3G/4G operator and the regulator sign a definitive, compensation bearing agreement. The agreement will delineate the timing and/or the locations where 3G/4G operators can use the spectrum on an exclusive basis. There will only be one stakeholder using the spectrum at any given time within the defined geographical boundary. The shared exclusive use ensures predictability in terms of availability and performance (because of guaranteed non-interference) for 3G/4G operators. This predictability offers protection for long-termoperator investments. From the incumbents’ perspective, ASA offers an opportunity to monetize their underutilized spectrum assets without hampering their operations in any way, as the agreement ensures that there will absolutely be no undue interference from the 3G/4G operations while using the ASA spectrum.
  • From the incumbents’ perspective, ASA offers an opportunity to monetize their underutilized spectrum assets without hampering their operations in any way, as the agreement ensures that there will absolutely be no undue interference from the 3G/4G operations while using the ASA spectrum. For the service provider, ASA offers an opportunity to access lower cost, but still high quality spectrum, on a predictable and long term basis. The lower cost is expected due to granted use only for certain times, locations, frequencies, but still exclusive use with no other user at the same time, and thus no coverage requirements There is an opportunity for new business models , examples; differentiated service offering to drive more affordable mobile broadband. Opportunity for low cost access strategies using small cells for targeted capacity.Everybody is a winner with ASA— compensation for incumbents, cost-effective high-quality spectrum for 3G/4G operators, fast and simple solution for regulators to address the ever increasing demand for new spectrum.
  • ASA can potentially unlock hundreds Mega Hertzs of high-quality spectrum in higher spectrum bands. Qualcomm along with its partners is already working on identifying globally harmonized spectrum bands for ASA. The initial focus is to target bands for which commercial devices are either already available in the market or will soon be available. For example, the 2.3GHz band is a prime ASA candidate for Europe as this band is earmarked for LTE in China and India, and for which commercial devices will soon be available. The advantage of using harmonized bands with commercial device support is that operators can quickly start using the ASA spectrum, and leverage large economies of scale. Moreover, ASA doesn’t need any standards change, making it simple to deploy, and hence even more attractive.The 3.4 to 3.8 GHz band is emerging as an initial key band for 3G/4G small cells in the effort to move to higher bands. Some parts of 3.4 to 3.8 GHz can be traditionally licensed, the availability is country specific, but some parts need to be ASAlicensed, such as the spectrum around 3.5 GHz. ASA candidate for the spectrum around 3.5GHz includes the USA, Europe, Latin America and Southeast Asia regionsASA targets initially spectrum bands where we already have, or will have, commercial 4G solutions, but the concept can be applied generally to all spectrum bands and other technologies
  • ASA takes advantage of existing products and standards and uses a regular multi-mode device that supports the ASA spectrum bands. There is an opportunity to aggregate ASA spectrum with an operators existing spectrum and create a fatter data pipe with enhanced user experience, but spectrum aggregation is not required to use ASA.Since ASA targets global harmonized bands, it can leverage infrastructure developed also for the traditional licensed approach, and complement the installed 3G/4G networks. In most cases, the same physical infrastructure can support both ASA and traditional licensed spectrum.ASA is a simple solution that with defined interfaces: it is the wireless network which controls the spectrum that the device can access through the O&M system, based on information from the ASA controller. The ASA controller is a new entity which can be can be managed by the incumbent, the regulator, the licensee or a third party. It provides the permitted spectrum information, and information to protect the incumbent users– location, frequency and time (using the concept of pre-calculated exclusion zones and online calculated protection zones) ASA defines a regulatory framework such that the governmentcan identify ASA spectrum to be licensed and be subject to a private commercial agreement between incumbent and ASA licensee
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  • The next generation Wi-Fi needs wide contiguous spectrum. 802.11 ac leverages the relatively interference free 5GHz to improve Wi-Fi performance and can use up to 160MHz bandwidth
  • Spectrum aggregation makes use of all spectrum assets, licensed, unlicensed, paired, unpaired and ASA licensedCarrier Aggregation is supported in LTE Advanced and HSPA+ both within and across paired bands, and also ASA spectrum (given that the particular band has been defined in standards)Supplemental Downlink is a special case of carrier aggregation to aggregate unpaired spectrum with paired to boost the downlink capacity. Both LTE Advanced andHSPA+ supports supplemental downlink, but each band combination need to be defined. Aggregate Wi-Fi with 3G/4G will be supported in the future iterations of the standards to best utilize both licensed and unlicensed spectrumNote: In addition to the core carrier aggregation technology, each spectrum band combination needs to be defined in the standards
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  • A main candidate to use as supplemental downlink is the L-Band, which recently have been harmonized in Europe The L-Band is defined as 1452 MHz to 1492 MHz, and 40 MHz of idle unpaired spectrum available is available in Europe and ready to be used, which could happen already in 2014/2015 Another supplemental downlink example is the lower 700 MHz in the US with AT&T, with planned launch of 12 MHz of unpaired spectrum in 2014.Both HSPA+ and LTE Advanced supports supplemental downlink. But the exact band combination needs to be defined in 3GPP standards
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  • No speaker text, slide has all necessary information
  • Mobile data traffic has seen an impressive growth in the last few years, approximately doubling every year. The growth is going to continue and the industry now is preparing for an astounding 1000x increase. Qualcomm believes thatwireless technologies have answers to effectively counter this formidable challenge, some of which are already developed and there is a clear roadmap for others. Our vision to address the 1000x challenge is comprised of three main components:1) More spectrum through a three legged approach;More traditional licensed spectrum—auctions of cleared spectrum for exclusive use Moreunlicensedspectrum dedicated to Wi-Wi and other, for shared use But if spectrum can’t be cleared for licensing within a reasonable timeframe, or on a nationwide basis, a new innovative approach ASA is needed to acquire new high-quality, underutilized spectrum. ASA ‘s enables exclusive licensed for specific locations, times and frequencies, in spectrum shared with the incumbent user that could be government or military.We also need solutions to aggregate spectrum; across different bands, even different types in the future by aggregating licensed (e.g. LTE, HSPA+) with unlicensed (Wi-Fi). Supplemental downlink is soon becoming a reality and aggregates paired spectrum with unpaired spectrum to boost the downlink capacity2)More small cells – extreme densification of small cells, be it through indoor or outdoor, user deployed or by operators, all enabled by innovative interference management techniques. ASA is perfect for small cells since small cells can be placed closer to the incumbent user without interfering, compared with macro cells with higher power and larger towers. ASA also enables access to higher spectrum bands suitable for small cells, such as around 3.5GHz in the EU and US.3) Higher efficiency – bringing in enhancements that not only provide excellent performance of all components of the system but also enable intelligent interplay between each other and provide the best possible overall efficiency and user experience. It is all about squeezing more out of Spectrum.Obviously, there is no single solution that is ideal for all the players. Operators based on their market conditions, business model, and assets, will have to devise a strategy with the mix of these solutions that suits their need. However, the bottom line is, no matter how extraordinary the 1000x challenge appears, it is possible to successfully address the challenge and achieve the 1000x capacity increase. Qualcomm is at the forefront of developing and bringing solutions to the market and enable the industry to meet and beat the 1000x challenge. Through our technologies and products we are enabling small cells everywhere, bringing in new deployment models, introducing innovations to make more spectrum available, and continuously increasing the efficiency of wireless networks, end-to-end.
  • 1000x: More Spectrum—Especially for Small Cells

    1. 1. November 2013 1000x: More spectrum— especially for small cells Including ASA—a new license model to access underutilized, high quality spectrum 1
    2. 2. Mobile data traffic growth— industry preparing for 1000x Industry preparing for 1000x data traffic growth* Richer content More devices more video everything connected Bestseller example: 5.93(High Definition) GB Movie ~ 2.49 GB Movie (Standard Definition) 0.0014 GB Homepage 1.8 GB Game for Android 0.14 GB Soundtrack ~ 7 Billion 25 Billion Interconnected device forecast in 20202 Cumulative smartphone forecast between 2013-20171 0.00091 GB Book *1000x would be e.g. reached if mobile data traffic doubled ten times, but Qualcomm does not make predictions when 1000x will happen, Qualcomm and its subsidiaries work on the solutions to enable 1000x 2
    3. 3. Rising to meet the 1000x mobile data challenge More Small Cells 3
    4. 4. Current spectrum provides the foundation of 1000x – with more small cells and higher efficiency Japan North America Europe UMTS/CDMA AWS UMTS/CDMA1900 UMTS/CDMA850 LTE700 LTE AWS LTE2600 (B41) LTE2000 (MSS S-Band) UMTS900/2100 LTE800/1800 LTE2600 China UMTS/CDMA2100 CDMA850 TD-SCDMA1900/2000 TD-SCDMA2300 LTE1900/2300 LTE2600 (B38) CDMA800/2100 UMTS800/900 UMTS1500/1700/2100 LTE700/800/900 LTE1500/1700/2500 South Korea MENA Harmonization and global standards drive economies of scale UMTS900/2100 LTE800/1800/2600 LTE2300 South America UMTS850/1800 UMTS1900/2100 LTE2600 India CDMA800/1800 LTE800/e850 LTE900/1800 UMTS2100 LTE2100 CDMA850 UMTS900/2100 LTE2300 Australia UMTS850/900 UMTS2100 LTE700/1800/2600 LTE2300 4
    5. 5. Introduce higher spectrum bands suitable for small cells INDOOR 60GHz Very High Bands enable Access In Every Room HOTSPOT 3.4 to 3.8 GHz Emerging as a new small cell band1 ~3GHz Wide Area Spectrum ~450 MHz parts can be traditionally licensed, some parts need to be ASA licensed, such as ~3.5GHz in the US/EU1. 3GPP has already defined 3G/4G bands 42/43 for 3.4 GHz to 3.8 GHz, 3.5GHz in the US defined as 3550 – 3650 MHz. In addition, Wi-Fi in unlicensed such as 2.4GHz, LTE Advanced and 802.11 ac in 5GHz and 60GHz (802.11 ad). 1 Some 5
    6. 6. We need to make best use of all spectrum types for 1000x Licensed Spectrum Auctions of cleared spectrum for 3G/4G Shared Licensed Spectrum Unlicensed Spectrum Complementary licensing for 3G/4G: Authorized Shared Access (ASA) Multiple technologies (Wi-Fi, LTE in unlicensed, BT & others) Exclusive use Shared exclusive use Shared use Industry’s top priority, ensures quality of service (QoS), mobility and control ASA required when government spectrum cannot be cleared within a reasonable timeframe, or at all locations Unpredictable QoS, ideal for local area access, and opportunistic use for mobile broadband 6
    7. 7. More licensed spectrum is the industry’s top priority Auction before clearing Such as original US 700 MHz, AWS-1, and PCS, and Digital Dividend in the EU Clearing through auction Such as upcoming US voluntary incentive auction in TV band 600 MHz Auction after clearing Such as Canadian 700 MHz auction and Digital Dividend 800 MHz in the EU But if spectrum cannot be cleared within a reasonable time frame, at all times, nationwide, or by a certain date? Then we need a new licensing model. . . 7
    8. 8. Authorized shared access A new way to access underutilized spectrum in higher bands 8
    9. 9. Allocated spectrum may be underutilized Incumbents (e.g. government) may not use spectrum at all times and locations Challenge today Repurposing and vacating spectrum takes longer and longer time. ASA opportunity Accelerate harmonization and potential re-farming. Access underutilized spectrum, which may always have incumbent spectrum holders. Other Commercial 26.7% Mobile 15.0% Broadcasting 8.2% Shows Spectrum Allocation by Sector within in a typical EU country 108 MHz – 6 GHz Defense 27.2% Defense Aeronautical Maritime Other Public Public Safety Broadcasting Mobile Other Commercial Aeronautical 17.1% Maritime 3.6% 9
    10. 10. Authorized shared access (ASA) is optimal for small cells Optimal for small cells Exclusive use At given locations, times ensures predictability for long-term investments 3G/4G Macro base station Small cells can be closer to incumbent than macros Incumbent user 3G/4G macro base station 3G/4G small cells Regular multi-band device1 Incentive-based cooperation model Protects incumbents Binary use—either incumbent or rights holder Protection zones Satellite Military radar Public safety …. 1 No device impact due to ASA, just a regular 3G/4G device supporting global harmonized bands targeted for ASA. Carrier aggregation would be beneficial to aggregate new ASA spectrum with existing spectrum, but is not required. 10
    11. 11. ASA enables new business models and fosters competition New Business Models Incumbent Spectrum Holders: Monetization Opportunity Service Provider: ASA Opportunity for lower cost, high quality spectrum1 Differentiated service offering-drives affordable mobile broadband Low cost access strategies-e.g. use small cells for targeted capacity Fosters Competition Enables new entrants, or complementing existing service providers with broadband capacity Enables more end-user choice—based on tariffs quality and services 11
    12. 12. ASA targets harmonized spectrum—suitable for small cells Leveraging global, available 4G technologies to ensure economies of scale ASA CANDIDATE EXAMPLES 2.3 2.6 ~3.5 GHz GHz GHz (100 MHz) (100+ MHz) (100-200 MHz) Applicable Regions EUROPE MENA (Traditionally licensed in e.g. India) (Traditionally licensed in e.g. Europe) Incumbent Users Telemetry, public safety, cameras Various LTE TDD LTE FDD/TDD Emerging as a key band for 3G/4G small cells, some parts can be traditionally licensed, but some parts need to be ASA licensed, such as ~3.5GHz in the US/EU1 Naval Radar (US) Satellite (EU, LATAM. SEAP) Suitable Technology 3.4 to 3.8 GHz LTE TDD Possible Launch USA, EU, LATAM, SEAP ~2015 1 3GPP has already defined bands 42/43 for 3.4 GHz to 3.8 GHz, 3.5GHz in the US defined as 3550 – 3650 MHz, but up to 200MHz could be targeted for ASA in e.g. SEAP/LATAM. Note that ASA targets IMT spectrum bands, but the concept can be applied generally to all spectrum bands and other technologies 12
    13. 13. ASA takes advantage of existing products and standards Regular multiband device1 Cost-effective Use available 3G/4G infrastructure Complements installed 3G/4G Leverages existing 3GPP standards 3G/4G Macro base station Opportunity to aggregate wider spectrum Incumbent user 3G/4G macro base station 3G/4G small cells Regular multi-band device1 Network controls device spectrum access2 Simple Simple technology with defined interfaces Regulatory framework Permitted ASA spectrum ASA controller ASA Repository Incumbent 1 No device impact due to ASA, just a regular 3G/4G device supporting global harmonized bands targeted for ASA. Carrier aggregation would be beneficial to aggregate new ASA spectrum with existing spectrum, but is not required. 2 The O&M system of the ASA rights holder enforces the permitted bands Controlled Enables predictable quality of service Protects incumbent from interference 13
    14. 14. EU and US are considering ASA to unlock spectrum for MBB Endorsed by EU 27 Member States, naming it LSA (Licensed Shared Access)1 Endorsed by CEPT, releasing a report on ASA’s benefits and working on LSA authorizations guidelines Implemented by CEPT, for the harmonization and release of the 2.3GHz2 on a shared basis with various incumbents – telemetry, defense etc. Studied by ETSI, defining LSA requirements and network architecture Spectrum Sharing proposed by FCC for the release of 3.5 GHz3 for small cells on a shared basis with radars 1 ASA has been named LSA (Licensed Shared Access) in the EU by the Radio Spectrum Policy Group 2 3GPP Band 40, 2.3-2.4 GHz 3Target 3.5 GHz in the US is 3550-3650 MHz 14
    15. 15. ASA supports continued mobile broadband growth Unlocks new underutilized spectrum Not possible, or only partially, with traditional licensing new Economic benefits Faster access to spectrum means faster economic benefits €65 billion economic benefits per year in the EU alone1 Enabling access to spectrum in higher bands for more small cells 1 Per year 2020 to 2025. Source: Authorized Shared Access (ASA): An Evolutionary Spectrum Authorization Scheme for Sustainable Economic Growth and Consumer Benefit, Ingenious Consulting Network, Jan. 2011 15
    16. 16. Leverage unlicensed spectrum Wi-Fi and LTE Advanced in unlicensed spectrum 16
    17. 17. More and wider unlicensed spectrum around 5 GHz 5 GHz band — ~500 MHz available with more in the pipeline US1, Korea5, Europe, Japan US, Korea, China, Europe, Japan, India 5.15 GHz 20 MHz UNII-1 5150-5250 MHz * * 5.71 GHz 5.49 GHz 5.33 GHz * US, Korea, India, China2, considered in EU3 20 * MHz * UNII-2 5250-5350 MHz * * * * * * * * UNII-2 5470-5725 MHz * * 5.735 GHz * 5.835 GHz 5.925 GHz 20 MHz UNII-3 5725 – 5825 MHz ISM 5725 – 5850 MHz 120 MHz could be made available in e.g. the US4/EU3 1 75 MHz could be made available in e.g. the US4/EU3 Channel 120, 124 and 128 (5.6-5.65 GHz) currently not permitted in the US. 2 5725MHz-5850MHz has been assigned to ISM services in China 3 Study of 5350MHz-5470MHz and 5725MHz-5925MHz use for license exempt is being planned in EU’. 4 Feasibility studies directed by the Middle Class Relief & Job Creation Act of 2012., in 5350-5470 MHz and 5850-5925 MHz . 4 5470-5650 MHz in Korea* These 5GHz bands typically require DFS, Dynamic Frequency Selection 17
    18. 18. Next generation Wi-Fi needs wide contiguous spectrum 802.11 ac targets unlicensed 5 GHz and uses up to 160 MHz for enhanced performance. 20 MHz 802.11 ac 60 GHz 802.11 ad 40 MHz 802.11 n or ac 80 MHz 802.11 ac 160 MHz 5 GHz 802.11 n or ac Primary 802.11 ac To access and for backward compatibility Secondary To boost performance 802.11ad offers bandwidth of 2 GHz or more to enable high performance in-room media distribution, available at 60 GHz. 18
    19. 19. Extending benefits of LTE Advanced to 5Ghz unlicensed spectrum 5 GHz LTE in Unlicensed spectrum 700 MHz to 2.6 GHz LTE in F1 Licensed spectrum Enhanced user experience Better performance Longer range and increased capacity Carrier aggregation Thanks to common LTE with robust mobility and anchor in licensed Unified LTE Network Coexists with Wi-Fi Common LTE network with common authentication, security and management. Features to protect Wi-Fi neighbors 19
    20. 20. A leader in all solutions to best leverage unlicensed spectrum Committed to end-to-end Wi-Fi, carrier Wi-Fi, bringing LTE Advanced to unlicensed spectrum Common LTE Advanced for licensed and unlicensed spectrum Licensed Spectrum Cleared spectrum for 3G/4G, ASA for 3G/4G Mobile operator managed service that aggregates licensed and unlicensed spectrum1 Exclusive use Mobile broadband 3G/4G for licensed and carrier Wi-Fi for unlicensed spectrum Mobile operator managed service with tighter Wi-Fi integration for better offload and enhanced services Unlicensed Spectrum Wi-Fi hotspots in unlicensed spectrum Multiple technologies (Wi-Fi, LTE in unlicensed) Shared use 1With Wi-Fi for backward compatibility Local area access for private/residential, enterprise users. Local area access 20
    21. 21. Spectrum aggregation And supplemental downlink 21
    22. 22. Spectrum aggregation makes best use of all spectrum assets Unlicensed (e.g. LTE or Wi-Fi) Licensed Unpaired (3G/4G) Licensed Paired (3G/4G) ASA Licensed (3G/4G) Licensed Paired (3G/4G) Carrier Aggregation (LTE Advanced, HSPA+) Within and across paired, unpaired bands, and even across paired/unpaired1 , as well as ASA spectrum Supplemental Downlink (LTE Advanced, HSPA+) Aggregate paired with unpaired to boost downlink Aggregate Unlicensed (LTE Advanced) Aggregate unlicensed and licensed spectrum with a unified LTE network 1LTE Advanced supports FDD or TDD aggregation, but FDD and TDD aggregation is a candidate for future revisions of the standard 22
    23. 23. Mobile traffic typically downlink centric MAJORITY OF TRAFFIC ON DOWNLINK (DL) 1 VIDEO BIGGEST CONTRIBUTOR TO TRAFFIC VOLUMES2 100% DL/UL Traffic Asymmetry % internet traffic volumes DL/UL Median Across Cells 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Other 80% Software download/update File sharing 60% Email Social networking 40% Web browsing Online video 20% Online audio 1 0 Operator 1 (Europe) Operator 2 (US) Operator 3 (US) Operator 4 (Japan) 0% Ericsson, November 2011 Mobile PCs Tablets Smartphones Traffic asymmetry could rise to a 10:1 ratio or more3 1 Based on measurements (median ) in live networks in 2009. 2 Ericsson, November 2011. 3 Plum consulting, 2011, some networks may already exceed 10:1 asymmetry 23
    24. 24. Aggregate unpaired spectrum for more downlink capacity— supplemental downlink Unpaired FDD Paired (Supplemental Downlink) L-Band 1.4GHz Harmonized in Europe1 FDD Paired (Downlink) (Uplink) F1’ F1 F2’ F2 F2 2 L-Band 1452 MHz to 1492 MHz, with 40 MHz of idle unpaired spectrum available2. Other opportunities are country specific. 700 MHz to Launch in the US 700 MHz in the US with AT&T3, planned launch as early as 2014. Downlink Uplink USES HSPA+ MULTICARRIER ACROSS BANDS2, OR LTE ADVANCED CARRIER AGGREGATION2 1 L-Band in Europe: 1452 MHz to 1492 MHz, sometimes referred to as 1.4GHz or 1.5GHz spectrum. 2 Aggregation across bands is supported in HSPA+ R9 (and beyond) and LTE R10 (and beyond), but each specific band combination, e.g. combination of band 1 and L-band, has to be defined in 3GPP. 3 AT&T is planning to deploy supplemental downlink in lower 700 MHz (12 MHz of unpaired spectrum) 24
    25. 25. Globally available L-Band ideal for supplemental downlink L-Band now harmonized in Europe—commercialization next1 Could be made fully or partly available for SDL L Band: 1452-1492 MHz Map source: Plum Consulting, September 2012 1ECC Decision (13)03 on the on the harmonized use of the frequency band 1452-1492 MHz for Mobile/Fixed Communications Networks Supplemental Downlink (MFCN SDL) 25
    26. 26. Summary: multiple efforts required to access more spectrum More licensed spectrum is the industry’s top priority—need to leverage all spectrum for 1000x Licensed Spectrum Auctions of cleared spectrum for 3G/4G Shared Licensed Spectrum Unlicensed Spectrum Complementary licensing Multiple technologies for 3G/4G: Authorized Shared Access (ASA) (Wi-Fi, LTE in unlicensed, BT & others) Exclusive use Spectrum Aggregation Supplemental Downlink Shared use ASA—Shared exclusive use 26
    27. 27. Will there be 1000x demand? It’s just a matter of time… 27
    28. 28. Driving Network Evolution to learn more, go to More details provided at: www.qualcomm.com/1000x 1) 1000x: More Spectrum www.qualcomm.com/spectrum 2) 1000x: More Small Cells www.qualcomm.com/HetNets 3) 1000x: Higher efficiency www.qualcomm.com/efficiency 28
    29. 29. Questions? - Connect with Us www.qualcomm.com/technology http://www.qualcomm.com/blog/contributors/prakash-sangam BLOG @Qualcomm_tech http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8AD95E4F585237C1&feature=plcp http://www.slideshare.net/qualcommwirelessevolution http://storify.com/qualcomm_tech 29
    30. 30. Thank you Follow us on: For more information on Qualcomm, visit us at: www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog © 2013 QUALCOMM Incorporated and/or its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved. Qualcomm is a trademark of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries. Other products and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsi diaries or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Te chnologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s enginee ring, research and development functions, and substantially all of its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QCT. 30