Turkish response to the landing Turkish weaponry at Gallipoli and the ensuing Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and fighting tactics battles Two personal accounts Impact of WW1 on Turkey from Turkish soldiers Pop Quiz
Fevzi Çakmak was born on 12th January 1876 in Constantinople.He was a Turkish marshal and statesman who played a leading rolealong with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the establishment of theTurkish Republic. A fact file of Fevzi Çakmak’s life: • Educated in numerous military colleges • Commissioned as lieutenant in 1895 • In 1913 was appointed head of V corps • With the same corps he attacked the British in the Gallipoli Campaign • After WW1 he left the Ottoman Empire and headed to Mustafa Kemal’s provisional government in Ankara • Became a General in 1921 • Was Deputy to İsmet İnönü, the then Chief of Staff • Died on 10th April 1944 in Istanbul
İsmet İnönü was born on 24th September 1884 in Smyrna,Ottoman Empire. He was a Turkish army officer, statesman andsuccessor of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as president of the TurkishRepublic. He was identified with one-party (Ottoman Empire) ruleand later became a champion of democracy. İsmet İnönü was alsothe 2nd President of Turkey. A fact file of İsmet İnönü’s life:• Educated at the Army Engineering School and further studied at the Army Staff School• Joined the Committee of Union and Progress in 1907• Was a member of the “Liberation Army”, that suppressed counter- revolutionary rebellion in Istanbul during 1909• Became a Major in 1912 and appointed as the Chief of Staff of the Turkish forces• In January 1917 he was appointed head of the IV corps on the recommendation of Mustafa Kemal• 2nd President of Turkey (11 November 1938 – 22 May 1950)
The Turkish military in general weren’t for the ANZACs. They however came upwith a rash plan to fire at the ANZACs from their elevated position. The amount ofsoldiers on the operation from the Turkish side was a mere 160 compared to theANZACs sizeable force that outnumbered the Turks ten to one. Only 8 of the 160soldiers survived. The operation was named Hell Spit. Layout of the naval battle between the two forces Click to go next slide
Click to go back Turkey eventually won the Gallipoli Campaign in 1916. The Allies were forced to evacuate as the cost (lives and money) of continuing was too much. The last Allied man left on 9th January 1916. The Turks had the advantage from the beginning. There was a six What really happened week delay of the British troops which gave the Turks time to prepare a large scale ground assault waiting for them. They also had time to construct roads, boats for supplies and men across the narrows, trenches and gun emplacements. Turkey’s Battles • Siege of Kut (Turkish Won) • Campaigns in Middle East (British won most)
Turkish Weapons:• The Turks had German machine guns named Maxim- Nordernfield• The main types of pistols used by the Turkish army was the Mauser Parabellum and Browning• Local ammunition was insufficient and as a result ammunition had to be bought from Germany• The Stielhandgranate was the only grenade the Turks had. Every soldier could use this grenade Click to go next slide
The main defence tactic of the Dardanelles (narrow strait in north-western Turkey) consisted of outer, intermediate and inner defences: OUTER DEFENCES INTERMEDIATE DEFENCES INNER DEFENCES• Consists of forts at the entrance of the • Protected minefields • Most powerful of all defences straits Kumkale and Seddulbahir • Equipped with medium guns • Had the task of guarding all mainland• The forts were equipped with heavy and towns from enemy attack medium guns Dardanelles
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was the father of modern day Turkey. This manwas both an Ottoman and Turkish military officer and played a vital role inTurkey’s independence. Mustafa Kemal’s fact file: • Born 19th May 1881 • Ottoman and Turkish military officer • 1st President of the Republic of Turkey (29th Oct 1923 to 10th Nov 1938) • Founded Kemalism • During Gallipoli Campaign he was given job of commanding and organising the 19th Division to the 5th Army • Got promoted to front line commander as he correctly anticipated where Allies were going to attack and managed to make ANZACs retreat • Set up provisional government in Ankara during War of Independence (Turkey) • Died in office (10th November 1938)
WW1 had a huge impact on Turkey. Apart from the former Ottoman Empire being destroyed, other impacts hit Turkey as well including: • Lack of infrastructure and financial means, both before and after WW1 • The agricultural industry went considerably down • Food supply became less • Economic recessionThings have got better in Turkeysince and today Turkey is a countrywhose legacy of the OttomanEmpire is preserved as well as themodern day constructions whichsymbolise change
CREDITS Nellie – Director Qumrul – Producer Adam – Designer Bronwyn – EditorAdrienne – Information Compiler
Well, did you really learn anything from our presentation? Let’s find out, shall we?Click for Turkish Click for Turkish Click for two Click for Click for response to Weaponry and Turkish soldier’s impact of Mustafa WW1 Q’s tactics Q’s personal WW1 on Kemal Q’s accounts Q’s Turkey Q’s
Q1) Was Turkey prepared or unpreparedfor the Gallipoli Campaign?Q2) What was the battle tactic that failednamed?Q3) How many people from the Turkishmilitary went to fight in that tactic?Q4) How many Turks survived?Q5) Did Turkey win the GallipoliCampaign?
Q1) Who were the Turks mostdependent on in terms of weapons inthe war?Q2) How much ammunition didTurkey buy from their source?Q3) What were the Turks three mainweapons?Q4) Did Turkey have many machineguns?Q5) Was there sufficient ammo?
Q1) Who was born in Constantinople?Q2) Did Fevzi Çakmak become deputyto İsmet İnönü or was it the other wayaround?Q3) Was İsmet İnönü the 2nd or 3rdPresident of Turkey?Q4) Who led the V corps?Q5) Who was the one who becameGeneral?
Q1) Mustafa Kemal was both an Ottomanand Turkish military officer. True or false?Q2) Why was Mustafa Kemal promoted to afront line commander during the GallipoliCampaign?Q3) Was Mustafa Kemal the 1st President ofTurkey?Q4) Where did Mustafa Kemal set up hisprovisional government during the TurkishWar of Independence?
Q1) What happened to the agriculturalindustry?Q2) Did Turkey import a lot of food?Q3) Was the cost of producing foodhigh?Q4) Why couldn’t Istanbul get enoughfood from the farms?Q5) Did Mustafa Kemal help stabilisethe situation of post WW1 OttomanEmpire?
O budur. Eğer zevk umut! (That is it. Hope you enjoyed!)