Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Qaqc Course Total


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Qaqc Course Total

  1. 1. Quality is a Lousy Idea- If it’s Only an Idea
  2. 2. Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control Quality Assurance An overall management plan to guarantee the integrity of data (The “system”) Quality Control A series of analytical measurements used to assess the quality of the analytical data (The “tools”)
  3. 3. True Value vs. Measured Value <ul><li>True Value </li></ul><ul><li>The known, accepted value of a quantifiable property </li></ul><ul><li>Measured Value </li></ul><ul><li>The result of an individual’s measurement of a quantifiable property </li></ul>
  4. 4. Accuracy vs. Precision <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>How well a measurement agrees with an accepted value </li></ul><ul><li>Precision </li></ul><ul><li>How well a series of measurements agree with each other </li></ul>
  5. 5. Accuracy vs. Precision
  6. 6. Systematic vs. Random Errors <ul><li>Systematic Error </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidable error due to controllable variables in a measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>Random Errors </li></ul><ul><li>Unavoidable errors that are always present in any measurement. Impossible to eliminate </li></ul>
  7. 7. Quality Control Measures <ul><li>Standards and Calibration </li></ul><ul><li>Blanks </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Precision and Accuracy Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Method Detection Limits </li></ul><ul><li>NJQLs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Standards and Calibration <ul><li>Prepared vs. Purchased Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Signals: Peak Area, Beer’s Law </li></ul><ul><li>Calibration Curves </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing Calibration Checks </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Testing . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Calibration Curves <ul><li>Graphical representation of the relationship between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The analytical signal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The concentration of the analyte </li></ul>and
  10. 11. Continuing Calibration Verification <ul><li>Many methods don’t require that daily calibration curves are prepared </li></ul><ul><li>A “calibration verification” is </li></ul><ul><li>analyzed with each batch of samples </li></ul>
  11. 12. Sample Batch <ul><li>10 - 20 samples (method defined) or less </li></ul><ul><li>Same matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Same sample prep and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a full set of </li></ul><ul><li>QC samples </li></ul>
  12. 13. Internal Standards <ul><li>A compound chemically similar to the analyte </li></ul><ul><li>Not expected to be present in the sample </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot interfere in the analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Added to the calibration standards and to the samples in identical amounts . </li></ul>
  13. 14. Internal Standards <ul><li>Refines the calibration process </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical signals for calibration standards are compared to those for internal standards </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates differences in random and systematic errors between samples and standards </li></ul>
  14. 15. Performance Testing <ul><li>Blind samples submitted to laboratories </li></ul>? ? ? Labs must periodically analyze with acceptable results in order to maintain accreditation
  15. 16. Blanks, Blanks, Blanks <ul><li>Laboratory Reagent Blanks </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument Blanks </li></ul><ul><li>Field Reagent Blanks </li></ul><ul><li>Trip Blanks </li></ul>
  16. 17. Laboratory Reagent Blanks <ul><li>Contains every reagent used in the analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Is subjected to all analytical procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Must give signal below detection limit </li></ul><ul><li>Most methods require one with every batch </li></ul>
  17. 18. Instrument Blank <ul><li>A clean sample (e.g., distilled water) processed through the instrumental steps of the measurement process; used to determine instrument contamination. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Field Reagent Blanks <ul><li>Prepared in the lab, taken to the field </li></ul><ul><li>Opened at the sampling site, exposed to sampling equipment, returned to the lab. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Trip Blanks <ul><li>Prepared in the lab, taken to the field </li></ul><ul><li>Not opened </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to the lab </li></ul><ul><li>Not always required in EPA methods </li></ul>
  20. 21. Recovery Studies <ul><li>Matrix Spikes </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory Control Samples </li></ul><ul><li>Surrogates . </li></ul>
  21. 22. Matrix Spikes <ul><li>Sample spiked with a known amount of analyte </li></ul><ul><li>Subjected to all sample prep and analytical procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Determines the effect of the matrix on analyte recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Normally one per batch </li></ul>
  22. 23. Laboratory Control Sample <ul><li>Subjected to all sample prep and </li></ul><ul><li>analytical procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Analyte spiked into reagent water </li></ul>
  23. 24. Laboratory Control Sample <ul><li>Also known as: </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory Fortified Blank (LFB) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control Sample (QCS) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Surrogates <ul><li>Similar to an internal standard </li></ul><ul><li>Added to all analytical samples, and to all QC samples to monitor method performance, usually during sample prep </li></ul><ul><li>Methods often have specific surrogate recovery criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Most common in Organic methods </li></ul>
  25. 26. Quality Control Measures <ul><li>Standards and Calibration </li></ul><ul><li>Blanks </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Precision and Accuracy Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Method Detection Limits </li></ul><ul><li>NJQLs </li></ul>
  26. 27. Precision and Accuracy <ul><li>Required for initial certification and annually thereafter </li></ul><ul><li>A series of four laboratory control samples </li></ul><ul><li>Must meet accuracy (recovery) and precision (standard deviation) requirements, often in method </li></ul>
  27. 28. Precision and Accuracy <ul><li>Required with a change in instrumentation or personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Specific to the analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Other names include: </li></ul><ul><li> P&A, DOC, IDOC </li></ul>
  28. 29. Method Detection Lim it <ul><li>“ The minimum concentration of a substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence that the analyte concentration is greater than zero” </li></ul><ul><li> N.J.A.C 7:18 - 1.7 </li></ul>
  29. 30. Method Detection Limit <ul><li>MDLs are determined according to 40 CFR, part 136, Appendix B </li></ul><ul><li>Seven replicate laboratory control samples, analyzed for precision </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply standard deviation by 3.14 (Student’s t- value) </li></ul>
  30. 31. Method Detection Limit <ul><li>Must be performed initially for certification </li></ul><ul><li>Must meet criteria specified in method </li></ul><ul><li>Must be performed with change in instrumentation or test method </li></ul><ul><li>Annually with ELCP </li></ul>
  31. 32. New Jersey Quantitation Limits (NJQLs) <ul><li>The minimum concentration of an analyte that can be quantified with statistical confidence </li></ul><ul><li>5 x MDL, for the NJ Lab Certification Program </li></ul>