Psychodynamics lecture 1 2011 version

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Themes and Issues in Psychology

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Psychodynamics lecture 1 2011 version

  1. 1. Theoretical Approaches: Psychodynamics (Please read Glassman and Hadad 2004 – Chapter 5 or some equivalent text.)
  2. 2. References <ul><li>Funder, D. (2010) The Personality Puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Glassman. W. and Hadad, M. (2004). Approaches to Psychology (Fourth Edition). </li></ul><ul><li>Gross, R. (2003). Themes, Issues and Debates in Psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Makari, G. (2008). Revolution in Mind: The creation of psychoanalysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Maltby, J., Day, L. and Macaskill. (2007) Personality and Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Passer, M., Smith, R., Holt, N., Bremner, A., Sutherland, E., Vliek, M. (2009). Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a ‘theoretical approach’? <ul><li>An assumption about the aspects of a person worthy of study … </li></ul><ul><li>… which determines a ‘model’ of what people are like. </li></ul><ul><li>This model determines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Views on the nature of development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred methods of study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of ‘normality’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The causes of ‘abnormality. </li></ul></ul>(Gross 2003: p313)
  4. 4. An ‘approach’ … <ul><li>… provides a general orientation to a view of humankind. It says, in effect, ‘we see people as operating according to these basic principles and we therefore see explanations of human behaviour as needing to be set within these limits and with these or those principles understood.’ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Coolican et al 1996 – cited in Gross 2003: p313) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives of this session: <ul><li>To provide an introduction and overview of the work of Sigmund Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate his theories in the context of psychology overall. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why is this important? <ul><li>One of the major perspectives of psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>A life-span developmental perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of this perspective to be applied to social psychology, both individuals and groups (e.g. Bion). </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates the work of one person (Freud) developing a theoretical system by observation, clinical work and introspection. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates the social pressures existing within a group holding a theoretical perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration of theoretical developments over time. </li></ul>
  7. 7. (Source: thebsreport.files. Worldpress.com)
  8. 8. Theorists include: <ul><li>Sigmund Freud. ( Primary focus of our discussions.) </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung. </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler. </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Horney. </li></ul><ul><li>Melanie Klein. </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson. </li></ul><ul><li>(And others.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Two contrasting (historical) views <ul><li>“ The goal was to win for science ... The inner life of human beings”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makari 2008: p3. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis was a reaction to scientific method in psychology – which rejected the inner life of individuals. If science wouldn’t go there, psychoanalysis would instead. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richards 2001. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sigmund Freud: Background <ul><li>1856 – 1939. Born in the Czech republic, moved to Leipzig, then to Vienna. </li></ul><ul><li>His work used ideas, adaptations and transformations of work existing in biology and neurology. </li></ul><ul><li>1873 – Medical training. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started professional work in neuroscience and hypnotism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1893 – Achieved relief of ‘hysterical’ physical symptoms via hypnotic ‘catharsis’. </li></ul>(Hunt 2007: p193 – 195).
  11. 11. Sigmund Freud: Background <ul><li>Patients repeatedly recalled sexual experiences / molestation in childhood. (Fantasies or reality?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1896 presentation to the Viennese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on this topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theorises the ‘dynamic unconscious’. </li></ul><ul><li>The unconscious is the “psychic reality that motivates us”. </li></ul>(Hunt 2007; Lawson et al 2007: p272 / 3).
  12. 12. Sigmund Freud: Background <ul><li>Used cocaine to treat his own depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Reputed to be the first person who publicised the benefits of cocaine. Led to its use as an anaesthetic. </li></ul><ul><li>(Cocaine’s addictive qualities only became apparent later.) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Summary from Makari 2008: pages 4 – 66.
  14. 15. Views of Freud and the Social Context? <ul><li>Inspired genius? </li></ul><ul><li>Work incorporating the ideas of others? </li></ul><ul><li>A social context: “where Europeans were dramatically changing the ways they envisioned themselves”. </li></ul><ul><li>(Freud’s work) “shot forth from a mass of competing theories that had all been thrown up by seismic shifts in philosophy, science and medicine”. </li></ul>(Makari 2008: p3)
  15. 16. Themes influencing ‘psychology’ in late 19 th Century Europe? <ul><li>Huge uncertainty over the causes of mental illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevailing views: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesions on the brain and spine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associations and dissociations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual trauma. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Four parts to Freud’s Theories
  17. 18. Four Parts to Freud’s Theories
  18. 19. Key steps in theory development (over time). <ul><li>Origin of illness? Brain? Heredity? Or a ‘mind’ in trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>Transference: The motives or state of a physician may be communicated to a patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic unconscious. Psychic conflict. A symptom may be created outside awareness. It may have a defensive function. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Talking cure’: As a patient becomes conscious of a repressed experience, it may ease or remove symptoms. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Key steps in theory development (over time). <ul><li>A model for psychic conflict (1895): How a mind can split against itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Placed a wishful drivenness at the centre of mental life. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-analysis (1896): Freud’s desire for his own mother. The place of dreams. Impulses contained in dreams were primal wishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of consciousness, unconsciousness and pre-conscious. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Key steps in theory development (over time). <ul><li>Opposing forces in mental events . Wishes and censorship. </li></ul><ul><li>In clinical work over a 12 year period from 1885: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous disorders in children had a traumatic sexual origin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saw the impact of sexual issues / experiences as a primary factor in the causation of mental problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1897 (after clinical failure to treat cases of sexual trauma) he amended his theory to suggest sexual ‘fantasy’. ( Was he also under social pressure?) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Key steps in theory development (over time). <ul><li>Stages of development (1899): an autoerotic or sexual focus. “An inborn sexual drive”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Libido” was the source of the mind’s energy”. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Drives and psychodynamics of behaviour? <ul><li>Biological commonality between humanity and the animal kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic forces driving behaviour are similar. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival needs (food, water, shelter). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexuality (procreation, physical and sensuous pleasure). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freud believed sexual needs were the most powerful. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He later saw aggression as a drive equal to sexuality. </li></ul></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p211; Lawson ‘et al’ 2007:p279)
  23. 24. Drives and psychodynamics of behaviour? (2) <ul><li>Freud had a pattern of revising his theories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He later proposed that ‘Eros’ (love, life, life-affirming) and ‘Thanatos’ (death, destructiveness, aggression) were two primary motivating ‘drives’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both drives were seeking continual expression and satisfaction. </li></ul></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p211/2)
  24. 25. Drives and psychodynamics of behaviour? (3) <ul><li>Freud inferred the presence of the drives from behaviour, and the effects on behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>There was disagreement among Freudian psychoanalysts about his later views. </li></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p212)
  25. 26. Visual representation? (Glassman and Hadad 2004: p215.) Conscious Mind. Unconscious Mind. Ego. Superego Id
  26. 27. The Freudian psychodynamic model of personality. <ul><li>‘ Id’, ego and ‘superego. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Id’ – source of all basic drives – largely unconscious. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven to obtain gratification of needs. ‘The pleasure principle’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation is tension-reduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The ‘Id’ lacks any concept of reality, therefore cannot distinguish between reality and fantasy.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is termed ‘primary process thinking’ – no distinction between a wish and its fulfilment. </li></ul></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p213.)
  27. 28. The Freudian psychodynamic model of personality (2). <ul><li>Superego (‘over the ego’). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Governed by moral constraints.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conscience . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The moral demands of the family and society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposes the desire of the ‘id’ for gratification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Id and superego are in conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Superego is primarily unconscious. </li></ul></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p213.)
  28. 29. The Freudian psychodynamic model of personality (3). <ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediates between the demands of id and superego, and links with the outside world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Provides the sense of self.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conflict between the demands of id and superego cannot be reconciled. Therefore ‘conflict’ and a related feeling of anxiety is a fact and a way of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of ‘rational’ thought. The ability to obtain ‘gratification’ is seen in context of restraints from the external world. (Termed secondary process thinking.) </li></ul></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p213/4; Lawson et al 2007: p280.)
  29. 30. Psychosexual Stages of Development <ul><li>‘ Throughout life our behaviour is motivated by the need to satisfy our basic drives’. </li></ul><ul><li>The expression of these drives will change at different points in our life – the focus in the body for gratification. </li></ul><ul><li>These stages reflect different expression of sexual drive energy. (In translation, might this have meant ‘sensory satisfaction? Probably.) </li></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p215.)
  30. 31. Psychosexual Stages of Development (2) <ul><li>‘ Oral’. Mouth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth to 18 months. Beginnings of ego formation. Learning to delay drive gratification. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Anal’. Anus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 – 36 months. Toilet training. Further ego development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Phallic’. Genitals and bodily awareness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 – 5 years. Formation of the superego. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of the oedipal conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Puberty’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drives become latent, they are repressed. ‘Childhood amnesia’. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From puberty to the end of life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genitals. Drives can be gratified symbolically. </li></ul></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p216 - 223.)
  31. 32. Anxiety and Defence Mechanisms <ul><li>Ego has to integrate the demands of id and superego. </li></ul><ul><li>Unresolved conflicts may exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Ego cannot acknowledge the drives or impulses of the id. (Note: professionally, I disagree with this statement.) </li></ul><ul><li>Moral demands of the superego can produce guilt. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Anxiety arises when the ego is faced with a situation with which it cannot cope.’ </li></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p223.)
  32. 33. Id, Ego and Superego in action? (Source: making themodern world.com)
  33. 34. Anxiety and Defence Mechanisms (2) <ul><li>Freud believed anxiety was a biological mechanism to warn the ego of an overwhelming situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The ego will produce defence mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defence mechanisms operate unconsciously. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They involve direct or indirect gratification, by a symbolic or substitute objects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This reduces the extent of the ids demands. </li></ul></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p224.)
  34. 35. Anxiety and Defence Mechanisms (3) <ul><li>Defence mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repression: blocks the id’s demands in the unconscious. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement: redirecting a drive to a substitute object (where expression is considered safer). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regression: reversion to an earlier stage of development, e.g. under conditions of stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublimation: redirecting a drive to a more socially acceptable activity or focus. </li></ul></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p226.)
  35. 36. Anxiety and Defence Mechanisms (4) <ul><li>Defence mechanisms continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationalization: offering an ‘acceptable’ reason for a drive and behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial: Refusing to acknowledge anxiety provoking thoughts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection: attributing our drives and thoughts to others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defence mechanisms protect the ego from anxiety, and as a consequence distort reality. </li></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p227/8.)
  36. 37. The ‘Talking Cure’? <ul><li>Making thoughts and fears explicit brings them into the open, where the conscious mind can deal with them. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funder 2010: p377 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Assessing Freud’s work <ul><li>Clearly a remarkable individual, “gifted intellectually, a keen observer, a fluent writer”. </li></ul><ul><li>Huge capacity to synthesize ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Explored implications (relatively) more completely than his predecessors. </li></ul><ul><li>Has had a widespread impact which argues that his ideas influence and have been socially or professionally accepted. </li></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p233.)
  38. 39. Assessing Freud’s work (2) <ul><li>“ The first great theory and practice of personal life …” </li></ul><ul><li>Likened to the Einstein of psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The world’s history is the world’s judgement”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(I.e. if the ‘world’ has accepted these ideas, they must ‘speak’ to something powerful within us?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunt 2007: p229. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A radical thinker in his day. His writings still resonate now – try them? </li></ul>
  39. 40. Assessing Freud’s work (3) <ul><li>Freud’s theories are hard to test and falsify. </li></ul><ul><li>He relies on variables that must be inferred rather than observed. Descriptions can be vague. </li></ul><ul><li>His theories are descriptive rather than predictive (and excessively complex). </li></ul><ul><li>Sexism? “Freud viewed females essentially as altered males”. </li></ul>Glassman and Hadad (2004: p234/5) Funder (2010: p431.)
  40. 41. Assessing Freud’s work (4) <ul><li>Research evidence exists for the ‘unconscious mind’. </li></ul><ul><li>Research-based evidence of defence mechanisms exists. </li></ul>Glassman and Hadad (2004: p234/5) Funder (2010: p431.)
  41. 42. Assessing Freud’s work (5) <ul><li>“ Freud’s theory still stands as probably the most comprehensive account of human behaviour produced by a single individual.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Not sure I agree with that view. Erikson’s work? Jung’s work?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Might his theories be historically and culturally biased or limited? Attitudes of his ‘time’? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on sexuality? Focus on sexual fantasy rather than abuse in reality? Historically limited views of women (e.g. theories of seduction and hysteria)? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More of a ‘story’ than a theory? </li></ul>(Glassman and Hadad 2004: p235/6.)
  42. 43. Assessing Freud’s work (6) <ul><li>Case studies. Limited sample. No clear ‘tracking’ of his data. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of ‘normality’ based on ‘abnormal’ patients. Is this appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical precision? Some concepts are vague. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Unconscious’: Empirical tests of subliminal awareness </li></ul>
  43. 44. Assessing Freud’s work (6) <ul><li>Defence mechanisms: Developmental studies indicate their presence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maltby et al (2007) Chapter 2. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Speculation? <ul><li>Psychodynamic theories become more usable when seen in the work of subsequent theorists? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: Melanie Klein and the ‘Object relations’ school. Also Erikson’s ‘life cycle’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will look more at Freud towards the end of the term. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. How do I become who I am (in “theory”)? <ul><li>“ Behaviourism ” </li></ul><ul><li>I learn by association. </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive experiences </li></ul><ul><li>shape or even create my </li></ul><ul><li>response. </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention in this ‘cycle’ </li></ul><ul><li>is possible to change my / </li></ul><ul><li>our experience. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Psychodynamics” </li></ul><ul><li>(E.g. Freud and Melanie Klein) </li></ul><ul><li>My ‘unconscious’ profoundly shapes </li></ul><ul><li>my world and life. </li></ul><ul><li>I am motivated by instincts and drives </li></ul><ul><li>such as aggression and sexuality, </li></ul><ul><li>while also struggling to balance </li></ul><ul><li>those drives with what society expects. </li></ul><ul><li>I am likely to live in a state of tension </li></ul><ul><li>as a result. </li></ul><ul><li>I have an internalised version of my external </li></ul><ul><li>experience of the world. This acts as a ‘template’ </li></ul><ul><li>which shapes my relationships and reactions. </li></ul>
  46. 47. ‘ I ‘ Interior individual ‘ IT ’ Exterior Individual ‘ We ’ Collective Cultural ‘ ITS ’ Social system Environment (Adapted and developed from different writing of Ken Wilber.) Psychodynamics . Instincts. Ego. Id. Intrapersonal. Phenomenology. Self-actualization. Experimental psychology. Cognitive psychology. ‘ Brain’. ‘Organism’. Behaviourism. Interpersonal. Relationships. ‘ Object relations’ theory Group psychology? Family ‘system’. ‘ Super ego ’? Humanistic psychology. Cross-cultural psychology. ‘ Generalized’ psychology. Organisational psychology. Source of the ‘super ego ’?

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