Railways

1,244 views

Published on

Published in: Economy & Finance
  • Be the first to comment

Railways

  1. 1. Starter A tale of two cities ….List anything you know about Manchester and Liverpool Manchester Liverpool
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes By the end of the lesson we will be able to…. Explain the significance of the Rainhill trials for the growth of the railways
  3. 3. History Department <ul><li>He stopped employing children under ten and reduced their labour to ten hours a day. </li></ul><ul><li>The young children went to the nursery and infant schools that Owen had built. </li></ul><ul><li>Older children worked in the factory but also had to attend his secondary school for part of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>They were taught the basics of reading, writing and mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Owen's partners were concerned that these reforms would reduce profits. </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to convince them of the wisdom of these reforms, Owen decided to borrow money from Archibald Campbell, a local banker, in order to buy their share of the business. </li></ul><ul><li>When Owen arrived at New Lanark children from as young as five were working for thirteen hours a a day the textile mills. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Owen hoped that the way he treated children at his New Lanark would encourage other factory owners to follow his example </li></ul><ul><li>Some did follow his ways, although others were simply concerned with making a profit at the expense of the workers. </li></ul>Robert Owen 1771 - 1858
  4. 4. History Department <ul><li>Although some of the factory owners employed children as young as five, Arkwright's policy was to wait until they reached the age of six. </li></ul><ul><li>Two-thirds of Arkwright's 1,900 workers were children. </li></ul><ul><li>Arkwright was unwilling to employ people over the age of forty. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Arkwright's employees worked from six in the morning to seven at night. </li></ul><ul><li>Was an influential businessman </li></ul><ul><li>He put profits before the needs of his workers </li></ul><ul><li>He died a millionaire </li></ul>Richard Arkwright 1732 - 1792
  5. 5. History Department <ul><li>Daughter of a clergyman, wrote novels highlighting important social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Social issues means talking about things that affect everyone such as people wearing a veil in public that’s been in the news recently. </li></ul><ul><li>She lived in America for a while, and observed how rich people lived </li></ul><ul><li>1839 became involved in the campaign against employment of children in factories </li></ul><ul><li>Her novel, Jonathan Jefferson Whitlaw , was about the evils of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>One critic claimed that the novel encouraged people to hate factory owners and suggested that Trollope should be sent to prison for writing such a dangerous book. </li></ul><ul><li>Her son later wrote books which criticised some of the conditions in factories and her family remained an influential voice on promoting reform </li></ul>Francis Trollope 1780 - 1863
  6. 6. History Department <ul><li>Andrew Ure was born in Glasgow on 18th May 1778. </li></ul><ul><li>Born into a wealthy family, Ure received an expensive education </li></ul><ul><li>He would not have liked poor people, or children </li></ul><ul><li>In 1834 Ure travelled around the factory districts of Britain. His book The Philosophy of Manufacturers was published in 1835. </li></ul><ul><li>In the start of the book he claimed that he had written the book so that &quot;masters, managers, and operatives would follow the straight paths of improvement&quot; and hoped that it would help &quot;prevent them from pursuing dangerous ideas&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>This meant he did not want people following ideas such as those talked about by Owen. </li></ul>Andrew Ure 1778 - 1857
  7. 7. Starter Why the Manchester / Liverpool question?
  8. 9. Presenting new information You will see, or hear,10 bits of information that are connected with our two cities, on your grid you have to decide whether they are connected to the city of Manchester or Liverpool.
  9. 10. Mini quiz Rainhill railway trials The Beatles Grand National Coronation St Commonwealth games Oasis Football clip Bez John Lennon airport Brookside Football clip Liverpool Manchester Information
  10. 11. Mini quiz
  11. 12. Mini quiz
  12. 13. Mini quiz
  13. 14. Mini quiz
  14. 15. Mini quiz
  15. 16. Mini quiz
  16. 17. Mini quiz Commonwealth Games 2002
  17. 18. Mini quiz
  18. 19. Mini quiz
  19. 20. Mini quiz
  20. 21. Mini quiz
  21. 22. Group work 9(1) The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways, run in October of 1829 near Rainhill (just outside Liverpool). When the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was approaching completion, the directors of the railway ran a competition to decide whether stationary steam engines or locomotives would be used to pull the trains. The Rainhill Trials were arranged as an open contest that would let them see all the locomotive candidates in action, with the choice to follow. Regardless of whether or not locomotives were settled upon, a prize of £500 was offered to the winner of the trials.
  22. 23. Group work 9(4) The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways, run in October of 1829 near Rainhill (just outside Liverpool). A competition was held to decide whether stationary steam engines or locomotives would be used to pull the trains. It was an open contest - a prize of £500 was offered to the winner of the trials.
  23. 24. Group work 9(1) San Pareil Rules The Novelty Perseverance Cycloped The Rocket
  24. 25. Group work 9(1) San Pareil Rules The Novelty Perseverance Cycloped The Rocket Fela,Leah,Sonia, Rakim, Leighton Aran, Daniyal, Oliver, Michael, Ridhwan Sehrish, Beth, Sam, Jack, Tom, James Jacob, Elvin, Jonathan, Abubaker, Hassan,Ewan, Dylan
  25. 26. Group task Question Explaining your group and the role played in the Rainhill trials Key Skill Collaboration, working as part of a team to produce a quality product Challenge Working in your team it is your challenge to produce a presentation, and visual, representation to the rest of the class that explain your group title and it’s role in the Rainhill trials. You can use sugar paper, pens, glue, etc You should aim to make your presentation informative and interesting – and humorous if possible! It must include a ‘golden-nugget’ moment – a line, or phrase that sums up the information you wish the others in the class to know Criteria Presentation is no more than 5 mins in length All members of the team must contribute to the presentation
  26. 27. Any other comments? Does it fit into the time period without running short / going over , and are all group members involved? Does the presentation include a visual display? Is there evidence of other materials apart from the text book being utilised? Is the presentation memorable? Is there a ‘golden-nugget’ we are made aware of to aid our learning, and understanding? Is the presentation informative? Does the presentation include an overview of the prescribed topic area? Comment / suggestion Yes/No Assessment criteria
  27. 28. Rules 9(1) Locomotives that were entered were to be subjected to a variety of tests and conditions. These were amended at various points, but were eventually nailed down to: &quot;The weight of the locomotive engine, with its full complement of water in the boiler, shall be ascertained at the weighing machine, by eight o'clock in the morning, and the load assigned to it shall be three times the weight thereof. The water in the boiler shall be cold, and there shall be no fuel in the fire-place. As much fuel shall be weighed, and as much water shall be measured and delivered into the tender-carriage, as the owner of the engine may consider sufficient for the supply of the engine for a journey of 35 mile [56 km]. The fire in the boiler shall then be lighted and the quantity of fuel consumed for getting up the steam shall be determined, and the time noted. &quot;The tender-carriage, with the fuel and water, shall be considered to be, and taken as a part of the load assigned to the engine. &quot;Those engines that carry their own fuel and water, shall be allowed a proportionate deduction from their load, according to the weight of the engine. &quot;The engine, with the carriages attached to it, shall be run by hand up to the starting-post, and as soon as the steam, is got up to fifty pounds per square inch [345 kPa], the engine shall set out upon its journey. &quot;The distance the engine shall perform each trip, shall be one mile and three-quarters [2.8 km] each way, including one-eighth of a mile [200 m] at each end for getting up the speed, and for stopping the train; by this means the engine with its load will travel one and a half mile [2.4 km] each way at full speed. &quot;The engine shall make ten trips, which will be equal to a journey of thirty-five miles [56 km]; thirty-miles [48 km] whereof shall be performed at full speed, and the average rate of travelling shall not be less than ten miles per hour [16 km/h].&quot; [Note: The only other passenger railway in the world at that time, the Stockton and Darlington Railway , had an average speed of only about 13 km/h (8 mph).] &quot;As soon as the engine has performed this task, (which will be equal to the travelling from Liverpool to Manchester,) there shall be a fresh supply of fuel and water delivered to her; and as soon as she can be got ready to set out again, she shall go up to the starting-post, and make ten trips more, which will be equal to the journey from Manchester back again to Liverpool. &quot;The time of performing every trip shall be accurately noted, as well as the time occupied in getting ready to set out on the second journey. &quot;Should the engine not be enabled to take along with it sufficient fuel and water for the journey of ten trips, the time occupied in taking in a fresh supply of fuel and water, shall be considered and taken as a part of the time in performing the journey.
  28. 29. Starter:- <ul><li>These are the answers, so what are the questions…? </li></ul>The Rainhill Trials Liverpool – Manchester Railway The Rocket The Novelty £500 -
  29. 30. Starter:- <ul><li>How could you improve each one of the engines? </li></ul>The San Pareil – I could improve it by replacing…… The Novelty was the crowd favourite but I could make it better by….. The Rocket won the trial , but I would make it win even easier by changing….
  30. 31. Rules 9(1) Rules of the Rainhill Competition 1st: That each engine entered for the competition should weigh not more than six tons, and be capable of drawing after it, day by day, on a level plain, a train of carriages of a gross weight, equal to three times the weight of the engine itself, at a rate of not less than ten miles per hour, with a pressure of steam in the boiler not exceeding 50lb. on the square inch. 2nd: That the engine and boiler should he supported on springs, and rest on six wheels, and the height from the ground to the top of the chimney should not exceed 15 feet. 3rd: That the engine should &quot;effectually consume its own smoke;&quot; 4th That there should he two safety-valves, one of which should be completely out of the reach of the engine-man's interference. The gentlemen appointed by the directors to act as judges on the J. U. Rastrick, Esq., of Stourbridge, civil engineer, Nicholas Wood, Esq., of Killingworth, civil engineer, and John Kennedy, Esq., of Manchester. The portion of the railway chosen for the &quot;running ground&quot; was on the Manchester side of Rainhill Bridge, (about nine miles from Liverpool) where the railway runs for two or three miles on a dead level.  
  31. 32. Rules 9(4) One of the first successful railways built was the Liverpool to Manchester railway which opened in 1830. This opening followed the Rainhill Trials which took place in 1829 to decide the best type of steam locomotive to be used on the new railway. The railway company offered a prize of £500 for the winning design, and the competition attracted a crowd of 15,000 excited people. Ten locomotives were originally entered for the competition, but only 5 turned up. Each locomotive had to run twenty times up and down the track at Rainhill. This was roughly the distance equivelent to a return trip between Manchester and Liverpool.
  32. 33. Rules 9(4) £500 cash
  33. 34. Competitors Engine The San Pareil by Mr Hackworth of Darlington Weight 4 tons Pulling power 12 tons Speed Unknown Reliability The boiler burst during the trial, so the engine was not able to complete its run; a compact design made the engine steady when travelling
  34. 35. Competitors Engine The Rocket by Mr Stephenson of Newcastle Weight 4 tons Pulling power 17 tons Speed 22 km per hour Reliability No breakdowns during the trial, so it was able to complete its run; a high chimney made the engine a little unsteady when travelling, which meant it swayed from side to side.
  35. 36. Competitors Engine The Novelty by Mr Braithwaite and Mr Ericsson of London Weight 2 tons Pulling power 6 tons Speed Up to 45 km per hour Reliability Failed to complete the trials because the joints of the boiler gave way; however the engine was light, compact and speedy.
  36. 37. Rules 9(1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainhill_Trials
  37. 38. Today’s lesson Improve and design the Cycloped by using our knowledge gained from the presentations
  38. 39. So, who won then?
  39. 40. HW
  40. 41. Task I want you to ‘Pimp’ up the Cycloped which (we briefly mentioned) didn’t even complete the course. You can use parts from all the other engines you did your presentations on. I want you to do this in the form of a storyboard like you did with Tom and the Industrial Revolution
  41. 42. History Department Pimp my Ride – the Cycloped produced by …………………...

×