Beijing Urban Planning Issues

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Beijing planning history and some contemporary planning issues.

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Beijing Urban Planning Issues

  1. 1. BEIJING
  2. 2. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tianjin School of Architecture Teachers
  4. 4. Tianjin School of Architecture Students
  5. 5. Tianjin School of Architecture Students
  6. 6. Tianjin School of Architecture Students
  7. 7. Student Work 1986 -7 Kindergarten
  8. 8. Student Work 1986 -7 Community Center
  9. 9. T O W N S C O N S U L T I N G www.townsnet.com 周道顾问
  10. 10. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  11. 11. China, a vast reservoir of resources and experience
  12. 12. Xia Dynasty (2100-1600 BC), Bronze Ritual Vessel
  13. 13. Shang Dynasty (1600-1027 BC), Bronze Mask
  14. 14. Zhou Dynasty (1027-256 BC), Ideal City described in Zhou Li: Kao Gong Ji
  15. 15. Zhou Dynasty (1027-256 BC), Confucius 551-459 BC
  16. 16. Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) , Clay Figurine
  17. 17. Han Dynasty, Clay Figurine
  18. 18. Han Dynasty, Brick Relief Carving
  19. 19. Northern Wei (386-534) / Sui / Tang, Buddhist Relief Sculpture
  20. 20. Northern Wei (386-534) / Sui / Tang, Buddhist Relief Sculpture
  21. 21. Northern Wei (386-534) / Sui / Tang, Buddhist Relief Sculpture
  22. 22. Tang Dynasty (618-907), Clay Figurine of a Foreign Merchant
  23. 23. Tang Dynasty, Big Goose Pagoda, Xian
  24. 24. Han to Tang Dynasty, Dun Huang Caves, Colour Scheme
  25. 25. Han to Tang Dynasty, Dun Huang Caves, Colour Scheme
  26. 26. Tang Dynasty, Handwriting of the Poet, Li Bai
  27. 27. Song Dynasty (960-1279), Porcelain
  28. 28. Song Dynasty, “Traveling Amid Hills and Streams” by Fan Kuan
  29. 29. Song Dynasty, Stone Sculpture
  30. 30. Song Dynasty Buddhist Statue
  31. 31. Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Mural Painting
  32. 32. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), “Hanging Temple”, Shanxi Province
  33. 33. Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Temple of Heaven, Hall of Prayers for Good Harvests
  34. 34. Robert Temple, The Genius of China, 1998.
  35. 35. Robert Temple, The Genius of China, 1998.
  36. 36. Prince Chu Cai Yu invented the tempered scale in 1584. Johann Sebastian Bach, used it for The Well-tempered Clavier , 1722. Twelve fifths = (1.0136) Seven octaves Some Examples: The Decimal System, the compass, paper, explosives, wheelbarrow,…. Columbus and Zheng He Sailing into the wind
  37. 37. Voyages of exploration and exchange not conquest.
  38. 38. “ It would be better if the nations and peoples of the world had a clearer understanding of each other, allowing the mental chasm between East an West to be bridged. After all they are, and have been for several centuries, intimate partners in the business of building a world civilization. The technological world of today is a product of both East and West to an extent which until recently no one had ever imagined. It is now time for the Chinese contribution to be recognized and acknowledged, by east and West alike. And, above all, let this be recognized by today’s school children, who will be the generation to absorb it into their fundamental conceptions about the world. When that happens, Chinese and Westerners will be able to look each other in the eye, knowing themselves to be true and full partners. Robert Temple, The Genius of China, 1998, p. 12 Modern Science & Technology European Industrial Revolution European Agricultural Revolution Chinese Ideas and Inventions The Islamic world was a vital link between China and Europe.
  39. 39. <ul><li>Chinese Spiritual and Philosophical Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Mahayana Buddhism taught the unity and oneness of all beings: </li></ul><ul><li>One’s own enjoyment of spiritual peace can not be perfect so long as salvation </li></ul><ul><li>has not been universally won. Reinforced Chinese Group Sense (Ji Ti). </li></ul><ul><li>Charity and service to others are the actions based on this belief. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius: M oral order is the foundation of social order . “Confucius renewed </li></ul><ul><li>morals and ancient virtues”, Abdu’l-Baha. </li></ul><ul><li>Lao Ze (Daoism): cultivated the “way”, teachings about virtue and self-effacement. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Dynasty: System of Government based on the Mandate of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Poets, for example: Li Bai and Du Fu </li></ul>
  40. 40. Zhou Dynasty (1027-256 BC), Ideal Administrative City described in Zhou Li: Kao Gong Ji The Capital City, a link between Heaven and Earth
  41. 41. New World Order Maturation of Humanity All-inclusive Family Global Village Grand Synthesis (Lazlo) Omega Point Majestic House “ Tian Xia Yi Jia” &quot;The Age of Nations is past. The task before us now, if we would not perish, is to build the Earth.” T. de Chardin “ The Earth is One Country and Mankind its Citizens” Baha’u’llah &quot;Heaven is my father and earth is my mother.. all people are my brothers and sisters, and all things are my companions...“ Zhang Zai (1020-77) Our Collective Heritage
  42. 42. “ Much like the role played by the gene pool in the biological life of humankind and its environment, the immense wealth of cultural diversity achieved over thousands of years is vital to the social and economic development of a human race experiencing its collective coming-of-age. It represents a heritage that must be permitted to bear its fruit in a global civilization. On the one hand, cultural expressions need to be protected from suffocation by the materialistic influences currently holding sway. On the other, cultures must be enabled to interact with one another in ever-changing patterns of civilization, free of manipulation for partisan political ends. “ The Prosperity of Humankind, Baha'i International Community, 1995.
  43. 43. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Capital City, Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  44. 44. Zhou Dynasty (1027-256 BC), Ideal City described in Zhou Li: Kao Gong Ji Beijing: Capital City, a link between Heaven and Earth
  45. 45. Beijing: a city linking heaven and earth The Em peror prayed for good harvests. Emperor’s Room: Place of Honour, Power, & Stillness
  46. 47. Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Temple of Heaven, Hall of Prayers for Good Harvests
  47. 48. Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Temple of Heaven
  48. 49. Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Temple of Heaven
  49. 50. Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Temple of Heaven, Hall of Prayers for Good Harvests
  50. 51. Beijing Old City: Forbidden City Emperor’s Room: Place of Honour, Power, & Stillness Five Colours Earth Temple
  51. 52. Beijing Old City: Five Colours Earth Temple Emperor’s Room: Place of Honour, Power & Stillness
  52. 53. Beijing Old City: Courtyard house is a “child” of the Forbidden City. A reminder of the Heaven–Earth linkage in every home. Patriarch’s Room: Place of Honour, Power & Stillness Fractal Hieirarchy
  53. 54. Beijing Old City: Courtyard House Patriarchs Room: Place of Honour, Power & Stillness
  54. 55. Beijing Old City: 2008 Olympic Site is on the ceremonial “sacred” axis. The Olympic theme also reflects a consciousness of the link between heaven and earth.
  55. 56. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  56. 58. Xia 2200 – 1750 BC
  57. 59. Shang 1750 – 1040 BC
  58. 60. Western Zhou 1027 – 771 BC
  59. 61. Eastern Zhou 770 -256 BC
  60. 62. Qin 221 – 227 BC
  61. 63. Han 206 BC – 220 AD
  62. 64. Tang 618 - 907
  63. 65. Northern Song 960 - 1127 LIAO XI XIA
  64. 66. Southern Song 1127 - 1279 JIN XI XIA
  65. 67. Yuan 1271 – 1368 (Chinese “Ship of State” run by Mongolian captains) The Meng People (Mongolian)
  66. 68. Ming 1368 - 1644
  67. 69. Qing 1636 – 1911 (Chinese “Ship of State” run by Man/Qing captains) The Man People (Manchuria)
  68. 70. Qing: Rebellions (green) and Incursions (red) 1840 - 1911 Russia Japan Russia England England France Germany Japan Russia
  69. 71. People’s Republic of China 1949 (Relative isolation for over 25 years) Open Door 1978
  70. 72. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  71. 75. Liao 916-1125 Jin 1125 - 1234
  72. 80. Liao Ming-Qing
  73. 81. Jin
  74. 82. Yuan
  75. 83. Ming-Qing
  76. 84. The Growth of Beijing: 1949-2008
  77. 85. 2 Growth of Beijing: 1949-2008
  78. 86. 2 3 Growth of Beijing: 1949-2008
  79. 87. 2 3 4 Growth of Beijing: 1949-2008
  80. 88. 2 3 4 5 6.7 km 12 km 18 km 30 km Growth of Beijing: 1949-2008
  81. 89. CBD Growth of Beijing: 1949-2008 3 2 4 5
  82. 90. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  83. 98. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  84. 100. Chicago on the Lakeshore
  85. 101. Chicago: Downtown
  86. 102. Chicago: Mid-rise, 3 and 4 story apartments
  87. 103. Chicago: 1 and 2 story single family housing
  88. 104. Chicago: Single family, low density
  89. 105. Beijing
  90. 106. Central Beijing
  91. 107. Central Beijing: large city block
  92. 108. Central Beijing: Courtyard Housing
  93. 109. Central Beijing: Courtyard House
  94. 110. Beijing far suburbs: Courtyard House
  95. 111. Chicago Core
  96. 112. Chicago Core and a piece of old Beijing
  97. 113. Beijing West: Just outside 2nd Ring Road, Russian-influenced planning
  98. 114. Beijing North of 2nd Ring Road
  99. 115. Shanghai
  100. 116. Beijing West 3rd Ring Road
  101. 117. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  102. 119. Cliff Moughtin, Emeritus Professor of Planning at the University of Nottingham, believes too large a block destroys city life. &quot;The larger and more homogenous the street block the greater will be its power to destroy the social, economic, and physical networks of the city. The large-scale single-use, single-ownership street block is the instrument most influential in the decline of the city: its effect, together with that of its partner the motorcar, are among the real causes of the death of the great city.&quot; [1] Cliff Moughtin, Urban Design: Green Dimensions , 1996, Architectural Press, P.138 Google Earth
  103. 120. Block Size Comparison: Beijing-New York
  104. 121. Zhong Jing Architects and Engineers 1989-1993, Beijing, China
  105. 122. Zhong Jing Design Institute, Beijing, 1990
  106. 123. Shandong, Qingdao Urban Renewal Circulation Plan 1990
  107. 124. Shandong, Qingdao Urban Renewal 1990 Shandong, Qingdao Urban Renewal, 1990 Housing at the left and right; Commercial at both sides of central street
  108. 125. Shandong, Qingdao, Fushan Bay Planning 1992
  109. 126. Shandong, Qingdao, Fushan Bay Planning 1992 山东青岛浮山湾规划 Site of 2008 Olympic Water Events
  110. 127. Xing Fu Cun Mixed Use Development 2002 Beijing, China
  111. 128. Xing Fu San Cun Construction Site 2008 3.3 hectares
  112. 129. Xing Fu San Cun Mixed Use Development
  113. 130. Xing Fu San Cun Mixed Use Development
  114. 131. Xing Fu San Cun Mixed Use Development
  115. 132. Site Plan 怀柔方案 2003 China Academy of Drama: 33 hectare site
  116. 133. China Academy of Drama: 33 hectare site
  117. 134. 都市化形式 Town-like Form China Academy of Drama: 14 hectare site Entry Plaza Student Plaza
  118. 135. Dormitory and Dining Dining
  119. 136. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  120. 137. Shanghai
  121. 138. Beijing West 2nd Ring Road; Russian – influenced planning
  122. 139. Beijing N 2nd Ring Road
  123. 140. Beijing West 3rd Ring Road; Towers Predominate
  124. 141. Beijing: Nan Mo Fang, 1994
  125. 142. Xing Fu San Cun Mixed Use Development; continuous podium
  126. 143. Zhong Tie Office Center, Beijing
  127. 144. Zhong Tie Office Center, Beijing
  128. 145. Cooperation with Beijing Institute of Architectural Design, 3RD Department
  129. 146. Cooperation with Beijing Institute of Architectural Design, 2ND Department
  130. 147. 都市化形式 Formation of streets and squares needs some east-west buildings. China Academy of Drama: 33 hectare site
  131. 148. Campus Street: Dining at Right, Library at Left
  132. 149. Library at Left with deeply recessed windows at levels 2 and 3.
  133. 150. Student Plaza Student Plaza
  134. 151. 学生宿舍 Dormitory (with balconies) Campus Street
  135. 152. Acting and Directing School
  136. 153. Acting & Directing Teaching Building: Study Sketch
  137. 154. 图书馆 Library East-facing Sun Screen
  138. 155. Library Level 1
  139. 156. Library Mezzanine Level
  140. 157. Library Level 2
  141. 158. Library Level 3
  142. 159. Library West Facade
  143. 160. Library West Fenestration Section
  144. 161. Dining: Sun-shading Screens
  145. 162. Dining: Sun-shading Screens
  146. 163. Dining: Sun-shading Screens
  147. 164. Dining: Ivy Sun-shading Screens
  148. 165. Dining: Sun-shading Screens
  149. 166. 中午 Dining: Natural Sun-shading
  150. 167. 下午三点 Dining: Natural Sun-shading
  151. 168. 下午五点 Dining: Natural Sun-shading
  152. 169. Ivy: a Campus in England
  153. 170. Ivy: Switzerland
  154. 171. Ivy: Germany
  155. 172. Main Plaza Theater
  156. 173. Main Plaza
  157. 174. Main Plaza
  158. 175. Main Plaza
  159. 176. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  160. 177. Example of Chinese Vernacular Architecture
  161. 178. Five storey house in old village
  162. 179. 1950s, Beijing, extending the old
  163. 181. Front Entrance
  164. 182. Beijing Railway Station
  165. 183. Tower with Chinese pavilion on top
  166. 184. Tower with Chinese pavilion on top
  167. 185. A vertically-Stretched Pavilion
  168. 186. Beijing Ren Bao Office Building Design by RTKL, 1996
  169. 187. Abstracted, Simplified Chinese Roof
  170. 188. A More Literal Chinese Roof
  171. 189. Glass Facade with Chinese Roof and Pai Lou Gate
  172. 190. Yellow Tiles at Top
  173. 191. New Railway Station
  174. 192. Simplified “Chinese“ Roof
  175. 193. Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  176. 194. Shanghai, SOM-designed Office and Hotel Tower
  177. 195. How thick is this book?
  178. 196. The Elements of Civilization were all Present in China’s History
  179. 197. The Elements of Civilization were all Present in China’s History But the power of the old vision has weakened.
  180. 198. Beijing 1990
  181. 199. Zaha Hadid, Opera House Guangzhou
  182. 200. Paul Andreau, National Grand Theater of China, Beijing
  183. 201. RTKL, Shanghai Science Center
  184. 202. Bird’s Nest Olympic Stadium, Beijing
  185. 203. Sasaki Site Planning, Olympic Park, Beijing
  186. 204. Watercube National Swimming Center, Beijing
  187. 205. Watercube National Swimming Center, Beijing
  188. 206. Foster, Beijing Capital International Airport
  189. 207. Steven Holl, Beijing Hybrid Housing
  190. 208. Japanese Design, Jian Wai SOHO, Beijing
  191. 209. Rem Koolhaas, CCTV Tower Beijing
  192. 210. SOM, China Offshore Oil Corp. Headquarters, Beijing
  193. 211. HOK, Shanghai World Finance Center
  194. 212. Art Gallery, Chengdu
  195. 213. Zhang Yong He, Hebei Education Publishing House, Shijiazhuang
  196. 214. Bamboo House, Beijing
  197. 215. Courtyard House, Lantian
  198. 216. Ningbo, Beilun Free Trade Zone
  199. 217. Water Courtyard in Nan Xi Jiang, Zhejiang Province
  200. 218. Ningbo, Beilun Free Trade Zone Administration Center
  201. 219. Ningbo, Beilun Free Trade Zone 2002, Elevations South West
  202. 220. Xing Fu San Cun Mixed Use Development
  203. 221. Xing Fu San Cun Looking through the Gates
  204. 222. Pai Lou Gate
  205. 223. Layered Space
  206. 224. Xing Fu San Cun Mixed Use Development
  207. 225. 南浔镇现状 Nan Xun Hotel Site Context
  208. 227. Nan Xun Hotel, Bird’s Eye View Restaurant Old Factory Boutique Hotel Spiral Plan Hotel Old Mansion
  209. 228. Nan Xun Hotel, Dining
  210. 229. Waterside Outdoor Eating
  211. 230. Nan Xun Hotel, Existing Mansion and New Dining
  212. 231. Nan Xun Hotel, Section of Dining and Existing Mansion
  213. 232. Liang Se Cheng Proposed Beijing Linear Park on top of Old City Wall
  214. 234. Preservation Area Building Condition Analysis
  215. 235. Preservation Area Function Map
  216. 237. Courtyard Design
  217. 238. Drum Tower
  218. 239. Drum Tower
  219. 240. Qian Long Map, Drum Tower Area
  220. 242. Courtyard Renewal Project The Hold-Out Chiang Kai Shek Home of Prince Old Beijing
  221. 243. The Hold-Out
  222. 244. Courtyard Renewal Project The Hold-Out Chiang Kai Shek Home of Prince
  223. 245. Former Home of Prince, Now a School (1997)
  224. 246. Courtyard Renewal Project, Ju Er Hu Tong
  225. 247. Courtyard Renewal Project, Ju Er Hu Tong
  226. 248. Courtyard Renewal Project, Ju Er Hu Tong
  227. 249. Clay Tiles on Roofs, Courtyard Renewal Project, Ju Er Hu Tong
  228. 250. Date Tree, Courtyard Renewal Project, Ju Er Hu Tong
  229. 251. Courtyard Renewal Project, Ju Er Hu Tong
  230. 252. Courtyard Renewal Project, Ju Er Hu Tong
  231. 253. Courtyard Renewal Project, Ju Er Hu Tong
  232. 254. Local School
  233. 255. Local School
  234. 256. Younger Son’s School
  235. 257. Small Hu Tong Shop
  236. 258. On-line Courtyard, Bread and Breakfast
  237. 259. Old Courtyard House Restoration by Private Owner
  238. 260. <ul><li>BEIJING </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Part of China’s Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: Link between Heaven and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: When, Where, Why </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing: The Evolution of its Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some Planning/Urban Design Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Block Size </li></ul><ul><li>Facing South </li></ul><ul><li>Old and New </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  239. 261. <ul><li>China’s Contributions </li></ul><ul><li>to Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><li>中国对于可持续发展做出的贡献 </li></ul><ul><li>Practical 已实践的贡献 </li></ul><ul><li>b) Conceptual 理论贡献 </li></ul>
  240. 262. <ul><li>China’s Contributions </li></ul><ul><li>to Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><li>中国对于可持续发展做出的贡献 </li></ul><ul><li>Practical 已实践的贡献 </li></ul><ul><li>b) Conceptual 理论贡献 </li></ul>
  241. 263. Frugal Lifestyle 生活简朴 Population Control 计划生育 Eating low in the food chain 食用植物多于肉类 Optimum Urban Density 最适宜的城市密度 Urban Housing: mainly apartment type 住宅类型主要是公寓 Bicycle Transportation 自行车是交通工具 Brief List of Existing Sustainable Characteristics
  242. 264. <ul><li>China’s Contributions </li></ul><ul><li>to Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><li>中国对于可持续发展做出的贡献 </li></ul><ul><li>Practical 已实践的贡献 </li></ul><ul><li>b) Conceptual 理论贡献 </li></ul>
  243. 265. New World Order Maturation of Humanity All-inclusive Family Global Village Grand Synthesis (Lazlo) Omega Point Majestic House “ Tian Xia Yi Jia” &quot;The Age of Nations is past. The task before us now, if we would not perish, is to build the Earth.” T. de Chardin “ The Earth is One Country and Mankind its Citizens” Baha’u’llah &quot;Heaven is my father and earth is my mother.. all people are my brothers and sisters, and all things are my companions...“ Zhang Zai (1020-77) Our Collective Heritage Unity and The Recognition of Oneness are the Foundations of Sustainability
  244. 266. John Fairbank This noted Sinologist, in the introduction to his recent book, China: A New History, refers to China as a latecomer to modernity. And, he asks whether China has emerged from isolation just in time to participate in the demise of the world or, with millennia of survival experience, to rescue it? Bertrand Russell While he was working as a teacher in Beijing in the1920s, He observed China's: &quot;production without possession, action without self-assertion, and development without domination&quot; . Russell, Bertrand, The Basic Writings Writings of Bertrand Russell: 1903-1959 , Edited by Robert E. Egner and Lester E. Dennon, George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1961 .
  245. 269. Thank you!

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