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Bike ped presentation


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Bike ped presentation

  1. 1. CommunitySocial MarketingTransportation Behavior Program<br />Randy Salzman<br />TDM Research and Consulting<br /><br />
  2. 2. Why America Must Address Driving Behaviorthe ‘externalities’ of our driving<br />Drive 2.9 trillion miles/year<br />in 411 billion trips, 87 % alone <br />Produce 45 percent of entire world’s<br />automotive CO2<br />Transport creates more greenhouse<br />than other economic sectors<br />And uses 70 percent of U.S. daily<br /> 19 million barrels of oil<br />Two-thirds imported<br />Creating national oil spill,<br />congestion, pollution externalities<br />While our nation gets fatter<br />and less healthy<br />And the world believes we will spill “blood for oil”<br />USDOT, Texas Transportation Institute, <br />U-Mass Center for Transportation, Pew Charitable Trust<br />
  3. 3. But Our Culture Supports Driving<br />Advertisers seek the child market because, once hooked, he or she rarely changes behavior<br />‘Engravings on brain’<br />The ‘license’ is a right of passage<br />Car perceived of as ‘freedom’<br />The film hero always drives a ‘hot’ car<br />Media is supported by car advertising dollars and product placement<br />Media editors, bloggers, writers, designers, actors are all drivers<br />Politicians cater to driving voters<br />To hold annual congestion loss at $87 billion, 4.2 billion hours, <br />must build over 16,000 highway miles annually<br />
  4. 4. Paradoxes<br />Local driving create complex national, international externalities<br />Drivers underestimate time/cost of car. Overestimate time/cost of alternatives (Research on three continents by Werner Brög)<br />Politicians can’t be seen to be ‘attacking’ driving voters -- voters react primarily to congestion.<br />Congestion caused by habitual, local driving. Traffic usually blamed from “out of town” <br />Building roadways to fight congestion induces more traffic<br />People/voters rarely can imagine what we don’t already have -- and we have little sustainable transportation in America<br />Alternative transportation ‘stated preference’ unreliable. Yet planners MUST seek ‘stated preference’ data for funding<br />
  5. 5. Little Impetus for Bike-PedAll projects take years to develop<br />Planners respond to politicians, politicians respond to voters. All voters are drivers<br />To politicians/planners: transport IS auto space<br />See area TIP plan. Bike-pedIF money left over…<br />If bike-ped (or ride-share) usually last hired, youngest on MPO staff<br />Few “champions” in planning or politics<br />Alt transport proponents show up for 1, 2 – usually last – meetings. Auto lobby always there<br />Bicycle shop/club: Less fretful over traffic, sweat<br />
  6. 6. Alternative MitigationTDM: Transport Demand Management<br />“Hard” – make people pay to drive<br />“Soft” – incentivize & educate them w/Why & How to use alternatives<br />TravelSmartTDM worldwide successfully getting drivers out of single occupancy vehicles<br />Bottom Line: Soft TDM is best approach to altering driving behavior in wide-open-space, federal democracy<br />
  7. 7. How America does ‘soft’ TDMMarketing, the key element, is ignored<br />Generally employer “benefits day” handouts, CDs, web pages <br />Must “drive viewers to” communications<br />Generally, TDM practitioner is low-level, corporate human resource personnel<br />With scant public backing, also usually youngest planner on MPO staff – only part of his/her job<br />Emphasis on time/dollar savings of alternative commutemodes – and only commute modes<br />
  8. 8. Better TDM Community Social Marketing<br />Still employer based – tied to existing American TDM projects<br />1. Save on parking, long-term health costs<br /> 3. Connect well-known problems like global warming, oil dependency<br /> 4. Doesn’t “threaten” potential voters or employees<br />Underscored by Psychology, Marketing, Leadership and Consumer Behavior data<br />Utilize consistent, simple corporate message<br />“Carrots, Sticks AND Tambourines”<br />
  9. 9. TravelSmartindividualized, dialogue marketing<br />Success on three continents, including North America – over 4 million marketed<br />Without coercion, empowers humans to change behavior<br />Talks to humans, not numbers or target markets<br />Changes minds, not just behavior<br />Leads to public/political support for expensive alternative transportation infrastructure<br />
  10. 10. TravelSmartMarketingIn every Australian city except Sydney<br />Perth: Have annual 13-percent reduction in car-miles driven<br /> 30 million less car trips with 88,000 tons less greenhouse gas annually<br />27-percent increase active/muscle-powered transport<br /> 7 million more hours of physical activity annually from 9 million more walking trips & 4 million more cycling trips (up 58 percent)<br />Stronger neighborhoods (Norman Rockwell effect)<br />Perth: Transit boardings up 4.2 million annually. 48 percent return on transit investment <br />67:1 benefit-cost ratio – (auto projects 4:1)<br />Adelaide: GPS study found 18 percent reduction in KM driven.<br />Brisbane: Seeking diffusion, duration, carryover research in 324,000 home project – no health or political effect data – after 70,000 home project found 60 percent diffusion rate<br />Perth opened new commuter rail in December 2007 <br />90% approval ratings, 67,000 first-day riders.<br />Brisbane building huge bike/ped and busway system.<br />
  11. 11. TravelSmart Marketing Western AustraliaDecade later<br />Perth – a city of suburbs and freeways -- expanded TravelSmart concept<br />to individually, dialogue market citizens<br />Energy, Water, Recycling<br />Originally, ¾ citizens didn’t want marketing. Today, 80 percent desire hearing how to change own behavior<br />“People want to be part of the solution. They just don’t know how.”<br />Brög, TravelSmart founder, 2007<br />
  12. 12. Long Term Results<br />Adelaide, 3-year GPS project. Drivers traveling average 12.4 FEWER miles per day after TS marketing <br />TS credited with re-vitalizing transit in Western Australia, Queensland and Victoria<br />Both Conservative and Liberal politicians love “tax dollars at work” letters marketed solely to people who care<br />Brisbane area built two, $6.5 million “end of road” cycle centers, budgeted $656 million in bike-ped trails, considering downtown lanes for Bus Rapid Transit<br />Several communities placed political ban on road building<br />Fed 2010 budget: 55% to transit -- 80% to highways in US <br />
  13. 13. Australia TravelSmart Expansion<br />“Given the findings to date, the number of evaluations undertaken, and their consistency, Australia is now<br /> in a position to move beyond piloting TravelSmart<br /> to engage in large-scale interventions in all major<br /> metropolitan and large regional centres.<br />“There is little further need to undertake major evaluations<br /> of household projects, as the Australian and <br /> international data is in broad agreement, and there is<br /> little need to demonstrate the effectiveness<br /> of methods used.”<br />Report to the Department of Environment: TravelSmart Evaluation<br />2001-2005<br />
  14. 14. TravelSmart ProgrammingFor more detail in how TS works<br />How Bellingham WA has utilized Brög’s programming and incentivized alternative transportation is next session<br />Marketed 7,000 homes, incentivized 11,000 ‘Smart Trip’ users and have 15 percent VMT reduction<br />Articles in Thinking Highways, InTransition, Planning (;<br />Have few chapters on the Perth project with me<br />
  15. 15. But Back in America<br />It’s not likely a low-level planner can “sell” bosses/politicians on large community project<br />Don’t have phone, delivery staff for individualized marketing<br />Don’t have localized incentive materials<br />Don’t have knowledge of what materials will succeed<br />No dedicated funding streams for education/encouragement<br />And no long-term time line to do TS project<br />How to get there from here?<br />
  16. 16. Back in America<br />But local TDM practitioner can find one employer/CEO who cares about global warming, oil dependency, or has child in military<br />Can “resonate” with that employer’s externality<br />While giving him/her reason to monthly meet with all his/her staff<br />Practitioner can support employer with PowerPoints, scripts from distance<br />
  17. 17. Community Social Marketing Employer-based <br />Have CEO discuss auto ‘externality’ issues w/staff at monthly department/division meetings. Socially market driving issues in short, five-minute segments (one externality each meeting) led by “know-nothing” CEO (or other upper management)<br />Illustrates company leaders behind “right thing” <br /><ul><li>Upper management follows short basic script devised by TDM practitioner</li></ul>Allows “framing” discussion <br />Max 10 slides keeps upper management directing info flow<br />Eliminates off-message questions <br />“Keep meeting short for department’s benefit”<br />Allows monthly reiteration of same, simple “right thing” message <br />“The organization cares. Hope you do too”<br />Reinforces “changers” <br />Assures them they made right decision<br />
  18. 18. Social Marketing ExampleHealth Externality Discussion <br />Greatest potentialfor organizational health benefits accrue if sedentary adults begin regular, moderate activity <br /><ul><li>Like walk to transit stop daily
  19. 19. Or daily active transportation</li></ul>Doctors prescribe walks today<br />Business: Every $ spent on fitness returns $3.15 in health benefits<br />Fit: Average 3-5 less sick days<br />Some employers pay bonus for fitness<br />
  20. 20. Community Dialogue Marketing TDM <br />Monthly ask employees after social marketing/externality discussion if want more info or consider another transportation mode<br />Sign each individual up for dialogue/TravelSmartmarketing<br />Allows work with only employees most likely to address habit while reminding mass of behavioral change need <br />Allows bypass/isolation of advocates for auto lobby<br />Builds towards individual and corporate “tipping point”<br />Similar to ‘TravelSmart’ opening communications <br />No one is coerced<br />
  21. 21. Dialogue, TravelSmart-style MarketingTDM practitioner meets w/employee<br />Discover transportation/commute needs<br />Few envision what don’t have<br />Constantly tailor substitutions and adapt in on-going “action” research<br />Solve disincentives; Create incentives to mode change<br />Show options: Hike, bike, car-van pool, transit, telecommute<br />Bus schedule from nearest stop; Perhaps free pass<br /> Bike shop discounts<br /> Walk/bike maps, discounts for walking shoes<br /> Actively connect employees working similar hours<br />Emphasize guaranteed ride home program<br />Emphasize “occasional parker” programs<br />Emphasize flex car possibilities<br />
  22. 22. Dialogue, TravelSmart-style MarketingTDM practitioner meets w/employee<br />Learns what materials likely needed for community program<br />Learns what externalities affect which demographic of humans<br />Generates understanding of community transportation needs<br />Actually gets to “practice TDM” in personal manner, rather than administering contracts<br />
  23. 23. Human Behavior Concepts<br />Nudge<br />Thaler & Sunstein, 2008<br />The Tipping Point<br />Gladwell, 2000<br />Fostering Sustainable Behavior <br />Mackenzie-Mohr & Smith, 1999 <br />Changing Minds<br />Gardner, 2004<br />Psychological Needs and the Facilitation of Integrative Processes <br />Ryan, 1995<br />Why We Do What We Do<br />Deci & Flaste, 1996<br />Randy Salzman<br /><br />
  24. 24. Darden Sustainability Vision:<br />How We Live and How We Learn<br />“Darden will be a zero waste, carbon neutral enterprise by 2020 and a top ten business school for teaching and research on sustainability by 2013.”<br />- April 24, 2008<br />Bob Bruner<br />Dean, Darden School of Business<br />Randy Salzman<br />TDM Research and Consulting<br /><br />434-987-2754<br />