Influences of Strong Tie with Opinion Leaders in an

Interconnected Network of Korea

Choi, Myunggoon
myunggoon.choi@gmail...
Research Questions
RQ1: For the Korean, what is the relationship between a tie
strength with opinion leaders and the degre...
Introduction

Do you think that information inequality exists in the
information society?
Introduction

Do you think that opinion leaders are the most important
people in disseminating information as we know?
Literature Review
Information Inequality and Information Exchange
 There have been two separate but similar research fiel...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Information Inequality and Information Exchange
 Van dijk (2000) said that information divide i...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Information Inequality and Information Exchange
 While the discourse on Information Divide has ...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Information Inequality and Information Exchange
 This study is to examine the phenomenon of inf...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Social Network Perspective and Information Exchange
 Social Network Analysis is the study to re...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Social Network Perspective and Information Exchange
 The pattern of information exchange provid...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Opinion Leaders and Influentials Hypothesis
 This study uses the important concept in the diffu...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Opinion Leaders and Influentials Hypothesis
 The importance of opinion leaders was re-emphasize...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Opinion Leaders and Influentials Hypothesis
 However, previous studies of opinion leaders have ...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Opinion Leaders and Influentials Hypothesis
 Being influential to something in a network depend...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Influence, Tie Strength and Multiplexity
 Opinion leaders which involve relationships with obje...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Influence, Tie Strength and Multiplexity
 The strength of ties is a combination of the amount o...
Literature Review (Cont.)
Influence, Tie Strength and Multiplexity
 Multiplexity is the term that since the relation betw...
Hypothesis
Hypothesis 1:

In an entire network, the stronger ties people have with
opinion leaders, the more they exchange...
Method
 Measuring Opinion leaders and Tie Strength
 In order to examine the influence of an individual in a network, thi...
Method (Cont.)
 Measuring Opinion leaders and Tie Strength
 For measuring the degree of closure, the in-degree centralit...
Method (Cont.)
 Measuring Opinion leaders and Tie Strength
 Haythornthwaite (2005) explained the relationship between th...
Method (Cont.)
 Influences of people who have strong ties
with opinion leaders
 This study divides all of members into t...
Method (Cont.)
 Influences of people who have strong ties
with opinion leaders
 Density, and then, was used for examinin...
Method (Cont.)
 Information Exchange
 This study modified the Cerise’s six information exchange relationships:
Giving wo...
Method (Cont.)
 Questionnaire
 Respondents reported with whom they have contact in a various channels:
face-to-face, cel...
Method (Cont.)
 Questionnaire
 Respondents were asked to with whom they communicate with, modified
by Cerise members’ si...
Method (Cont.)
 Sample
 Total IS graduates Population included 61 members (33 females, 28 males);
4 international studen...
Method (Cont.)
 Sample
 If all of students report had listed 48 correspondents, there would have been
48 x 47 = 2256 pai...
Method (Cont.)
 Data Analysis Plan
 The rate of information exchange was based on the frequency of
information exchange ...
Method (Cont.)
 Data Analysis Plan
 Then, for testing Hypotheses 1, the regression analysis was conducted with
the degre...
Method (Cont.)
 Data Analysis Plan
 Lastly, this study used ANOVA density model for testing Hypothesis 3.
ANOVA density ...
Findings
 Opinion leaders and tie strength
Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for In-degree and Betweenness centralities
N
M...
Findings (Cont.)
 Opinion leaders and tie strength
Figure 3. Indices of In-degree and Betweenness centralities for the de...
Findings (Cont.)
 Opinion leaders and tie strength
 The low in-degree and high betweenness centrality show the character...
Findings (Cont.)
 Opinion leaders and tie strength
Table 2. Media multiplexity with opinion leaders
Opinion Leader, Opini...
Findings (Cont.)
 Influences of opinion leaders in a global level
Table 3. Results of regression analysis for the relatio...
Findings (Cont.)
 Influences of opinion leaders in a global level
Table 3. Results of regression analysis for the relatio...
Findings (Cont.)
 Influences of opinion leaders in a global level
 This study compared the degree of information exchang...
Findings (Cont.)
 Influences of opinion leaders in a global level
 The result showed that the degree of information exch...
Findings (Cont.)
 Influences of opinion leaders in a local level
Table 5. Densities between and within groupsa of in the ...
Findings (Cont.)
 Influences of opinion leaders in a local level
Table 5. Densities between and within groupsa of in the ...
Discussion
 This study examined how opinion leaders influence on individuals at the
global and local level.
 Global Leve...
Discussion (Cont.)
 Local Level: Influences of opinion leaders depending on their role in a
network
-

The opinion leader...
Discussion (Cont.)
 Local Level: Influences of opinion leaders depending on their role in a
network
-

The opinion leader...
Discussion (Cont.)
 Theoretical implication on the studies for opinion leaders:
− This study supports “Influentials Hypot...
Discussion (Cont.)
 Practical implication:
− And it is important for opinion leaders and easily influenced people to
help...
Limitation
 While this study has insightful implications, the results of this study should be
interpreted with caution fo...
Limitation (Cont.)
 While this study has insightful implications, the results of this study should be
interpreted with ca...
Reference
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Bakshy, E., Rosenn, I., Marlow, C., & Adamic, L. (2012, April...
Reference (Cont.)
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Haythornthwaite, C. (2005). Social networks and Internet conn...
Reference (Cont.)
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Van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2000). Widening information gaps and policies of...
Thank you

Choi, Myunggoon
myunggoon.choi@gmail.com
Department of Interaction Science
in Sungkyunkwan University
is.skku.e...
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Influences of strong tie with opinion leaders in an interconnected network of korea

  1. 1. Influences of Strong Tie with Opinion Leaders in an Interconnected Network of Korea Choi, Myunggoon myunggoon.choi@gmail.com Department of Interaction Science in Sungkyunkwan University is.skku.edu
  2. 2. Research Questions RQ1: For the Korean, what is the relationship between a tie strength with opinion leaders and the degree of information exchange? RQ2: For the Korean, what is the relationship between a strong tie with opinion leaders and an influence on people who are on the periphery of the network? Go to Hypothesis ☞
  3. 3. Introduction Do you think that information inequality exists in the information society?
  4. 4. Introduction Do you think that opinion leaders are the most important people in disseminating information as we know?
  5. 5. Literature Review Information Inequality and Information Exchange  There have been two separate but similar research fields, which are information divide and digital divide, with one interdisciplinary area, information inequality (Yu, 2011).  Early studies of information divide had defined information divide as the disparity between the less advantaged in society (e.g., the disabled, the poor and the aged) and mainstreams (Yu, 2006).
  6. 6. Literature Review (Cont.) Information Inequality and Information Exchange  Van dijk (2000) said that information divide is the inequality that results from the disparity of possession and usage for information and communication channels.  Britz and Blignaut (2001) used the term, information poverty, instead of information divide, defining it as the situation that social entities (e.g., individuals and communities) do not have adequate skills, abilities, and materials in obtaining information.
  7. 7. Literature Review (Cont.) Information Inequality and Information Exchange  While the discourse on Information Divide has concentrated on the situation to get information, the research interest of Digital Divide have been concerned for an access to ICT.  Since in the society that the adoption rate of internet and computer is too high, however, it is not sufficient to examine information inequality with variables of digital divide, a new approach in building theoretical frame is necessary (Verdegem & Verhoest, 2009)
  8. 8. Literature Review (Cont.) Information Inequality and Information Exchange  This study is to examine the phenomenon of information inequality based on the interdisciplinary approach rather than to define two concepts, information divide and digital divide.  Information inequality is defined as multifaceted disparity of information usage and access to digital technologies between individuals and communities in organizing information resources (Yu, 2011).
  9. 9. Literature Review (Cont.) Social Network Perspective and Information Exchange  Social Network Analysis is the study to represent the social structure with actors (e.g., individuals and communities) and relationships between actors. It helps to find the patterns of relationships which represent the exchange of resources between social entities (Haythornthwaite, 2002; Wasserman & Faust, 1994).  In order to examine how the social network affects to the social behavior such as an exchange of resources, it is necessary to approach from 1) “relational” or “Ego-centered” and 2) “Positioned” or “Entire” levels (Burt, 1987; Haythornthwaite, 1996).
  10. 10. Literature Review (Cont.) Social Network Perspective and Information Exchange  The pattern of information exchange provide the explanation that individuals have their own access to and control of information (Haythonthwaite, 1996).  To understand of the social structure with a relationship of information exchange may help to explain the disparity of information between individuals (Johnson, 2007).
  11. 11. Literature Review (Cont.) Opinion Leaders and Influentials Hypothesis  This study uses the important concept in the diffusion of innovation theory which describes in neutral position that information inequality is the naturally occurring phenomenon (Yu, 2011), in order to examine the phenomenon of information inequality itself.  The most important people in disseminating information of innovation refer to opinion leaders in the diffusion of innovation theory.
  12. 12. Literature Review (Cont.) Opinion Leaders and Influentials Hypothesis  The importance of opinion leaders was re-emphasized as the two-step of flow theory, which underlines the role of opinion leaders who allow messages from media easily to disseminate, played an important role in the media sociology (Katz & Lazarsfeld, 1955/2006).  Rogers (2003) defined opinion leaders as people who have uneven influences on behaviors or attitudes of others.  Chatman (1987) said that opinion leaders are those who play an important role in transferring information to others. She underlined the role of opinion leaders in the information environment.
  13. 13. Literature Review (Cont.) Opinion Leaders and Influentials Hypothesis  However, previous studies of opinion leaders have not given definite explanations about dissemination of influences of opinion leaders in process of the diffusion of innovation or information exchange (Watts & Dodds, 2007).  Watts and Dodds (2007) said that although they modestly agreed on the importance of opinion leaders, most of social changes are triggered by those who are easily influenced by opinion leaders, not opinion leaders.
  14. 14. Literature Review (Cont.) Opinion Leaders and Influentials Hypothesis  Being influential to something in a network depends on a structure of an entire network, not the characteristics of specific individuals. Thus, it is necessary to examine local environments as well as environments around opinion leaders and those who are directly influenced by them (Watts, 2007).
  15. 15. Literature Review (Cont.) Influence, Tie Strength and Multiplexity  Opinion leaders which involve relationships with objects influenced by them are possible to be explained by the social network perspective that consider relationships such as ties and connections (Scott, 2000).  An influence between two people in a network indicates the degree of cohesion which represents the strength of relationship between them. That is, the more intimate relationship they have, the easier they are influenced each other.
  16. 16. Literature Review (Cont.) Influence, Tie Strength and Multiplexity  The strength of ties is a combination of the amount of time, the emotional intimacy, and friendliness (Granovetter, 1973).  Since the strong ties represent the intimate relationships among people, the strong ties allow the opponents to have strong motivation and reduce uncertainties in receiving information (Krackhardt, 1992).  The strong ties in a network of information flow make have more influences on people who receive information rather than the weak ties (Brown & Reingen, 1987).
  17. 17. Literature Review (Cont.) Influence, Tie Strength and Multiplexity  Multiplexity is the term that since the relation between two people can consist of more than one relationship (Monge & Contractor, 2001), there can be multiplex relationships such as friend, fellow, and neighbor etc. (Burt, 1982; Hansen, Mors, & Lovas, 2005; Hite et al., 2006) between them.  One study showed that the behaviors in multiplex and strong relationships can occur the same way (Brass, Butterfield & Skaggs, 1998). That is, the multiplex relations indicate the strong relations (Granovetter, 1973).
  18. 18. Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: In an entire network, the stronger ties people have with opinion leaders, the more they exchange information with others. Hypothesis 2: In an entire network, there are significant differences between the groups which include opinion leaders and those which dose not include them. Hypothesis 3: In an eco-centered network, those who have strong ties with opinion leader have more influences on the remains in disseminating information.
  19. 19. Method  Measuring Opinion leaders and Tie Strength  In order to examine the influence of an individual in a network, this study uses two type of roles for opinion leaders; closure and brokerage (Burt, Kilduff & Tasselli, 2012).  UCINET 6.0, a software package for social network data, is easy to calculate in-degree and betweenness centrality (Borgatti et al., 2002).
  20. 20. Method (Cont.)  Measuring Opinion leaders and Tie Strength  For measuring the degree of closure, the in-degree centrality was calculated (Valente, 2010). In-degree centrality indicates a number of ties directed to the actor.  For measuring the degree of brokerage, the value of betweenness centrality was calculated. Betweenness centrality represents the number of times a subject acts as a bridge along the shortest path between two other objects (Wasserman & Faust, 1994).
  21. 21. Method (Cont.)  Measuring Opinion leaders and Tie Strength  Haythornthwaite (2005) explained the relationship between the strength of ties and media uses, which referred to “Media Multiplexity.” He said that the more channel between two people maintain, the more influences they have each other.  This study define tie strength as multiplexity of media (e.g., face-to-face, cellphone, Mobile Instant Messenger, and SNS).
  22. 22. Method (Cont.)  Influences of people who have strong ties with opinion leaders  This study divides all of members into three groups ;1) Opinion leaders, 2) People who have strong ties with opinion leaders, and 3) the remainders, based on media multiplexity.  Strong ties indicate the relations which use a number of offline and online channels in communicating with others (Haythornthwaite, 2005). This study determined the criteria of classification of strong ties as usages of all of offline and online channels.
  23. 23. Method (Cont.)  Influences of people who have strong ties with opinion leaders  Density, and then, was used for examining influences among three groups. Influences among social entities indicate the degrees of cohesion. The density, overall measure of cohesion, indicates the degree to which members are connected to all members of a population (Haythornthwaite, 1996).  For a valued graph, the density can average the values attached to the lines across all lines (Wasserman & Faust, 1994).  This study examines densities among groups of opinion leaders (A), people who have strong ties with opinion leaders (B), and the remainders(C), by comparing densities of each group
  24. 24. Method (Cont.)  Information Exchange  This study modified the Cerise’s six information exchange relationships: Giving work (GW), Receiving work (RW), Collaborative writing (CW), Computer programming (CP), Sociability (Soc), and Major emotional support (MES) (Haythornthwaite & Wellman, 1998).  Computer programming was excluded from out list of Information Exchange relationships, since there are a few tasks related to computer programming in the department of Interaction Science rather than the Cerise.
  25. 25. Method (Cont.)  Questionnaire  Respondents reported with whom they have contact in a various channels: face-to-face, cellphone, Mobile Instant Messenger (e.g., kakaotalk, a multiplatform texting application), and SNS (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Path, and etc.). They identified 48 IS students from a list of the IS students. Figure 1. Format of Questionnaire for Media Multiplexity
  26. 26. Method (Cont.)  Questionnaire  Respondents were asked to with whom they communicate with, modified by Cerise members’ six information exchanges (Haythornthwaite & Wellman, 1998). Surveymonkey, an online questionnaire tool, was used for collecting data. It is useful to reach people who are hard to see in the department. Figure 2. Format of Questionnaire for Information Exchange
  27. 27. Method (Cont.)  Sample  Total IS graduates Population included 61 members (33 females, 28 males); 4 international students and 57 domestic students, and 9 absences and 52 attendances. However, this study excluded the international students and those who are absence from school in a survey. Questionnaire completed by 48 of students of the department of Interaction Science in Sungkyunkwan University.  The response rate was 0.458 (22 out of 48). They were asked to report the behavior of information exchange by a specific medium.
  28. 28. Method (Cont.)  Sample  If all of students report had listed 48 correspondents, there would have been 48 x 47 = 2256 pairs. And if respondents had fully connected with all of students, the pairs would be (22 – 1) x 48 = 1008 pairs. The number of respondents gave a total of 410 pairs. The density is 0.1817 (410 / 2256).
  29. 29. Method (Cont.)  Data Analysis Plan  The rate of information exchange was based on the frequency of information exchange between two people. Full matrix of 48 x 48 was created with limited information exchange relationships from 22 members with 48 students (22 respondents x 48 students). The most important task was to find opinion leaders in the network of IS department. After calculating values of in-degree and betweenness centralities in the information exchange network of IS department, this study found the opinion leaders which stayed on the top 10% of the two indices (Valente & Pumpuang, 2007).
  30. 30. Method (Cont.)  Data Analysis Plan  Then, for testing Hypotheses 1, the regression analysis was conducted with the degree of Information Exchange and the degree of tie strengths which represent media multiplexity with opinion leaders. T-test was conducted for testing Hypothesis 2.
  31. 31. Method (Cont.)  Data Analysis Plan  Lastly, this study used ANOVA density model for testing Hypothesis 3. ANOVA density model tests the probability that the density of within-group differs from all relations of between-groups (Hanneman and Riddle 2005). That is, it tests whether the relationship of a network is patterned by a categorical variable. We examine whether the relationships of influence defined as media multiplexity are patterned by groups of opinion leaders (A), people who have strong ties with opinion leaders (B), and the remainders(C).
  32. 32. Findings  Opinion leaders and tie strength Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for In-degree and Betweenness centralities N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum In-Degree Centrality 48 77.521 36.247 15.000 149.000 Betweenness Centrality 48 14.375 36.174 0.000 181.707  There are four opinion leaders among 48 members in the department of Interaction Science. IS29, whose in-degree centrality is 135 and betweenness centrality is 177.269, topped the list, followed by IS15 (In-degree = 111, Betweenness = 181.707), IS48 (In-degree = 139, Betweenness = 26.399), IS06 (In-degree = 149, Betweenness = 5.551).
  33. 33. Findings (Cont.)  Opinion leaders and tie strength Figure 3. Indices of In-degree and Betweenness centralities for the department of Interaction Sciences’ students 200 IS01 IS02 IS03 IS04 IS05 IS06 IS07 IS08 IS09 IS10 IS11 IS12 IS13 IS14 IS15 IS16 IS17 IS18 IS19 IS20 IS21 IS22 IS23 IS24 IS25 IS26 IS27 IS28 IS29 IS30 IS31 IS32 IS33 IS34 IS35 IS36 IS37 IS38 IS39 IS40 IS41 IS42 IS43 IS44 IS45 IS46 IS47 IS48 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Indegree Betweenness  While IS29 and IS15 have low in-degree centralities and high betweenness centralites, IS48 and IS06 have high in-degree centrality and low betweenness centrality.
  34. 34. Findings (Cont.)  Opinion leaders and tie strength  The low in-degree and high betweenness centrality show the characteristics of brokerage which have relatively equal chances of information exchange with others.  The high in-degree and low betweenness centrality represent the characteristics of closure which exchange information with some specific individuals in a network.  They have different features of opinion leaders.
  35. 35. Findings (Cont.)  Opinion leaders and tie strength Table 2. Media multiplexity with opinion leaders Opinion Leader, Opinion Leader, Opinion Leader, Opinion Leader, IS29 IS15 IS48 IS06 Mean 2.448 2.469 1.833 1.448 SD 1.182 1.187 1.449 1.346  This study made 48 x 48 symmetrical matrix of tie strength based on the average of media multiplexity between two people. The students in the department of Interaction Science build relationship throughout more than one or two channels in an average.
  36. 36. Findings (Cont.)  Influences of opinion leaders in a global level Table 3. Results of regression analysis for the relationship between tie strength with opinion leader and the degree of information exchange β Opinion Leader IS29 Opinion Leader IS15 Opinion Leader IS48 Opinion Leader IS06 SE T R2 13.453** 15.08 9.38 6.449 4.222** 3.988 3.499 4.099 3.19* 3.78 2.68 1.57 0.195 0.254 0.146 0.056 Note: N = 44, * p < .05, ** p < .01  Several scholars have emphasized the role of a brokerage which connects relations between people for opinion leaders (Burt, 1999; Goldenberg et al., 2009).
  37. 37. Findings (Cont.)  Influences of opinion leaders in a global level Table 3. Results of regression analysis for the relationship between tie strength with opinion leader and the degree of information exchange β Opinion Leader IS29 Opinion Leader IS15 Opinion Leader IS48 Opinion Leader IS06 SE R2 T 13.453** 15.08 9.38 6.449 4.222** 3.988 3.499 4.099 3.19* 3.78 2.68 1.57 0.195 0.254 0.146 0.056 Note: N = 44, * p < .05, ** p < .01  Betweenness centrality of IS06 (5.551) is lower than the average of betweenness centrality in the network (Table 1). It means that the low ability of a brokerage reduce the influence on an overall network.
  38. 38. Findings (Cont.)  Influences of opinion leaders in a global level  This study compared the degree of information exchange between groups that include opinion leaders and do not include them for examining influences of opinion leaders on groups.  There are 4 laboratories which include opinion leaders out of 10 laboratories in the department of Interaction Science. A number of students in the group which include opinion leaders are 28, and 20 for the another group.
  39. 39. Findings (Cont.)  Influences of opinion leaders in a global level  The result showed that the degree of information exchange for the group which have opinion leaders (M = 91.679, SD = 36.382) is higher than havenot (M = 57.700, SD = 26.424).  The difference, t(45.9) = -3.73, between two groups proved to be significant at the p < .001 level.  Hypothesis 2, “In a whole network, there are significant differences between the groups which include opinion leaders and those which do not include them,” was supported.
  40. 40. Findings (Cont.)  Influences of opinion leaders in a local level Table 5. Densities between and within groupsa of in the ego-network for media multiplexity Opinion Leader 29 Opinion Leader 15 Opinion Leader 48 Opinion Leader 06 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 A–A 4.000 4.000 4.000 4.000 A–B 1.750 3.152 3.364 1.974 A–C 4.000 4.000 4.000 4.000 B–A 2.938 2.149 1.851 2.250 B–B 1.794 1.758 1.639 2.035 B–C 0.350 0.576 0.455 0.763 C–A 0.575 0.333 0.355 0.592 C–B 0.556 0.273 0.440 C–C a The groups indicate opinion leader (A), people having strong 0.338 ties with opinion leader (B), and the remains of members (C).  For testing hypothesis 3, the densities between B and C in the network of media multiplexity which indicates influences have to be higher than those between A and C at the significant level.
  41. 41. Findings (Cont.)  Influences of opinion leaders in a local level Table 5. Densities between and within groupsa of in the ego-network for media multiplexity Opinion Leader 29 Opinion Leader 15 Opinion Leader 48 Opinion Leader 06 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 A–A 4.000 4.000 4.000 4.000 A–B 1.750 3.152 3.364 1.974 A–C 4.000 4.000 4.000 4.000 B–A 2.938 2.149 1.851 2.250 B–B 1.794 1.758 1.639 2.035 B–C 0.350 0.576 0.455 0.763 C–A 0.575 0.333 0.355 0.592 C–B 0.556 0.273 0.440 C–C a The groups indicate opinion leader (A), people having strong 0.338 ties with opinion leader (B), and the remains of members (C).  It is not sufficient to fully support the third hypothesis, because the A - C densities are higher than B – C for opinion leader 29 and 15.
  42. 42. Discussion  This study examined how opinion leaders influence on individuals at the global and local level.  Global Level: An importance of Opinion Leaders in having access and exchanging information. - The stronger ties people maintain with opinion leaders, the more chances to get information they have. - And the degree of information exchange in the groups involving opinion leaders is much higher than the groups that have not opinion leaders.
  43. 43. Discussion (Cont.)  Local Level: Influences of opinion leaders depending on their role in a network - The opinion leaders as a brokerage have great influences on all of individuals in exchange information with multiple communication channels. - The opinion leaders as a closure influence just on people who have strong ties with them.
  44. 44. Discussion (Cont.)  Local Level: Influences of opinion leaders depending on their role in a network - The opinion leaders as a brokerage have great influences on all of individuals in exchange information with multiple communication channels. - The opinion leaders as a closure influence just on people who have strong ties with them.  While we admit the importance of opinion leaders, the finding shows that people who have strong ties with opinion leaders are more likely to influence on individuals, depending on types of opinion leaders.
  45. 45. Discussion (Cont.)  Theoretical implication on the studies for opinion leaders: − This study supports “Influentials Hypothesis” with the empirical case study of information flow in small organization.  Practical implication: − The government has to discover opinion leaders in every field who are available for multiple communication channels in order to allow people to access novel information. − Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) suggest that in the high-dimensional information society, a brokerage of high communication bandwidth has an advantage on access to information.
  46. 46. Discussion (Cont.)  Practical implication: − And it is important for opinion leaders and easily influenced people to help people to learn how to use information throughout a government support policy. − The government must do more to support the regions which have been insufficient in opinion leaders as a brokerage.
  47. 47. Limitation  While this study has insightful implications, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution for several reasons. 1. Conceptualization of personal influence is limited and applied partially. Weinmann (1991) argued that influences consist of three personal elements: 1) Personification which represents a specific value relating to personal characteristics; 2) Competitiveness relating to an intellectual level; and 3) Social position relating to social capital, and social elements.
  48. 48. Limitation (Cont.)  While this study has insightful implications, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution for several reasons. 2. The sample of this study is limited as it focused on one specific organization. This limitation is related to external validity in generalizing the results for understanding the phenomenon of information inequality in Korea.
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  52. 52. Thank you Choi, Myunggoon myunggoon.choi@gmail.com Department of Interaction Science in Sungkyunkwan University is.skku.edu

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