UrieBronfenbrenners’ Ecological systemIt is primarily used by psychologists/trained counsellors to dissect the issues in patient or subject.It is used as a diagnostic tool to explore/identify the key focus point that is affecting the individualIndividual’s key fields Sex, age, health, ethnicity and Systematic approachWe then examine the microsystem to determine how school, family, peers and the neighbourhood affect the individual. Church and Health services are important, in Singapore’s context we would define them to be religious groups and medical centers. These factors have a direct influence on the individual. The mesosystem signifies the relationships or interactions within the microsystem, for instance, peers influence affecting academic performance. It essentially connects the structures within the microsystems and views the results or process of their collaboration.The exosystem is the external environment that has an indirect impetus on the individual development. Common examples are of parents having to relocate for career advancement or retrenchment due to financial crisis that reduces family income, these factors affect the child indirectly. relocation = new environment in which microsystem changes. Macrosystem is the outermost layer in the child’s environment, comprises of laws, culture, customs and values. There would be a domino effect on the individual. For instance, if it is perceived in that culture, parents and the government are responsible for the child’s development, there are more resources that are available to help parents raise the child. This affects the structures within which the parents function, and their behaviour towards the child, which in turn influences the microsystem of the child’s context.Lastly the chronosystem, as the individual ages, he or she will be changed with time and experience. It could be an external factor, such as the death of close relative or parent or internal, due to maturity into an adult. It changes the perceptions towards the environment and thus character changes as well.Why is this important?It acts as a diagnostic tool to, earlier mentioned, to identify problem areas affecting a child/individual. We’ve used this theory to search for a possible cause to Jeremy’s problem.ReferencesUrie Bronfenbrenner. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-22457-4Bronfenbrenner, U. (1974). Developmental research, public policy, and the ecology of childhood (1974). Child Development, 45, 1-5.
Paquette & Ryan, 2001Researched impact of the working environment on the family microsystemWork environment reflects that of a factory modelSame or longer hoursMore face timeWomen are subjected to the same demands as the menAffects quality family timeBronfenbrenner states that minimizing the parent-child interaction is the most harmful to child developmentLimiting these interactions, causes a deficiency in relationships, which leads the child to make seek attention(usually negative) elsewhere.To reiterate, bronfenfrenner states that there is no substitution for the deficiency caused by the lack of parent-child deficiency My opinion: it may be true in Jeremy’s case as he seeks approval from his parents be receives almost none. References1.Dede Paquette & John Ryan. (2001). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory
http://www.education.com/reference/article/teachers-expectations-affect-learning/?page=2 teachersTeachers are important (Mesosystem) -create a good sociemotional climate -Input (distance, interaction, assignments, assistance) -output (calling on student, providing cues/rephrasing/restating qns, wait for student response, level of detail for feedback) -affective feedback (amount of criticism, praise, anger/pity)Peer groups -influences the development of child’s socializing skills -helps child to negotiate and relate to others ( Harris 1998,Hartup, 1983)Social rejection is experienced by Jeremy, Active rejection –through bullyingPassive rejection – ignoredAdverse psychological issues a)loneliness b) low self esteem c) aggression d) depressionLead to feelings of insecurity1. Williams, Kipling D.; Joseph P. Forgas, William von Hippel (2005). The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying. Psychology Press. p. 366 pages. ISBN 184169424X.McDougall, P., Hymel, S., Vaillancourt, T., & Mercer, L. (2001). The consequences of childhood rejection. In M. R. Leary (Ed.), Interpersonal rejection. (pp. 213-247). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Abrams, Karen,. Theberge Susan K., Orv C. Karan., Children and Adolescents Who Are Depressed: An Ecological Approach. Professional School Counseling (8)3 pp.284-92, 2005.
Concept of "attribution": explains why something happens or why someone acts in a particular way (McArthur, 2011) - past experiences (e.g. repeated failures and people telling them over and over again they are stupid or not performing) Idea of "causal attribution" (Weiner, 1972): even before doing a task, the student will assess the task i.e. estimate the outcome of the task to be most affected by which of the four identified factors learners are strongly (un)motivated by the (un)pleasant outcome of feeling bad about themselves
Adults’ feedback and cues (how teachers perceive the behavior and outcomes for these students) will influence how Jeremy judge himself. teachers’ attributions about student behavior and achievement. teachers’ attributions of struggling studentsForm preconceptions of Jeremy's learning ability Self-serving claim, teachers’ expectations of Jeremy will influence how he perceives his own ability and expectations of himselfScenarios Mr Tan: (emphasizing Jeremy's out-casted status in front of the whole class does not solve the problem and makes Jeremy feel bad) Puzzle incident: Jeremy tried to contribute answer to puzzle and got the answer wrong. (more negative reinforcement) Ms Low: (continuous scolding and deliberately embarrassing Jeremy in front of whole class) Ms Low: (inaccurate claims, single out Jeremy as the only problematic student) Negative classroom events often trigger emotional responses in teachers, such as anger or pity. Their particular emotional experience is related to how much control they perceive the student had over the incident. For example, if a teacher believes that a student failed a test or assignment because of lack of effort, an external factor over which the child has more control, the teacher is more likely to feel anger and punish the child. (Ms Low’s outburst in class)
- Idea of "stability" (Weiner et al., 1983): refers to a person's perception that the cause of one's performance will or will not change over timeIf you recall in Jeremy’s case, despite undergoing intensive daily tuition sessions and laboriously going through his tuition homework and assessment books, Jeremy is still failing his subjects.Perpetuates and confirms his apparent lack of ability. - This links to the idea of self-fulfilling prophecy & "Pygmalion Effect" (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968): the idea that expecting something to happen can in fact make it occur, a belief that becomes a reality
Possible problem: inadequate social skills
Importance of relationships with others in the formation of one’s identity (personality develops through 8 critical stages in life and how one interacts with the environment and solves crisis..lasting effect on how J views himself and the worldSense of confusion about themselves and their role in the worldVery different from his peers in classIdentity crisis: uncertainty and discomfort because of confusion regarding his present and future roles in life
Often actively disliked by peerschild’s comparative social standing or friendship with classmates
Belongingness & Love: affiliate with others, be acceptedGiving and receiving affection when absent will keenly feel the absences of friendsHunger for relations with peopleseek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. This involves both giving and receiving love, affection and the sense of belonging.
to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition.Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and respect from others. When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident and valuable as a person in the world. When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless.
Ability to give & receive loveSense of purpose & meaning in lifeComfortable with self & othersLonelinessWithdrawnApathyDelinquency
Hostile acts in response to provocation and fustration
Excessive or inadequate parental involvement can have a negative impact on the child’s school experience.Children want their parents to be involve but only to a certain extent – they need a supportive home environment but dislike their parents interfering in their personal lives.
Adolescents seek autonomy and do not want their parents to be overly involved in their lives.
Parental involvement that controls the child and has negative beliefs about the child’s ability is detrimental to the child’s academic achievement.
Greater work-life balance and motivation to study. Increase his motivation and self-esteem as he will feel that he has more control over his life.Understand his concerns and the problems that he is facing in school.Talk to Jeremy about his problems and think of ways to resolve these issues.Show Jeremy that they are concerned about his wellbeing.Create a more supportive home environment for Jeremy.His parents have negative beliefs about his potential. If they have more positive beliefs, Jeremy may be more motivated and do better in his studies.
Theories to explain for Jeremy's lack of self-esteem:<br />Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1979)<br />Concept of "attribution"<br />The attributions are more related to one’s (past) experiences <br />Theory suggests that people attribute success/failure to 4 factors: <br /> ability & effort (dispositional) <br /> luck & difficulty (situational)<br />Cause of failure:<br />Jeremy’s teachers: attributed his failure to his lack of effort(internal).<br />Jeremy himself: attributed his failure to his ability (external).<br />http://faculty.weber.edu/pstewart/6030/6030.html<br />
AT applied to JEREMY’s case<br /><ul><li> Mr Tan: So, you are the odd one out againhuh, Jeremy.
Ms Low: What is wrong with you? The rest of the class don't give me any problems. You are the only one!I get complaints from every subject teacher that you don't pay attention in class! Why can't you be like the others? </li></ul>Teachers as contributing component: <br /> through harsh/insensitive comments, reinforces his poor self-perception over time<br />“It's me. Me only. I am a problem. I am the only one with problems.”<br />Jeremy<br />http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/t/thought_bubble_gifts.asp<br />
AT applied to JEREMY’s case<br />Jeremy's poor academic performance also perpetuates his low self-esteem & perceptions of his own academic ability <br />Idea of "stability" (Weiner et al., 1983) <br />Failure ascribed to a stable cause like low ability will lead to decreased motivation (Tan et al., 2011p.336)<br />"Pygmalion Effect" (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968)<br />"I already tried so hard but I still cannot perform. Maybe I really just can't do it."<br />
Importance of Peers<br />Erikson's Psychosocial Development (Tan, et al 2010)<br />Identity VS Role Confusion (Adolescence, 12 to 18 years)<br />Point of Reference: Peer (conformity & social acceptance)<br />Cohesive sense of self in social groups<br />
Children who are rejected by their peers, who experience more loneliness and social isolation, are more likely to become disaffected from academic activities and eventually leave school. (Sage& Kindermann, 1999). <br />Importance of Peers<br />
Importance of Peers<br />“Peers are the most potent influence on their [students’] day-to-day behaviors in school (e.g., how much time they spend on homework, if they enjoy coming to school each day, how they behave in the classroom)” (Steinberg, Dornbusch, and Brown 1992, p.727)<br />
Importance of Peers<br />Adolescents who reported higher felt security with their peers also showed higher identity integration and general self-esteem. (Ryan et al, 1994)<br />
Jeremy: A Rejected Peer<br />Jeremy ostracized in class because he is different (e.g. rich) and does not participate in class events.<br />Relational aggressive behaviour: Teasing, ridiculing, ignoring Jeremy <br />
Maslow Hierarchy of NeedsBelonging Needs<br />Jeremy wished he could leave the class immediately. He has never felt that he belonged here. Then again, he has never felt that he belonged anywhere. He is so used to being alone. During recess time, he would always sit and eat alone. <br />
Jeremy: A Rejected Peer<br />Classmates ridicule Jeremy when he makes mistakes<br />
Maslow Hierarchy of NeedsEsteem Needs<br />Self-esteem<br />Esteem Jeremy gets from his peers<br />Feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless<br />
Jeremy: A Rejected Peer<br />Inadequate social skills: inability to interact and get along with others <br />
Jeremy: A Rejected Peer<br />Loneliness: Sharing his problems with Dino, his toy dinosaur<br />Withdrawn: Refuses to participate in group discussion despite Misha’s continued attempts<br />Reactive aggressive Behaviour: against teacher, after she embarrassed him in front of the whole class.<br />
Problem Area 3: Parents<br />The Impact of Parenting Styles on <br />Student Motivation and Self Esteem<br />
Impact of Parenting Style on Student motivation<br />Parental Involvement:<br /> “the extent to which a parent is dedicated to, takes an interest in, is knowledgeable about, and is actively participating in the child’s life” <br /> (Hoang, 2007: 3)<br />Greatly impacts a child’s school experience (Coleman and McNeese, 2009).<br />Affects the academic achievement of children (Pomerantz et al, 2007).<br />
Impact of Parenting Style on Student motivation<br />Authoritarian parents Children are more extrinsically motivated.<br />Permissive parents Children are less motivated and independent.<br />Authoritative parents Children are more intrinsically motivate, as they feel that they have greater control over their education <br />(Hoang, 2007) <br />
Impact of Parenting Styles on Student’s Self-Esteem<br />Parental involvement affects the academic achivement of their children. <br />Parenting styles influence the self-esteem of students.<br />(Smith, 2006)<br />Authoritative parents Higher self-esteem<br />Authoritarian parents Lower Self Esteem<br />Permissive Parents Lower Self Esteem<br />
Jeremy’s Case<br />Parenting Style: Authoritarian<br />Demanding – Jeremy has to produce good academic results. <br />Excessive control over Jeremy’s life<br />Not emotionally responsive<br />
Problem Area 4: Self<br />The Impact of Self on <br />Student Motivation and Self Esteem<br />
Identity Diffusion: Marcia’s Identity Status Theory<br />Low self esteem<br />Willing to accept an identity given to him by others<br />forming an identity of himself as an outcast and a good-for-nothing<br />Self-fulfilling prophecy influenced by teachers, peers and parents<br />
Identity Diffusion: Marcia’s Identity Status Theory<br />Lack of ideological and vocational direction <br />reflects apathy and a lack of concern about directing his present and future life <br />passive and affective: remains quiet and unresponsive despite the taunts of his friends<br />Reclusive: chooses not to interact with his friends or any human beings in general but his soft toy instead<br />
Identity Diffusion: Marcia’s Identity Status Theory<br />Cognitive Performance<br />No differences in intelligence across identity statuses<br />Exhibits withdrawal in the face of challenges<br />Impulsive behaviour which could translate into poor academic achievement<br />
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory<br />Industry and Inferiority/ Identity and Role Confusion<br />Jeremy’s psychosocial development has been adversely affected by stages of his life<br />there may be problems/failures in his childhood during the age of 7 to 11 that has caused him to feel inferior<br />This may subsequently result in his lack of self-esteem and self-worth<br />
Solutions - Teachers<br />Teachers can try to be more understanding of Jeremy's situation (introvert, low self-esteem), <br /> + Be more sensitive (more cautious when making comments and remarks), <br /> + Be more encouraging (good guess, Jeremy but this may not be the best answer. do you want to give it another try?) recognize his efforts at trying.<br />
Solutions - Peers<br />Teacher to talk to Jeremy’s classmates <br />Opportunities for cooperative learning: assign groups<br />Establish rules governing acceptable classroom behaviour<br />
Solutions - Parents<br />Counselling for the parents<br />Suggest ways in which they can adopt a more authoritative parenting style, instead of an authoritarian one.<br />Give Jeremy greater autonomy and independence Boost his self-esteem<br />Lower their expectations of his academic performance<br />
Solutions - Parents<br />Reduce his tuition and give him more time to spend on non-academic activities<br />Parents have to spend more time with Jeremy.<br />Parents should have more positive beliefs about Jeremy’s potential.<br />
Solutions - Self<br />Give Jeremy counseling on the following<br />How to socialize with other people<br />Studying strategies <br />
References<br />Abrams, K., Theberge S.K. and Orv C.K. (2005), Children and Adolescents Who Are Depressed: An Ecological Approach. Professional School Counseling (8)3, pp. 284-92.<br />Bronfenbrenner, U. (1974). Developmental research, public policy, and the ecology of childhood (1974). Child Development, 45, pp. 1-5.<br />Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. <br />Coleman, B., McNeese, M.N. (2009) From home to school: The relationship among parental involvement, student motivation, and academic motivation, International Journal of Learning, 16 (7), pp. 459-470.<br />Cote, J.E. and Schwartz, S.J. (2002) Comparing psychological and sociological approaches to identity: identity status, identity capital, and the individualization process. Journal of Adolescence, 25, pp. 571–586.<br /> <br />
References<br />Dede P. & John R. (2001). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory Retrieved from: pt3.nl.edu/paquetteryanwebquest.pdf [Assessed on 20 September 2011]<br />Hoang, T.N. (2007) The relations between parents and adolescent motivation, International Journal of Whole Schooling, 3 (2), pp. 1-21.<br />Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from: http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html[Assessed on 20 September 2011]<br />Karkkainen, R., Raty, H. and Kasanen, K. (2011). 'Parents' Perceptions of the Malleability of their child's Academic Competencies', Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol.55(3), pp.213-224. <br />Marcia, J.E. (1980) Identity in Adolescence. In: Adelson, J. (ed.) Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, New York: Wiley and Sons, pp. 159-187.<br /> <br />
References<br /> Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. <br />McArthur, J. (2011). '"What Happened?" Teaching Attribution Theory through Ambiguous Prompts', Communication Teacher, Vol.25(1), pp.32-36. <br />McDougall, P., Hymel, S., Vaillancourt, T., & Mercer, L. (2001). The consequences of childhood rejection. In M. R. Leary (Ed.), Interpersonal rejection. (pp. 213-247). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.<br />Pomerantz, E.M., Moorman, E.A. & Litwack, S.D. (2007) The How, Whom and Why of Parental Involvement in Children’s Academic Lives, Review of Educational Research, 77 (3), pp. 373-410.<br />Robins, R.W. and Trzesniewski, K.H. (2005) Self-esteem development across the lifespan. Current Directions in Psychological Science,14(3), pp. 158-162.<br /> <br />
References<br /> Ryan, R. M., Stiller, J. D., & Lynch, J. H. (1994). Representations of relationships to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, pp. 226 –249.<br />Sage, N. A., & Kindermann, T. A. (1999). Peer networks, behavior contingencies, and children’s engagement in the classroom. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, pp. 143–171. <br />Smith, G.J. (2006) Parenting effects on self efficacy and self-esteem in Late Adolescence and how those factors impact adjustment into college. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association (78th, Philadelphia, PA, March 23-25, 2007.<br />Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S. M., & Brown, B. B. (1992). Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement. American Psychologist, 47, pp. 723–729. <br />Tan, O.S., Parsons, R.D., Hinson, S.L. and Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A Practitioner-Researcher Approach An Asian Edition (2nd Ed). Singapore: Thomson, pp.333-339.<br /> <br />
References<br />Weiner, B. (1972). Theories of Motivation: From mechanism to cognition. Chicago: Rand McNally. <br />Weiner, B., Graham, S., Taylor, S. and Meyer, W. (1983). Social Cognition in the classroom, Educational Psychologist, Vol.18, pp..109-104.<br />Williams, K. D., Joseph P. F., William von H. (2005). The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying. Psychology Press. <br /> <br />