Cooperative Learning Final


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Cooperative Learning Final

  1. 1. Cooperative Learning Norris L. Roberts, Jr.
  2. 2. Positive Outcomes <ul><li>Academic Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Social Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Gap </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nine Strategies <ul><li>Identifying Similarities and Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing and Note Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Homework and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Nonlinguistic Representations </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Generating and Testing Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Organizing students into cooperative groups yields a positive effect on overall learning. </li></ul><ul><li>When applying cooperative learning strategies, keep groups small and don’t overuse this strategy. Be systematic and consistent in your approach. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Ten different methods have been formally described in the research literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective cooperative learning occurs when students work together to accomplish shared goals and when positive structures are in place to support that process. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Organizing students in heterogeneous cooperative learning groups at least once a week has a significant effect on learning (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Low-ability students perform worse when grouped in homogeneous ability groups (Kulik & Kulik, 1991, 1997; Lou et al, 1996). </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning can be ineffective when support structures are not in place (Reder & Simon, 1997). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Create the right type of group for the need. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal ad hoc - pair and share </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base groups - long-term social and interpersonal support. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal learning groups used when a commitment of time and effort is required. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>2. Keep group size small. 4-6 students </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use sparingly. Students of all abilities benefit by heterogeneous grouping, especially low-ability students. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Use a variety of strategies when choosing students fro groups. (common clothing, favorite colors, letters in names) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Facilitate success. Don’t allow things to just happen. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Teach specific skills before grouping students, define criteria for success and develop rubrics for key expectations. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Six Key Concepts of Cooperative Learning Structures <ul><li>Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Will to Cooperate </li></ul><ul><li>Skill to Cooperate </li></ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul>
  10. 10. Teams <ul><li>Heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers may assigned, or random </li></ul><ul><li>Groups last approximately six weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Teams of four are ideal. This allow pair work which doubles participation and open twice as many lines of communication. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cooperative Management <ul><li>Room arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Universal quiet signal </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of teacher and student modeling </li></ul>
  12. 12. Will to Cooperate <ul><li>Teambuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Classbuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Task and Reward structures </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating Cooperation among teams </li></ul><ul><li>Praise </li></ul>
  13. 13. Skill to Cooperate <ul><li>Social skill development is a defining characteristic of cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role assignments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structuring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reflection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Basic Principles <ul><li>P – Positive Interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is your gain my gain?” </li></ul><ul><li>I - Individual Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is individual public performance required?” </li></ul><ul><li>E - Equal Participation </li></ul><ul><li>“ How equal is the participation?” </li></ul><ul><li>S - Simultaneous Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>“ What percent are overtly active at once?” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Six Purposes of Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Classbuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Teambuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Information Sharing </li></ul>
  16. 16. Team Building <ul><ul><li>Create TEAMS in which Together Everyone Achieves More </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote Real World Teamwork Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create the Will and Skill to Cooperate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds Positive Student Relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance Classroom Climate and Have Fun. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Structures: <ul><li>Fan N Pick, </li></ul><ul><li>Find the Fiction, </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs Compare, </li></ul><ul><li>Round Robin, </li></ul><ul><li>Spin N Think </li></ul>
  18. 18. Structures <ul><ul><ul><li>Class Building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build Positive Student Relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance Classroom Climate and Have Fun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Discipline Problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Motivation and Learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote Diversity Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boost Self-Esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Synergy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structures: Find Someone Who, Inside/Outside Circle, Mix Freeze, Mix Pair Share </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Structures <ul><ul><ul><li>Team Building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create TEAMS in which Together Everyone Achieves More </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote Real World Teamwork Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create the Will and Skill to Cooperate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Builds Positive Student Relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance Classroom Climate and Have Fun. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structures: Fan N Pick, Find the Fiction, pairs Compare, Round Robin, Spin N Think </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Dr. Spencer Kagan Norris Roberts Florida Summer 2008
  21. 21. Cooperative Learning Dr. Spencer Kagan Summer Learning Academy Orlando, FL July 6-11,2008