Commas with Clauses and Phrases

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Learn the differences between clauses and phrases.

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Commas with Clauses and Phrases

  1. 1. Conquering the Confusion
  2. 2. More Uses for Commas <ul><li>You have already learned that commas are used to separate groups of nouns, verbs, or adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Commas are also used to separate clauses and phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people do not understand the difference between a clause and a phrase. Do you? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Clauses and Phrases <ul><li>What is the difference between a clause and a phrase? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both are a group of words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A CLAUSE has a subject and verb that work together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A PHRASE does not have a subject and a verb that work together. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Practice – clause vs. phrase <ul><li>Which group of words is a clause? </li></ul><ul><li>Which group of words is a phrase? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>while watching the football game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sam ate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>popcorn and chips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>his wife read a magazine </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Answer – clause vs. phrase <ul><li>while watching the football game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No subject – PHRASE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sam ate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject and verb work together – CLAUSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>popcorn and chips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No verb – PHRASE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>his wife read a magazine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject and verb work together - CLAUSE </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. More Practice 1 <ul><li>Is this a clause or a phrase? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as soon as the game was over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sam and his wife took a walk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the rain </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Answers <ul><li>as soon as the game was over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject and verb work together - CLAUSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sam and his wife took a walk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject and verb work together - CLAUSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>in the rain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No subject or verb - PHRASE </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sentences <ul><li>Sentences are made up of clauses and phrases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some clauses are independent – they can stand alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some clauses are dependent – they cannot stand alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are several types of phrases . </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Independent Clause <ul><li>An independent clause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a subject and verb that work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Examples of Independent Clauses <ul><li>the dog barked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT CLAUSE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Examples of Independent Clauses <ul><li>Mary hummed and sewed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT CLAUSE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Examples of Independent Clauses <ul><li>she listened to her children playing outside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT CLAUSE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Dependent Clause <ul><li>A dependent clause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a subject and verb that work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can NOT stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Markers of Dependent Clauses <ul><li>Many times, a dependent clause is introduced by a marker word. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>www.asia.wub </li></ul><ul><li>After </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>Whether </li></ul><ul><li>Once </li></ul><ul><li>Until </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>While </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Since </li></ul><ul><li>If </li></ul><ul><li>Although </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>Unless </li></ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example of a Dependent Clause <ul><li>while the dog barked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can NOT stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEPENDENT CLAUSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*Dependent clause marker word “while” begins the clause </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Example of a Dependent Clause <ul><li>because Ralph was ill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can NOT stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEPENDENT CLAUSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*Dependent clause marker word ”because” begins the clause </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Example of a Dependent Clause <ul><li>before the farmer planted his crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can NOT stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEPENDENT CLAUSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*Dependent clause marker word “before” begins the clause </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Practice 1 <ul><li>Independent or Dependent Clause? </li></ul><ul><li>Jim bent over the wounded toe </li></ul>
  19. 19. Practice 1 <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim bent over the wounded toe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject and verb work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT clause </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Practice 2 <ul><li>Independent or Dependent Clause? </li></ul><ul><li>while the bandage was being unwound </li></ul>
  21. 21. Practice 2 <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>while the bandage was being unwound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject and verb work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does NOT form a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can NOT stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEPENDENT clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* NOTE: marker word “while” begins clause </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Practice 3 <ul><li>Independent or Dependent Clause? </li></ul><ul><li>Tom whitewashed with vigor </li></ul>
  23. 23. Practice 3 <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom whitewashed with vigor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject and verb work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT clause </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Practice 4 <ul><li>Independent or Dependent Clause? </li></ul><ul><li>as Aunt Polly retired triumphantly </li></ul>
  25. 25. Practice 4 <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>as Aunt Polly retired triumphantly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject and verb work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does NOT form a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can NOT stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEPENDENT clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* NOTE: marker word “as” begins clause </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Summary <ul><li>Commas are used to separate series of phrases or clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Commas are used to set clauses apart from other clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>A phrase is a group of words that does NOT have a subject and verb that work together. </li></ul><ul><li>A clause is a group of work that DOES have a subject and verb that work together. </li></ul><ul><li>A clause may be independent or dependent. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent clauses form a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent clauses cannot stand alone and usually begin with a “marker” word. </li></ul></ul>

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