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# Spreadsheet for Year 8

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This spreadsheet note is used for teaching my Year 8 students

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• 2011 Prepared by:Qistinah Hj Jalil
• ### Spreadsheet for Year 8

2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Electronic worksheet - any worksheet done by using a computer and a spreadsheet package. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Excel and Framework. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an application that allows the user to enter numbers and text into a table with rows and columns and perform calculations on them. </li></ul>
3. 3. ADVANTAGES OF SPREADSHEET <ul><li>Easier to edit or change data. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulae for calculation to be done automatically. </li></ul><ul><li>There are built-in commands for calculating averages, totals and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of Charts can easily be created. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be use to create documents just like a word processor. </li></ul><ul><li>It may have a database management facility to search data quickly. </li></ul>
4. 4. Contents of the worksheet The worksheet is made up of CELLS (A cell is a box in which we enter data, information and formulae) These CELLS are arranged in ROWS and COLUMNS ROWS COLUMNS Each CELL has a reference called the ADDRESS. The ADDRESS is given by a column letter and a row number . An Example is ‘B7’.
5. 5. EACH CELL MAY CONTAIN ANY OF THESE ITEMS <ul><li>Label (only ‘Text’). </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers . </li></ul><ul><li>Date/Time. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulae and Functions. </li></ul>
6. 6. LABEL <ul><li>There are the non-numeric entries into a worksheet. </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually begin with a letter. </li></ul><ul><li>The data will be left-justified. </li></ul>A B C 1 Geography Physics 2 Masters 3 Experts 4 Geniuses
7. 7. NUMBERS <ul><li>It is usually starts with an arithmetic sign or a numerical digit in a worksheet. </li></ul><ul><li>The data will be right-justified. </li></ul>A B 1 General 4 500 2 General with decimal 4 500.00 3 Currency \$ 4 500.00 4 Scientific 45E+03
8. 8. DATE / TIME <ul><li>You can enter the date and time using the usual conventions, as illustrated below: </li></ul>Date entry Display 08-01-2010 8/1/10 4 June 2010 4-Jun-10 10:30 am 10:30 AM
9. 9. FORMULAE AND FUNCTIONS <ul><li>Formulae and functions are very useful as they allow for automatic calculation within the worksheets. </li></ul><ul><li>For spreadsheet, we will consistently use ‘ =‘ (equal sign) to begin a formulae and functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic operations are expressed using: + for plus; - for minus; / for divide; and * for multiply . </li></ul><ul><li>Brackets i.e ‘(‘ or ‘)’ can be used also. </li></ul>FORMULAE FUNCTIONS =C3*D5 =SUM(C3:C8)
10. 10. FORMULAE AND FUNCTIONS <ul><li>Several functions operate on RANGE of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : SUM(...:...), AVERAGE(...:...), </li></ul><ul><li>MAX(...:...), MIN(...:...), COUNT(…:...) and so on. </li></ul>=SUM(C3:C8) =AVERAGE(ES:E14) =MIN(E5:E14)
11. 12. RANGE OF CELLS <ul><li>You can specify it by keying in the cell in the upper corner ‘:’ and the cell in the lower right corner. </li></ul>The range selected is B3:D4 A range is a group or block of cells in a worksheet that have been selected or highlighted
12. 13. Some of the commonly used functions are given in the following table: The functions simplify formulae. For example: instead of entering = A1 + A2 + B1 + B2 + C1 + C2, you could use a range function as =SUM(A1:C2)
13. 14. MOVING & COPYING CELLS MOVING CELLS COPYING CELLS 1. Select the cell(s) to be moved. 1. Select the cell(s) to be copied. 2. Press Ctrl + X . 2. Press Ctrl + C . 3. Position your cell. 3. Position your cell. 4. Press Ctrl + V. 4. Press Ctrl + V.
14. 15. FORMAT TEXT – HOME MENU
15. 16. CHANGING COLUMN WIDTH AND HEIGHT <ul><li>If a cell is not side enough to display its item, then the display appears as ‘ ######’. </li></ul><ul><li>If this happens, you must widen the column so that the item is displayed properly. </li></ul>
16. 17. SORTING DATA <ul><li>Most spreadsheet allows you to arrange data in alphabetical order. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow steps below: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the required RANGE to be arranged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then click at the DATA menu on top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose SORT from the menu list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A window for sorting will appear as below: Specify the required COLUMN (e.g. name, salary etc.) to be sort either in ascending or descending order. Then click OK button on confirmation. </li></ul></ul>
17. 18. CREATING CHARTS <ul><li>Highlight the range of the cells . </li></ul><ul><li>Click Insert menu </li></ul><ul><li>Select chart type (e.g. Pie, Bar, Line). </li></ul><ul><li>A selected chart on the selected data is created. </li></ul>