Bike ped presentation

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  • -In June 2008 Darden announced its intention to be a zero waste, carbon neutral school by 2020 and a top 10 business school for teaching and research on sustainability. We know that we will best teach about sustainability when we are operationalizing the practices ourselves. Hence the focus on How We Live and How We Learn.We set this goal humbly, knowing that we don’t have all the answers yet for how to get there, but know that in order to thrive as an institution and send graduates out to lead with relevant skills, this is a key vision for us. Darden faculty have been teaching about, and researching ethical leadership and sustainability topics for decades.
  • Bike ped presentation

    1. 1. CommunitySocial MarketingTransportation Behavior Program<br />Randy Salzman<br />TDM Research and Consulting<br />salz@rocketmail.com<br />
    2. 2. Why America Must Address Driving Behaviorthe ‘externalities’ of our driving<br />Drive 2.9 trillion miles/year<br />in 411 billion trips, 87 % alone <br />Produce 45 percent of entire world’s<br />automotive CO2<br />Transport creates more greenhouse<br />than other economic sectors<br />And uses 70 percent of U.S. daily<br /> 19 million barrels of oil<br />Two-thirds imported<br />Creating national oil spill,<br />congestion, pollution externalities<br />While our nation gets fatter<br />and less healthy<br />And the world believes we will spill “blood for oil”<br />USDOT, Texas Transportation Institute, <br />U-Mass Center for Transportation, Pew Charitable Trust<br />
    3. 3. But Our Culture Supports Driving<br />Advertisers seek the child market because, once hooked, he or she rarely changes behavior<br />‘Engravings on brain’<br />The ‘license’ is a right of passage<br />Car perceived of as ‘freedom’<br />The film hero always drives a ‘hot’ car<br />Media is supported by car advertising dollars and product placement<br />Media editors, bloggers, writers, designers, actors are all drivers<br />Politicians cater to driving voters<br />To hold annual congestion loss at $87 billion, 4.2 billion hours, <br />must build over 16,000 highway miles annually<br />
    4. 4. Paradoxes<br />Local driving create complex national, international externalities<br />Drivers underestimate time/cost of car. Overestimate time/cost of alternatives (Research on three continents by Werner Brög)<br />Politicians can’t be seen to be ‘attacking’ driving voters -- voters react primarily to congestion.<br />Congestion caused by habitual, local driving. Traffic usually blamed from “out of town” <br />Building roadways to fight congestion induces more traffic<br />People/voters rarely can imagine what we don’t already have -- and we have little sustainable transportation in America<br />Alternative transportation ‘stated preference’ unreliable. Yet planners MUST seek ‘stated preference’ data for funding<br />
    5. 5. Little Impetus for Bike-PedAll projects take years to develop<br />Planners respond to politicians, politicians respond to voters. All voters are drivers<br />To politicians/planners: transport IS auto space<br />See area TIP plan. Bike-pedIF money left over…<br />If bike-ped (or ride-share) usually last hired, youngest on MPO staff<br />Few “champions” in planning or politics<br />Alt transport proponents show up for 1, 2 – usually last – meetings. Auto lobby always there<br />Bicycle shop/club: Less fretful over traffic, sweat<br />
    6. 6. Alternative MitigationTDM: Transport Demand Management<br />“Hard” – make people pay to drive<br />“Soft” – incentivize & educate them w/Why & How to use alternatives<br />TravelSmartTDM worldwide successfully getting drivers out of single occupancy vehicles<br />Bottom Line: Soft TDM is best approach to altering driving behavior in wide-open-space, federal democracy<br />
    7. 7. How America does ‘soft’ TDMMarketing, the key element, is ignored<br />Generally employer “benefits day” handouts, CDs, web pages <br />Must “drive viewers to” communications<br />Generally, TDM practitioner is low-level, corporate human resource personnel<br />With scant public backing, also usually youngest planner on MPO staff – only part of his/her job<br />Emphasis on time/dollar savings of alternative commutemodes – and only commute modes<br />
    8. 8. Better TDM Community Social Marketing<br />Still employer based – tied to existing American TDM projects<br />1. Save on parking, long-term health costs<br /> 3. Connect well-known problems like global warming, oil dependency<br /> 4. Doesn’t “threaten” potential voters or employees<br />Underscored by Psychology, Marketing, Leadership and Consumer Behavior data<br />Utilize consistent, simple corporate message<br />“Carrots, Sticks AND Tambourines”<br />
    9. 9. TravelSmartindividualized, dialogue marketing<br />Success on three continents, including North America – over 4 million marketed<br />Without coercion, empowers humans to change behavior<br />Talks to humans, not numbers or target markets<br />Changes minds, not just behavior<br />Leads to public/political support for expensive alternative transportation infrastructure<br />
    10. 10. TravelSmartMarketingIn every Australian city except Sydney<br />Perth: Have annual 13-percent reduction in car-miles driven<br /> 30 million less car trips with 88,000 tons less greenhouse gas annually<br />27-percent increase active/muscle-powered transport<br /> 7 million more hours of physical activity annually from 9 million more walking trips & 4 million more cycling trips (up 58 percent)<br />Stronger neighborhoods (Norman Rockwell effect)<br />Perth: Transit boardings up 4.2 million annually. 48 percent return on transit investment <br />67:1 benefit-cost ratio – (auto projects 4:1)<br />Adelaide: GPS study found 18 percent reduction in KM driven.<br />Brisbane: Seeking diffusion, duration, carryover research in 324,000 home project – no health or political effect data – after 70,000 home project found 60 percent diffusion rate<br />Perth opened new commuter rail in December 2007 <br />90% approval ratings, 67,000 first-day riders.<br />Brisbane building huge bike/ped and busway system.<br />
    11. 11. TravelSmart Marketing Western AustraliaDecade later<br />Perth – a city of suburbs and freeways -- expanded TravelSmart concept<br />to individually, dialogue market citizens<br />Energy, Water, Recycling<br />Originally, ¾ citizens didn’t want marketing. Today, 80 percent desire hearing how to change own behavior<br />“People want to be part of the solution. They just don’t know how.”<br />Brög, TravelSmart founder, 2007<br />
    12. 12. Long Term Results<br />Adelaide, 3-year GPS project. Drivers traveling average 12.4 FEWER miles per day after TS marketing <br />TS credited with re-vitalizing transit in Western Australia, Queensland and Victoria<br />Both Conservative and Liberal politicians love “tax dollars at work” letters marketed solely to people who care<br />Brisbane area built two, $6.5 million “end of road” cycle centers, budgeted $656 million in bike-ped trails, considering downtown lanes for Bus Rapid Transit<br />Several communities placed political ban on road building<br />Fed 2010 budget: 55% to transit -- 80% to highways in US <br />
    13. 13. Australia TravelSmart Expansion<br />“Given the findings to date, the number of evaluations undertaken, and their consistency, Australia is now<br /> in a position to move beyond piloting TravelSmart<br /> to engage in large-scale interventions in all major<br /> metropolitan and large regional centres.<br />“There is little further need to undertake major evaluations<br /> of household projects, as the Australian and <br /> international data is in broad agreement, and there is<br /> little need to demonstrate the effectiveness<br /> of methods used.”<br />Report to the Department of Environment: TravelSmart Evaluation<br />2001-2005<br />
    14. 14. TravelSmart ProgrammingFor more detail in how TS works<br />How Bellingham WA has utilized Brög’s programming and incentivized alternative transportation is next session<br />Marketed 7,000 homes, incentivized 11,000 ‘Smart Trip’ users and have 15 percent VMT reduction<br />Articles in Thinking Highways, InTransition, Planning (www.thinkinghighways.com; www.intransitionmag.org)<br />Have few chapters on the Perth project with me<br />
    15. 15. But Back in America<br />It’s not likely a low-level planner can “sell” bosses/politicians on large community project<br />Don’t have phone, delivery staff for individualized marketing<br />Don’t have localized incentive materials<br />Don’t have knowledge of what materials will succeed<br />No dedicated funding streams for education/encouragement<br />And no long-term time line to do TS project<br />How to get there from here?<br />
    16. 16. Back in America<br />But local TDM practitioner can find one employer/CEO who cares about global warming, oil dependency, or has child in military<br />Can “resonate” with that employer’s externality<br />While giving him/her reason to monthly meet with all his/her staff<br />Practitioner can support employer with PowerPoints, scripts from distance<br />
    17. 17. Community Social Marketing Employer-based <br />Have CEO discuss auto ‘externality’ issues w/staff at monthly department/division meetings. Socially market driving issues in short, five-minute segments (one externality each meeting) led by “know-nothing” CEO (or other upper management)<br />Illustrates company leaders behind “right thing” <br /><ul><li>Upper management follows short basic script devised by TDM practitioner</li></ul>Allows “framing” discussion <br />Max 10 slides keeps upper management directing info flow<br />Eliminates off-message questions <br />“Keep meeting short for department’s benefit”<br />Allows monthly reiteration of same, simple “right thing” message <br />“The organization cares. Hope you do too”<br />Reinforces “changers” <br />Assures them they made right decision<br />
    18. 18. Social Marketing ExampleHealth Externality Discussion <br />Greatest potentialfor organizational health benefits accrue if sedentary adults begin regular, moderate activity <br /><ul><li>Like walk to transit stop daily
    19. 19. Or daily active transportation</li></ul>Doctors prescribe walks today<br />Business: Every $ spent on fitness returns $3.15 in health benefits<br />Fit: Average 3-5 less sick days<br />Some employers pay bonus for fitness<br />
    20. 20. Community Dialogue Marketing TDM <br />Monthly ask employees after social marketing/externality discussion if want more info or consider another transportation mode<br />Sign each individual up for dialogue/TravelSmartmarketing<br />Allows work with only employees most likely to address habit while reminding mass of behavioral change need <br />Allows bypass/isolation of advocates for auto lobby<br />Builds towards individual and corporate “tipping point”<br />Similar to ‘TravelSmart’ opening communications <br />No one is coerced<br />
    21. 21. Dialogue, TravelSmart-style MarketingTDM practitioner meets w/employee<br />Discover transportation/commute needs<br />Few envision what don’t have<br />Constantly tailor substitutions and adapt in on-going “action” research<br />Solve disincentives; Create incentives to mode change<br />Show options: Hike, bike, car-van pool, transit, telecommute<br />Bus schedule from nearest stop; Perhaps free pass<br /> Bike shop discounts<br /> Walk/bike maps, discounts for walking shoes<br /> Actively connect employees working similar hours<br />Emphasize guaranteed ride home program<br />Emphasize “occasional parker” programs<br />Emphasize flex car possibilities<br />
    22. 22. Dialogue, TravelSmart-style MarketingTDM practitioner meets w/employee<br />Learns what materials likely needed for community program<br />Learns what externalities affect which demographic of humans<br />Generates understanding of community transportation needs<br />Actually gets to “practice TDM” in personal manner, rather than administering contracts<br />
    23. 23. Human Behavior Concepts<br />Nudge<br />Thaler & Sunstein, 2008<br />The Tipping Point<br />Gladwell, 2000<br />Fostering Sustainable Behavior <br />Mackenzie-Mohr & Smith, 1999 <br />Changing Minds<br />Gardner, 2004<br />Psychological Needs and the Facilitation of Integrative Processes <br />Ryan, 1995<br />Why We Do What We Do<br />Deci & Flaste, 1996<br />Randy Salzman<br />salz@rocketmail.com<br />
    24. 24. Darden Sustainability Vision:<br />How We Live and How We Learn<br />“Darden will be a zero waste, carbon neutral enterprise by 2020 and a top ten business school for teaching and research on sustainability by 2013.”<br />- April 24, 2008<br />Bob Bruner<br />Dean, Darden School of Business<br />Randy Salzman<br />TDM Research and Consulting<br />salz@rocketmail.com<br />434-987-2754<br />

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