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EITI dan Keterbukaan Kontrak di Industri Ekstraktif

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Bahan paparan ini disampaikan dalam Diskusi Keterbukaan Dokumen Kontrak dan Perizinan di Sektor Industri Ekstraktif, 16 Januari 2019.

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EITI dan Keterbukaan Kontrak di Industri Ekstraktif

  1. 1. EITI dan Keterbukaan Kontrak di Industri Ekstraktif Sekretariat EITI Indonesia 16 Januari, 2019
  2. 2. • Kontrak, izin dan perjanjian adalah bagian penting dari kerangka hukum yang mengatur hak, syarat-syarat dan kewajiban dalam pengelolaan eksplorasi dan produksi dari minyak, gas dan minerba • Karena kontrak adalah dokumen hukum yang mengikat pemerintah atas nama warga negara, maka warga negara mempunyai hak untuk mengetahui substansi dan ketentuan yang diatur di dalam kontrak • EITI mulai mendorong keterbukaan kontrak sejak 2013. Sampai saat ini 29 negara pelaksana EITI sudah melakukan keterbukaan kontrak dalam berbagai bentuk, sementara itu 16 perusahaan ekstraktif juga mendukung inisiatif ini Pendahuluan 2
  3. 3. Requirement 2.4: Contracts a. Implementing countries are encouraged to publicly disclose any contracts and licenses that provide the terms attached to the exploitation of oil, gas and minerals. b. It is a requirement that the EITI Report documents the government’s policy on disclosure of contracts and licenses that govern the exploration and exploitation of oil, gas and minerals. This should include relevant legal provisions, actual disclosure practices and any reforms that are planned or underway. Where applicable, the EITI Report should provide an overview of the contracts and licenses that are publicly available, and include a reference or link to the location where these are published. Standard EITI terkait Keterbukaan Kontrak 3
  4. 4. c. The term contract in 2.4(a) means: i. The full text of any contract, concession, production-sharing agreement or other agreement granted by, or entered into by, the government which provides the terms attached to the exploitation of oil gas and mineral resources. ii. The full text of any annex, addendum or rider which establishes details relevant to the exploitation rights described in 2.4(c)(i) or the execution thereof. iii. The full text of any alteration or amendment to the documents described in 2.4(c)(i) and 2.4(c)(ii). d. The term license in 2.4(a) means: i. The full text of any license, lease, title or permit by which a government confers on a company(ies) or individual(s) rights to exploit oil, gas and/or mineral resources. ii. The full text of any annex, addendum or rider that establishes details relevant to the exploitation rights described in in 2.4(d)(i) or the execution thereof. iii. The full text of any alteration or amendment to the documents described in 2.4(d)(i) and 2.4(d)(ii). 4
  5. 5. • Full disclosure Seluruh isi dokumen kontrak diterbitkan dalam Laporan EITI/tersedia dan dapat diakses publik • Partial disclosure Sebagian dokumen kontrak tersedia dan dapat diakses oleh publik • No disclosure Dokumen kontrak tidak tersedia atau tidak dapat diakses publik, atau hanya tersedia dalam bentuk template/model kontrak • No policy confirmed Jika kebijakan keterbukaan kontrak tidak jelas Klasifikasi Keterbukaan Kontrak 5
  6. 6. Keterbukaan Kontrak telah menjadi Norma Global (Emerging Global Norm1 ) dan didorong oleh berbagai kelompok kepentingan: • Open Online Contract Repositories (ResourceContract & OpenOil) • Host Governments (25 EITI Countries) • Companies (ExxonMobile in US and Liberia, Rio Tinto in Guinea, BP, SOCAR, Amaco, Lukoil, Elf and Statoil in Azerbaijan, Tullow and Kosmos in Ghana) • Stock Exchange Disclosure Rules • International Institutions (IFC/WB, IMF) Kenapa EITI Mendorong Keterbukaan Dokumen Kontrak 6
  7. 7. • Mendapatkan Kesepakatan yang Lebih Baik (Getting a Better Deal) • Peru memperbaiki penerimaan royalti hasil tambang dari rata-rata 5% menjadi 26% • Liberia, transparansi tata kelola pertambangan telah membantu menarik investasi • Monitoring Regulasi dan Tata Kelola • Memperbaiki Kepercayaan dan Ekspektasi Publik • Memberikan Umpan Balik dan Kerjasama dengan Industri Dampak Positif dari Transparansi Kontrak 1) 7
  8. 8. Perkembangan Jumlah Negara yang Mewajibkan Keterbukaan Kontrak Authors: Rob Pitman Topics: Anti-corruption, Publication of Budget/Fiscal Information, Natural Resources, Legislation & Regulation
  9. 9. 1. ResourceContract Repository (https://www.resourcecontracts.org/) • 1714 Documents • 93 Countries (including Indonesia, 4 docs) • 45 Resources 2. OpenOil repository (https://repository.openoil.net) • 806 Documents • 73 Countries (including Indonesia, 15 docs) 3. EITI (eiti.org): • 29 EITI countries have disclosed at least some contracts. • >900 Docs have been published by EITI countries. • 16 companies have supported contract transparency Global Database Kontrak (Contracts Repositories): 9
  10. 10. Peta Negara Dalam Resource Contract: 10
  11. 11. • Kerr-McGee of Indonesia Inc., Quintana Indonesia Ltd., Wainoco International Inc., Samedan Oil of Indonesia, Inc., Pertamina, Bawean Block, Concession, Amendment, 1981 • Saba Jatiluhur Limited, Perusahaan Pertambangan Minyak Dan Gas Bumi Negara, Jatiluhur, Onshore W. Java, PSA, 1997 • Apex (Bengara-II) Ltd., Perusahaan Pertambangan Minyak Dan Gas Bumi Negara, Bengara-II Block, PSA, 1997 • Apex (Yapen) Ltd., Pertamina, Yapen Block, PSA, 1999 Dokumen Kontrak Indonesia dalam https://www.resourcecontracts.org/ 11
  12. 12. Status Keterbukaan Kontrak Negara-Negara Pelaksana EITI Authors: Rob Pitman Topics: Anti-corruption, Publication of Budget/Fiscal Information, Natural Resources, Legislation & Regulation
  13. 13. Negara-Negara EITI yang Sudah Membuka Dokumen Kontrak: 13
  14. 14. 1. Bawean-Block_dd19810212_PSC_Pertamina _Kerr-McGee_Quintana.pdf 2. Bawean-Block_dd20041126_Asset-Purchase-Sale-Agree_Indo-Pacific_CRC.pdf 3. Bawean-Block_dd20041126_JOA_Indo-Pacific_CRC.pdf 4. Bengara-II_dd20000101_JOA_CEC_GeoPetro_Apex.pdf 5. Bengara-II_dd20060929_Sale-Purchase-Agree_CNPCHK_Continental_GeoPetro.pdf 6. Bengara-II_Yapen_dd20000101_Farmout-Agree_CEC_GeoPetro_Apex.pdf 7. Bengara-II-Block_dd19971204_PSC_Pertamina_Apex.pdf 8. Bentian-Besar_dd20110824_Participation-Agree_PT-Ridlatama_CBM-Asia.pdf 9. Bunga-Mas-Area_dd20090414_Sale-Purchase-Agree_Greenfields_APEC.pdf 10. Indragiri-Hulu_dd20110824_Participation-Agree_PT-Samantaka_CBM-Asia.pdf 11. Jatiluhur_Onshore-W-Java_dd19970922_PSC_Saba-Petroleum.pdf 12. Kakap_Malacca-Strait_Southeast-Sumatra_dd19950217_Sale-Purchase-Agree_Oryx_Novus.pdf 13. Kutai-Block_dd20070117_Participation-Agree_CBM-Asia_Ephindg-Ilthabi_Far-East-Methane.pdf 14. Yapen_dd20000101_JOA_CEC_GeoPetro_Apex.pdf 15. Yapen-Block_dd19990927_PSC_Pertamina_Apex.pdf Dokumen Kontrak Indonesia dalam Open Oil 14
  15. 15. •Mitos-mitos yang mentabukan transparansi kontrak: • Myth 1: Contracts contain commercially sensitive information that could cause competitive harm if disclosed. In reality, contracts are already widely circulated within the private sector and can often be bought online from commercial providers. Contracts being disclosed do not generally contain information that would meaningfully impact a company’s competitiveness. Indeed, the more materially important that the contract is, the more likely it is to be disclosed to investors under stock exchange requirements. • Myth 2: Confidentiality clauses in contracts do not permit their disclosure. In practice, legislation and/or mutual consent supercedes confidentiality clauses. Confidentiality clauses often make room for exceptions when all parties to the contract agree. Tantangan Keterbukaan Kontrak (1) 15
  16. 16. • Myth 3: Contract transparency might scare off investors. There is no evidence of this in practice. In fact, open contracting can reassure financial investors. Countries such as Guinea, Liberia and Ghana have received significant investment while disclosing contracts. • Myth 4: Disclosure of contract terms will fuel a ‘race to the bottom’. As things stand, information in extractive deals is so asymmetric that “companies currently have a strategic advantage over governments, with greater access to information, and to contracts in particular”26. Companies already know key terms and go in with a clear requirements for return on investment. Contract transparency would erode this advantage. Evidence from countries such as Peru suggests extractives contract disclosure and open contracting led to an increased fiscal take in subsequent deals. Tantangan Keterbukaan Kontrak (2) 16 1) Source: Promises are Vanity, Contracts are Reality, Transparency is Sanity
  17. 17. 1. Membuka ketentuan-ketentuan pokok dalam kontrak yang berlaku di Industri Ekstraktif dalam Laporan EITI 2015: a. Kontrak Bagi Hasil Minyak dan Gas Bumi: http://eiti.ekon.go.id/draft-kontrak-psc/ b. Kontrak karya dan PKP2B untuk pertambangan minerba: Lampiran 2 Laporan EITI 2015 2. Berpedoman kepada: a. Keputusan KIP No 197/VI/KIP-PS-M-A/2011 tentang Sengketa Informasi Publik antara Yayasan Pusat Pengembangan Informasi Publik dengan Kementerian ESDM yang sudah bersifat inkrach b. Putusan Mahkamah Agung No 614 K/TUN/2015 yang memeriksa perkara tata usaha negara dalam tingkat kasasi antara Pemohon Kasasi: Dinas Pertambangan dan Energi Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara, melawan Stefanus Doni sebagai Termohon Kasasi 3. Berdasarkan kepada butir 2 a dan b diatas, mengadakan pembahasan dengan pihak-pihak terkait di ESDM sejak Maret 2017 untuk menindaklanjuti keputusan KIP dan MA tentang keterbukaan kontrak dan izin usaha Apa Yang Sudah Dilakukan EITI 17
  18. 18. • Sesuai kesepakatan terakhir, menunggu hasil uji konsekuensi yang sedang dilakukan oleh Kementerian ESDM tentang informasi dalam kontrak yang boleh dibuka • Mencari alternatif lainnya: • Mendorong KemenESDM menyusun kebijakan keterbukaan kontrak dan memasukkan dalam klausul pasal-pasal kontrak • Mendorong Kemen ESDM membuka secara bertahap dokumen kontrak sesuai hasil uji konsekuensi Langkah-Langkah Ke Depan 18
  19. 19. Terima Kasih 19
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