Hell0o0o0 everyone…. This is Ahmad Alqahtani narrating the presentation of the project, which I gave the name Carbon Footprint of Euro Village Compound.I selected the Euro Village Compound to be my project because I knew I will cover all three scopes of the Greenhouse Gas emissions, which made it really interesting and challenging. ……Let’s talk about the agenda for this presentation.
I will start my presentation with an overview of the compound and the facilities I found there. An then I will talk about the scopes of the emissions followed by the methodology used. By methodlogy, I mean the approach, data collection, GRP tier methods, and also the emission factors I adopted.After that I am going to show the calculation results of the total emissions for Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Methane and HFCs. I will explain how the compound can reduce these emissions in a realistic and feasible way. Afterwards I will point out some of the risks of not reducing the emissions and opportunities in making Euro Village more sustainable. I will finish my presentation with recommendations to improve the inventory process in the future.
-Euro Village is a fully serviced residential and office complex located in Khobar, Saudi Arabia. It was built in 1975 and has been expanding since then.-The compound purchases electricity from the Saudi Electricity Company and desalinates well water on site using Reverse Osmosis.- The compound contains 470 villas, 6 office buildings, 2 hotels, 3 workshops for maintenance, one school, one nursery, one gym, and 5 kitchens.
You see in this slide examples of the different types of facilities; In the top, two villas built in the 80’s and 90’s, in the bottom: an office building and a hotel built seven years ago.
This is a snapshot shot from google maps showing a satellite image of the compound.TRANSFORMATIONAL SENTENCE: Now that you have a picture of what this facility looks like, I can talk about the sources of emissions.
Scope 1 emissions are produced as a result of stationary combustion of LPG at the kitchen, ………. mobile combustion of diesel and gasoline, ……….. and fugitive emissions from the maintenance of AC systems. The maintenance group uses small quantity of CFC, which is not one of the six gases but I included it and treated it as an HFC.- The only Scope 2 source is purchased electricity.- I found many scope 3 sources but only calculated one source:…… employee travel.
Since the management of the has full control over the operational policies and pays for the bills, the operational control approach was determined to be most appropriate.It will enable the mgmt to implement necessary changes to reduce the carbon footprint.All offices and 4 kitchens are leased, where the compound is responsible for running everything including maintaining the buildings and appliances, utilities supplies, and pays for bills. It is an operating lease.
EV has over 600 monthly bills because it is treated by the Saudi Electricity Company as a residential sector. Almost each building has a meter. Sometimes a cluster of 4 or 5 buildings, depending on the demand of electricity, has one meter.The electric bills are managed as financial bills and electric consumption was not extract from the bills. To extract the amount of electricity consumption from the bills, one of the accounting assistant as well as myself went through all the bills from 2011.The LPG, Freon, bills were used to calculate the consumption bimonthly and monthly.Freon supplies were provided by the maintenance engineer.
STATIONARY COMBUSTION: To calculate emissions from stationary combustion of LPG, I used tier C method because I could not obtain the measured carbon or heat content. There is someuncertainties when choosing values of emissions based on the GRP values because the chemical and physical characteristics of the local products might be different from those sold in the USMOBILE COMBUSTION: The distance traveled by the fleet had to be estimated in order to calculate CH4 and N2O emissions. The accountant provided estimation of distance traveled by the fleet based fuel quantity and daily pattern provided by the accountant FUGITIVE EMISSIONS: I used Tier A method to calculate fugitive emissions because I obtained the actual consumption for both refrigerants. For HFC-22 and CFC-11, the GWP values were adopted from Refrigerant Management Program implemented by California Environmental Protection Agency.
Tier A method could not be used because neither the Saudi Electricity Company nor the government published information about the power plants. Because the electricity grid is fed from three different plants that use different fuels, I used the emission factors for electricity generation in Saudi Arabia for the period between1999 and 2002. I quoted the factors from the Energy Information Administration. These factors were calculated using the average emissions intensity of all power plants in Saudi Arabia and included Transmissions and Distribution losses.For Scope 3 employee travel, I utilized the reference for our first assignment, carbonfootprint.com. I assumed that employee travel stops at they city they landed at in their home country.
- In 2011, Euro Village contributed more than 53 thousand metric ton of CO2 equivalent as a result of the operations. More than 99% if the evaluated emissions were released as a result of electricity consumption and HFCs emissions. In the next few slides, I will describe the all of these emissions with emphasis on electricity and fugitive emissions.
- The first scope 1 emissions are released from LPG burners used in one kitchen, which is maintained by the management. The LPG burners released more than 23 metric ton of co2 equivalent in 2011. The gas is stored in a buried tank similar to that in the picture.
- The buses shown in the pictures are some of the sources of mobile combustion on the compound. Diesel and gasoline vehicles contributed 236 mtCO2e and represent less than 0.5% of the total emissions.
The total fugitive emissions topped 6,000 mtCO2e and account for more than 11% of the total emissions. As you can see from the pie charts, 9% of those emissions were caused by the consumption of 150 kg of CFC-11.- Likely, the HCFC-22 consumption of more than 3,700 kg resulted in more than 5500 of mtCO2e.
The graph shows scope 2 electricity consumption in 2011, which is the largest source representing 87% of the total emissions. It produced more than 47,000 metric ton CO2 equivalent.If you look at the red and blue lines, you can see the average summer consumption is about 6 million kWh, which is 70% more than the average winter consumption of just over 3.5 million kWh. When we talk about reduction, I will explain the best way to trim the top of this curve.
-Scope 3 emissions include those emissions from the leased kitchens, waste collection, employee commuting, business travel, sewage treatment and shipping of appliances and construction material to name a few.-The only scope 3 emissions I calculated was the employee travel. The employees are mostly expatriates who come from Nepal, India, and the Philippines and repatriate every two years. -In 2011, 105 employees traveled to their home countries for vacation according to the vacation records. I calculated the emissions released from all of those flights using carbonfootprint.com calculator.
TRANSITIONAL: Now I would like to talk about the best ways I found suitable to reduce the emissions of the compound. The first step that needs to be taken is including tracking and accounting of electricity consumption in the books.In order to track electricity consumption, having individual meters at each single facility is a must to link the facilities with the electricity bill. This can be done on an excel sheet that shows the account number, consumption and the corresponding housing unit. The monthly consumption of the whole compound should be accounted monthly and used to monitor the highest energy intensive units.These two steps will identify the units that can be improved to reduce the cost of energy and ultimately the emissions.
The performance of those high energy units can be tested by the Blower Door Test. it is an air tightness test where a large fan is placed at the main door to create negative pressure in a house. The test helps locate the sources of air leaks.Then a thermographic scan can be done to quantify the heat loss.The tracking, accounting and auditing of the unit energy demand is necessary to find the wasted energy and money and also maximize the investment by locating the most needy units.
TRANSITIONAL: Now let’s talk about improving the energy efficiency. For new construction or renovation of housing units, thermal insulation is the most important element. It should be examined carefully to maximize energy efficiency, particularly during wall and roof assemblies, insulation, and window selection.Old windows and slider doors should be replaced with lower U-factor windows, which can save up to 25% of the cooling energy.
ACs account for roughly 26% of the total electricity consumption. Replacing oldAcs, like the one shown in the picture, with high Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) will reduce the cooling cost at least by 20% and would consequently.Include filter cleaning or replacement in the regular maintenance schedule to improve the efficiency by 5%.
Since EV provides full serviced housing, it owns thousands of appliances ranging from an exhaust fan to a microwave.Energy Star website includes energy ratings for all kinds of appliances and should be used to replace non-efficient appliances.Even within Energy Star certified appliances, some are more efficient that the others. So always look at labels or wattage for the lowest annual consumption Energy Star replacements must be considered as a factor in addition to performance, reliability and cost.
- For Acs R-22 can be replaced with R-134a, which has a lower GWP and can deliver comparable performance.- For refrigerators and chillers HFC-123 is an ideal replacement because it has a GWP of 90 compared to 3,800 for CFC11.
Upgrading the older parts of the compound and substituting refrigerants are the keys to reduce the emissions. The compound has the potential to reduce 20% of the emissions, which weighs more than 10,000 metric ton of CO2 equivalent.Quick wins listed in the slide can be implemented immediately. Investment in energy efficiency will be the bulk of the reduction.
- This inventory should be updated if more information is obtained about the consumption, recent emissions factors, carbon content of diesel or gasoline, or others related to the inventory.- If the compound decides to conduct a second inventory of 2012, ways to improve the quality should be considered. Improving the documentations, such as transportations records and maintenance history, will lead a more accurate assessment of the energy needs.
- Thank you for listening to me and wish you a good day.
Final presentation for the final project ahmad alqahtani
Carbon Footprint of EuroVillage CompoundAhmad AlqahtaniProf. GoodeE-16May 2012
Agenda Description of Euro Village (EV) Sources of Emissions Methodology GHG emissions GHG reduction plans Improving the inventory 2
Description EVA fully serviced residential/office complex located in Khobar, Saudi Arabia Built in 1975, multiple expansion 80s, 90s, 00s. Purchases electricity from the Saudi Electricity Company Desalinates water onsite using RO Consists of: 470 villas one school 6 office buildings one nursery 2 hotels one gym 3 workshops 5 kitchens (dining halls) 3
Description EV 80’s villa 90’s villaEuroInn (built in 2005) Office building 4
Sources Sources of emissions Scope Type of source GHG emissions Sources1 Stationary Combustion CO2, CH4, N2O Kitchens uses LPG for cooking Mobile Combustion CO2, CH4, N2O Trucks, pickups, buses and cars Fugitive Emissions HCFC-22 CFC-11 Refrigerators and ACs2 Purchased Electricity CO2, CH4, N2O SEC power plant3 Employee Travel CO2, CH4, N2O International Flights 6
Methodology Approach Operational control - full control over the operational policies. All facilities are run and managed by EV All offices and 4 out of 5 kitchens are leased EV responsible for all bills and maintenance One exception is LPG for leased kitchens 7
Methodology Data collection Scope 1 LPG bills Freon gas usage records Diesel and gasoline annual consumption Distance traveled was estimated Scope 2 Over 6000 Electric bills. Scope 3 Vacation schedule 8
Methodology The GRP methods Scope 1 Stationary Combustion Tier C method Emission factors for fuel type (natural gas) and commercial end user to calculate CH4 and N2O emission factors Mobile Combustion Tier B for CO2 emissions and tier C for CH4 and N2O Distance traveled estimated. Fugitive Emissions Tier A method GWP cited from California Environmental Protection Agency. 9
Methodology Continue the GRP methods Scope 2 Electricity Tier B Method. Emission factors were cited from EIA Scope 3 Employee Travel Calculated using carbonfootprint.com 10
GHG Emissions Total emissions The total emissions released by EV in 2011 was 53,767 metric ton of CO2 equivalent Purchased electricity + fugitive emissions = over 99% Scope Emission category Emissions (mtCO2e) % of total emissions Stationary Combustion 23 0.04% 1Mobile Combustion 236 0.44% Fugitive Emissions 6,156 11.45% 2Purchased Electricity 47,272 87.92% 3Employee Travel 80 0.15% Total 53,767 100.00% 11
GHG Emissions Scope 1 LPG Released about 23 mtCO2e in 2011 Only one kitchen 12
GHG Emissions Scope 1 Mobile Combustion 236 mtCO2e representing less than 0.5%. 13
GHG Emissions Scope 1 Fugitive Emissions Thetotal emissions topped 6,000 mtCO2e More than 11% of the total emissions Mass Consumed Global Warming Potential (Kg) (mtCO2e) 150 570 4% 9% HCFC-22 CFC-11 3,724 5585 96% 91% 14
GHG Emissions Scope 2 Electricity consumption released more than 47,000 mtCO2e kWh Electricity consumption 2011 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 *Electricity consumption increases roughly by 70% in the summer due to AC usage. 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 Jan-11 Feb-11 Mar-11 Apr-11 May-11 Jun-11 Jul-11 Aug-11 Sep-11 Oct-11 Nov-11 Dec-11 Electricity Consumption Average summer Average winter 15
GHG Emissions Scope 3 Employee Travel- only calculated scope 3 emissions Caluculated through carbonfootprint.com Radiative Force not factored in. # of emps. Destinations (main airport) Total (mtCO2e) 47 Kathmandu, Nepal 33.21 35 Calicut, India 22.73 16 Manila, the Philippines’ 21.15 3 Islamabad, Pakistan 1.43 4 Cairo, Egypt 1.48 105 80 mtCO2e Table 3 shows the number of employees who traveled in 2011. Carbon Footprint Ltd. Carbon Footprint Calculator. 22 April 2012 <http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx>. 16
Reduction Tracking and Accounting Tracking Install a meter at every unit link bills to the consuming unit Accounting Record monthly consumption per unit Monitor and identify most energy intensive 17
Reduction Energy Audit Blower Door Test Air tightness test Thermographic Scan Heat loss measurement Record wattage from labels of all appliances 18
Reduction Energy Efficiency Construction Invest in thermal envelope (wall, roof, air/vapor retarders Intensify weather-stripping and sealing Low U-factor windows can save up to 25% 19
Reduction …Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning Roughly 26% of total electricity consumption Replace ACs older than 20 years with high SEER to save at least 20% of cooling costs Include filter cleaning or replacement to improve the efficiency by 5% 20
Reduction …Energy Efficiency Energy Star Appliances Thousands of electrical appliances, at least 13 per a unit. Energystar.gov Look at labels for the most efficient 21
Reduction Replacement of HCFC-22 & CFC-11 HCFC-22 Replace with R-134a CFC-11 Replace with HFC-123 22
Suggested Target Suggested target 20% reduction by 2020 Will result in reduction of over 10,000 mtCO2e Quick wins ACs filter maintenance = 1% Replacing CFC-11 = 1% Replacing HCFC-22 = 1% 8 year investment plan More efficient ACs = 7% reduction Improved construction = 5% reduction More efficient appliances = 5% 23
Quality Management Updating the inventory Updated emission factors Carbon content of diesel and gasoline Quality Improvement Inventory of 2012? Improving documentation Records of daily distance traveled 24
References Bhaskaran, Anup. Manager Accounts. Ahmad Alqahtani. 14 April 2012. Carbon Footprint Ltd. Carbon Footprint Calculator. 22 April 2012 <http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx>. Emissions Factors & Policy Applications Center. "Emissions Factors & AP 42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors." July 2008. US Environmental Protection Department. Emmanuel, Gerard. Maintenance engineer Ahmad Alqahtani. 03 03 2012. Gina McCarthy et al. "General Reporting Protocol." May 2008. The Climate Registry. 4 March 2012. Lahn, Glada and Paul Stevens. "Burning Oil to Keep Cool: The Hidden Energy Crisis in Saudi Arabia." December 2011. Chatham House. 30 April 2012 <http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/Research/Energy,%20Environment%20and%20Develo pment/1211pr_lahn_stevens.pdf>. MacHarg, John , Thomas F Seacord and Bradley Sessions. ADC baseline tests reveal trends. 20 November 200. 7 April 2012 <http://www.affordabledesal.com/home/DWR%20SWRO%20Profile%20Aug-Sept-08%20article.pdf>. National Gas and Industrial Company. Gas History. 2008. 06 April 2012 <http://www.gasco.com.sa/index.asp?id=79>. Office of Air and Radiation. Environmental Protection Agency. "Climate Leaders Greenhouse Gas Inventory Protocol Core Module Guidance: Direct HFC and PFC emissions from use of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment." May 2008. United States Environmental Protection Department. 5 3 2012 <http://www.epa.gov/climateleadership/documents/resources/mfgrfg.pdf>. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy. Central Air Conditioners. 02 September 2011. 5 April 2012 <http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heating_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12440>. Refrigerant Management Program Staff. Refrigerant Management Program. 2012. 26 April 2012 <http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/reftrack/reftrackrefrigerants.htm>. SG/Reuters. Saudi Arabia to implement new power tariff. 6 June 2010. 30 April 2012 <http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentID=2010060674522>. US Department of Energy. Elements of an Energy-Efficient House. July 2000. 29 March 2012 <http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy00osti/27835.pdf>. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. "Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases." Energy Information Adminstration. US Department of Energy. 19 April 2012 <http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/1605/pdf/Appendix%20F_r071023.pdf>. 26