Hell0o0o0 everyone…. This is Ahmad Alqahtani narrating the presentation of the project, which I gave the name Carbon Footprint of Euro Village Compound.I selected the Euro Village Compound to be my project because I knew I will cover all three scopes of the Greenhouse Gas emissions, which made it really interesting and challenging. ……Let’s talk about the agenda for this presentation.
I will start my presentation with an overview of the compound and the facilities I found there. An then I will talk about the scopes of the emissions followed by the methodology used. By methodlogy, I mean the approach, data collection, GRP tier methods, and also the emission factors I adopted.After that I am going to show you how I calculated the total emissions for Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Methane and HFCs. I will explain how the compound can reduce these emissions in a realistic and feasible way. Afterwards I will point out some of the risks of not reducing the emissions and opportunities in making Euro Village more sustainable. I will finish my presentation with recommendations to improve the inventory process in the future.
-Euro Village is a fully serviced residential and office complex located in Khobar, Saudi Arabia. It was built in 1975 and has been expanding since then.-The compound purchases electricity from the Saudi Electricity Company and desalinates well water on site using Reverse Osmosis.
You see in this slide examples of villas built in the 70’s 80’s 90’s and a hotel built seven years ago.
This is a snapshot shot from google maps showing a satellite image of the compound.TRANSFORMATIONAL SENTENCE: Now that you have a picture of what this facility looks like, I can talk about the sources of emissions.
Scope 1 emissions are produced as a result of stationary combustion of LPG at the kitchen, ………. mobile combustion of diesel and gasoline, ……….. and fugitive emissions from the maintenance of AC systems. The maintenance group uses small quantity of CFC, which is not one of the six gases but I included it and treated it as an HFC.- The only Scope 2source is purchased electricity.- I found many scope 3 sources but only calculated one source:…… employee travel.
Since the management has full control over the operational policies and pays for the bills, the operational control approach is most appropriate. It will enable the mgmt to implement necessary changes to reduce the carbon footprint.All offices and 4 kitchens are leased, where the compound is responsible for running everything including maintaining the buildings and appliances, utilities supplies, and pays for electricity bills as per an operating lease.This lease exclude LPG supplies for the leased kitchens.
EV has over 600 monthly bills because it is treated by the Saudi Electricity Company as a residential sector. Almost each building has a meter. Sometimes a cluster of 4 or 5 buildings, depending on the demand of electricity, has one meter.Currently, electricbills are managed as financial costs and electric consumption is not extracted from the bills. To extract the amount of electricity consumption from bills of 2011, one of the accounting assistant and myself went through over 6000 bills from 2011.The LPG, Freon, bills were used to calculate the consumption bimonthly and monthly,…. in that order. Much easier than the electric bills. The maintenance engineer, Emmanuel, provided me with information on Freon supplies.
There is someuncertainties when I chose values of emissions based on the GRP values because the chemical and physical characteristics of the local products might be different from those sold in the US. For example, the LPG sold in Saudi Arabia may have different heat value than that sold in the US and, therefore, may have different emission factors.The distance traveled by the fleet had to be estimated in order to calculate CH4 and N2O emissions. The accountant provided estimation of distance traveled by the fleet based fuel quantity and daily pattern.GWP values were adopted from Refrigerant Management Program set up by California Environmental Protection Agency.
Because the electricity grid is fed from two different plants that use different fuel types, the emission factors for electricity generation in Saudi Arabia for the period between 1999 and 2002 were quoted from the Energy Information Administration. The factors were calculated using the average emissions intensity of all power plants in Saudi Arabia and included Transmissions and Distribution losses.
- The 99% is of the assessed emissions. Calculating other scope 3 emissions will lower this number.
- Diesel and gasoline vehicles contributed 236 mtCO2e and represent less than 0.5% of the total emissions.
The total fugitive emissions topped 6,000 mtCO2e.As you can see from the pie charts, 9% of those emissions were caused by 150 kg of CFC-11, which accounts only for 4 % of the mass.- Likely, the HCFC-22 consumption of more than 3,700 kg resulted in more than 5500 of mtCO2e.
Released more than 47,000 mtCO2e in 2011.The average summer consumption was calculated to be just over 6 million kWh, which is 70% more than the average winter consumption of 3.5 million kWh. This
-Scope 3 emissions include those emissions from the leased kitchens, waste collection, employee commuting, business travel, sewage treatment and shipping of appliances and construction material to name a few.-The only scope 3 emissions calculated was the employee travel. The employees are mostly expatriates who come from Nepal, India, and the Philippines and repatriate every two years. -In 2011, 105 employees traveled to their home countries for vacation according to the vacation records
In order to track electricity consumption, having individual meters at each single facility is a must to link the facilities with the electricity bill.
The Blower Door Test is an air tightness test where a large fan is placed at the main door to create negative pressure in a house. The test helps identify air leaks in the house.The thermographic scan does the same thing as well as quantifying the heat loss.
For new construction or renovation of housing units, thermal insulation is the most important element. It should be examined carefully to maximize energy efficiency, particularly during wall and roof assemblies, insulation, and window selection.Lower U-factor windows can save up to 25%
Replacing them with high Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) ACs will reduce the cooling cost by 20% and would consequently reduce the overall emissions by 5%. Include filter cleaning or replacement to improve the efficiency by 5%
Since EV provides full serviced housing, it owns thousands of appliances ranging from an exhaust fan to a microwave.Energy Star website includes energy ratings for all kinds of appliancesEven within Energy Star certified appliances, some are more efficient that the others. So always look at labels or wattage for the lowest annual consumption Energy Star replacements must be considered as a factor in addition to performance, reliability and cost.
Upgrading the older parts of the compound and substituting refrigerants are the keys.
Carbon footprint of_euro_village_compound
Carbon Footprint of EuroVillage CompoundAhmad AlqahtaniKhobar, Saudi ArbiaMay 2012
Agenda Overview (why EV, facilities) Sourcesof Emissions (Scope1, Scope 2, Scope 3) Methodology (approach, Data collection, Tier methods and emission factors) GHG emissions (Total emissions, CO2, N2O, CH4, HCFC, CFC) GHG reduction plans (tracking and accounting, measurement, construction, energy efficiency) How to improve Conclusion
Description EVA fully serviced residential/office complex located in Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Built in 1975, multiple expansion 80s, 90s, 00s. Purchases electricity from the Saudi Electricity Company Desalinates water onsite using RO Consists of: one school 470 villas one nursery 6 office buildings one gym 2 hotels 5 kitchens (dining halls) 3 workshops
Sources Sources of emissions Scope Type of source GHG emissions Sources 1 Stationary Combustion CO2, CH4, N2O Kitchens uses LPG for cooking Mobile Combustion CO2, CH4, N2O Trucks, pickups, buses and cars Fugitive Emissions HCFC-22 CFC-11 Refrigerators and ACs 2 Purchased Electricity CO2, CH4, N2O SEC power plant 3 Employee Travel CO2, CH4, N2O International Flights
Methodology Approach Operational control - full control over the operational policies. All facilities are run and managed offices and 4 out of 5 kitchens are leased. EV responsible for all bills and maintenance. One exception is LPG for leased kitchens.
Methodology Data collection Electric bills Electric consumption was extracted from over 6000 bills. LPG bills Freon gas consumptino records Diesel and gasoline annual cost Vacation records Transportation estimation.
Methodology The GRP methods Scope 1 Stationary Combustion- Tier C method Emission factors for fuel type (natural gas) and commercial end user to calculate CH4 and N2O emission factors Mobile Combustion- Tier B/C method Distance traveled estimated. Fugitive Emissions- Tier A method GWP values were adopted from Refrigerant Management Program set up by California Environmental Protection Agency.
Methodology Continue the GRP methods Scope 2 Electricity Tier C Method (not calculated) Emission factors were cited from EIA Scope 3 Employee Travel Calculated using carbonfootprint.com
GHG Emissions Total emissions The total emissions released by EV in 2011 was 53,767 metric ton of CO2 equivalent Purchased electricity + fugitive emissions = over 99% Scope Emission category Emissions (mtCO2e) % of total emissions Stationary Combustion 23 0.04% 1Mobile Combustion 236 0.44% Fugitive Emissions 6,156 11.45% 2Purchased Electricity 47,272 87.92% 3Employee Travel 80 0.15% Total 53,767 100.00%
GHG Emissions Scope 1 LPG Released about 23 mtCO2e in 2011 Only one kitchen
GHG Emissions Scope 1 Mobile Combustion 236 mtCO2e representing less than 0.5%.
GHG Emissions Scope 1 Fugitive Emissions The total emissions topped 6,000 mtCO2e Mass Consumed Global Warming Potential (Kg) (mtCO2e) 150 570.152 4% 9% HCFC-22 CFC-11 3,724 5585.58 96% 91%
GHG Emissions Scope 2 Electricity consumption released more than 47,000 mtCO2e Electricity consumption 2011 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 *Electricity consumption increases almost by 70% in the summer due to AC usage. 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 Jan-11 Feb-11 Mar-11 Apr-11 May-11 Jun-11 Jul-11 Aug-11 Sep-11 Oct-11 Nov-11 Dec-11 Electricity Consumption Average summer Average winter
GHG Emissions Scope 3 Employee Travel- only calculated scope 3 emissions Caluculated through carbonfootprint.com Radiative Force not factored in. # of emps. Destinations (main airport) Total (mtCO2e) 47 Kathmandu, Nepal 33.21 35 Calicut, India 22.73 16 Manila, the Philippines’ 21.15 3 Islamabad, Pakistan 1.43 4 Cairo, Egypt 1.48 105 80 mtCO2e
Reduction Tracking and Accounting Tracking Install a meter at every unit link bills to the consuming unit Accounting Record monthly consumption per unit Monitor and identify most energy intensive
Reduction Energy Audit Blower Door Test Air tightness test Thermographic Scan – Heat loss measurement
Reduction Energy Efficiency Construction Invest in thermal envelope (wall, roof, air/vapor retarders Intensify weather-stripping and sealing Low U-factor windows can save up to 25%
Reduction …Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning Roughly 26% of total electricity consumption Replace ACs older than 20 years with high SEER to save at least 20% of cooling costs Include filter cleaning or replacement to improve the efficiency by 5%
Reduction …Energy Efficiency Energy Star Appliances Thousands of electrical appliances, at least 13 per a unit. Energystar.gov Look at labels for the most efficient
Reduction Replacement of HCFC-22 & CFC-11 HCFC-22 CFC-11 Invest in thermal envelope (wall, roof, air/vapor retarders) Intensify weather-stripping and sealing Low U-factor windows can save up to 25%
Reduction Suggested target 20% reduction by 2020 Will result in reduction of over 10,000 mtCO2e Quick wins ACs filter maintenance = 1% Replacing CFC-11 = 1% Replacing HCFC-22 = 1% 8 year investment plan More efficient ACs = 20% reduction depending on energy audit Insulated windows = 25% reduction