Storage option for out of hour arrivals.</li></ul>Passive Cooling with safety Margin and <br />Qualified packaging to counter extreme<br />Ambient Temperature variations in transit.<br />Mumbai<br />90°F 32°<br />Jaipur<br />111°F 44°C<br />Current Scenario<br />
The ChallengesAir mode<br />Wide fluctuation in external ambient.<br />Dynamic chain of custody.<br />Transit time limited due to cold chain system.<br />Routing limited via existing airports only.<br />Contingency “Plan B” options limited. <br />Volatility in air capacity and ATF.<br />
Typical Surface Network<br />Uses feeder service to consolidate.<br />Long haul with transit times extension.<br />Optimised routing via various touch points.<br />Door step delivery through last mile feeders.<br />Low cost option, mixed load option.<br />
Advantage Surface Network<br />Allows Inclusive logistics in future plant and distribution site planning<br />Superior planning of service expansions <br />Establish Quality Agreements between custodial stakeholders<br />Limits potential for a logistics logjam and a storage nightmare.<br />
Upping the Ante<br />It’s not just about developing safe and effective vaccines.... <br />It’s about getting vaccines to the right place, at the right time, in the right condition..... <br />and...that means delivery systems that are as advanced & innovative as the vaccines they support.<br />
Life cycle Management.</li></ul>Bio-Pharma ExpressMulti-modal<br />
Bio-Pharma ExpressMulti-modal<br />First level bulk evacuation from Production unit to a cold storage Facility.<br />Break Bulk facility for onward dispatch per demand pull.<br />Dispatch to receivers; optimise modes of transport:<br />via Air only for urgent shipments.<br />via Surface with Ice Bank replenishments; ‘Pit-stops’.<br />via Surface using mobile reefer boxes; Active boxes.<br />Via Reefer Fleet; Milk-run or Point to Point.<br />Delivery direct to stockist premise.<br />Demand mapping and forecasting.<br />Unified chain of custody in total supply chain.<br />Direct access storage for all pan-India orders.<br />Inventory management through product’s life cycle.<br />
Pharma Industry<br />Volumetric growth in last decade including Bio-pharma<br />Implications<br />Storage:<br />Greatly increased need for +2°C to + 8°C storage.<br />Storing and handling vaccines in secondary packaging will become increasingly impractical.<br />Move towards palletized storage.<br />Distribution:<br />Move towards bulk distribution containers or refrigerated trucks.<br />Management:<br />Strengthen logistics management and QA procedures.<br />
Pharma Talk<br />Need for Change in Packing<br />Introduce an un-insulated tertiary pack:<br />Insulated shipping containers take up too much space (Bulking factor 3.5 to 7.5 times secondary packaging).<br />Existing secondary packs are too small for mechanical handling at primary level.<br />Therefore: Some form of tertiary packaging is needed:<br />A carton containing multiple secondary packs, ideal.<br />Shrink-wrapped secondary pack not robust enough.<br />
Distribution technology<br />First stage distribution:<br />Traditional cold boxes will be phased out.<br />Refrigerated trucks may be OK in countrieswith good infrastructure and good roads.<br />But insulated passive bulk containers will solve the problem in many settings. <br />Other implications:<br />PCM / chilled packs will require refrigeration.<br />Larger pallet-enabled delivery vehicles will be required.<br />Tail lifts and/or dock levellers will be needed.<br />
Associated operational changes <br />Order picking at primary level:<br />Wherever possible orders will be picked in large packs. Bulk breaking will be minimized.<br />Orders pre-assembled into passive containers and kept inside the cold room until the delivery date.<br />Packed crates/cartons may be bar-coded to assist with order tracking down to intermediate store level.<br />Inventory Management:<br />Stock in pallet stores cannot readily be inspected. Professionally developed and supported inventory control software, with accurate pallet location data will be essential. <br />
Components of latent heat storage<br />Energy cannot be destroyed or created <br />– it can only change from one form to another.<br />
Energy to Change Phase<br /><ul><li>Heat of Fusion
Releases Energy (Heat).</li></ul>In case of Melting Ice: the ice-water mix remains at 0 ºC until all phase change completes<br />
How/What PCM?Harnessing the Force of the Molecule<br />Four Phases of Matter.<br /> (4th phase is plasma – atomic forces)<br />Control the temperature zone when a material makes or breaks the Molecular Force of attraction. <br />PCM can be Organic and synthetic mixtures.<br />Is a method to store energy at differing desired levels.<br />
Thermal Inertia<br /><ul><li>The tendency to retain or resist any energy level change.
Maintains a desired steady state temperature profile.
Energy stored and output from 170 KJ to 300 KJ per kg.
Offers a wide array of thermal applications.</li></ul>When water freezes, energy is released to surroundings.<br />When ice melts, energy is absorbed from surroundings.<br />PCM is like ‘ICE’ at controlled, desired temperature levels (example: ice that melts at +20 ºC)<br />