“Cities are now home to half of          humankind.”                  UN Habitat Website 2010
Our world is no longer simply going    through the experience of           urbanization.Our world has become urbanized.
What defines an urban slum? Access to safe water Access to improved     sanitationDurability of structures Sufficient livi...
Over 1 billion people now live in           an urban slum Or 1 in every 3 urban  residents in the world live in  a slum....
“A firebrand raging across the    southern hemisphere.”               Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, National Design        ...
With growth comes Overcrowding Unregulated and unsafe housing Growing risks associated with solid and liquid  waste Hi...
The raging firebrand in Africa  61.7% of      people living in      towns and cities in      sub-Saharan Africa      today...
Africa is home to the largest proportion   of young people in the world today Young people aged 15-24  years represent 18...
Youth are particularly affected by    growing urban poverty High unemployment        The breakdown of family            ...
ICT’s have been diffusing rapidlyamong the urban poor, providingnew livelihood opportunities and  fostering entrepreneursh...
Specific ways ICT is building and empowering slum communities Urban Mapping & Community Involvement Urban Health, Risk a...
ICT, and in particular, mobile and digital technologies are helping to empower slum residents and theiryouth to have a gre...
3 Organizations providing access    to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping        Community involvementWeb and digital   ...
In one urban slum community                Kibera,                Nairobi, Kenya
Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya…… Spread across 550 acres  of government-owned  land, 5 kilometers  southwest of the city  center....
Satellite images show a dense,       vibrant settlement
But Google maps shows a quiet         farming villageIn official registers it is designated a                 forest
Outsiders are led to believe that Kibera isa kind of hell on earth and are moved to send cash, while Nairobi’s middle andu...
“Without basic knowledge of thegeography of Kibera it is impossible to have an informed discussion onhow to improve the li...
“We aimed to alter the existing   power dynamic by shifting the  information dynamic so that the    residents could use lo...
Mapping Kibera     Phase One
In 2009 a small group decided to           Map Kibera                           Openstreetmap
Within three weeks, the mapping team hadproduced one of the densest maps ever made,labeling "points of interest" throughou...
Some initial early pay-offs The participants learned new computer and technology  skills. The mapping experience validat...
But for whom and what purpose?Many Kiberans did not see how a map  available only online could benefit  them or their comm...
Empowering through   information       Phase Two
Allow Kibera residents to speak     for themselves through Extending the mapping work to gather  more in-depth, issue-bas...
Issues based mapping Health       Security          Water/SanitEducation    ation
The pay-offs – for example, on      healthcare they learned What various clinics charged for what services There is a sh...
Allow Kibera residents to speak     for themselves through Extending the mapping work to gather  more in-depth, issue-bas...
A sustainable future? The initiatives are governed by Map Kibera Trust  and they are charity dependent for funding. But ...
3 Organizations providing access    to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping        Community involvementWeb and digital   ...
Nairobits ProgramsReproductive               Micro-health & HIV-         EntrepreneurshipAIDS program              program...
The Slum Dog Manager
2010 Youth Empowerment                                                      Program Evaluation                            ...
OutcomesAnne Ikiara - CEO of NairoBitsWinner of the 2011 Anita BorgSocial Impact Award – SponsoredBy Microsoft“Anne has en...
Creating more empowerment         through knowledge                          Train teachers in                          No...
Sustainability - funders & partners"Our resources are not  enough in Africa - we  need more local people to  help us," Woo...
Sustainability - clientsPartners byoutsourcing webdesign clients toNairoBits MediaLab.
3 Organizations providing access    to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping        Community involvementWeb and digital   ...
“My ultimate goal is  to get everyone   talking to one      another”    John Karanja   Founder,Whive
Classifieds
SMS
A bright future? 100,000 user subscriptions and modest  growth. A contacts database of 500,000 to market  offers to Num...
A bright future? In partnership with Nokia East Africa will  providing a Free SMS service that will reach  millions in Ea...
Others think so too 1st Open Screen Fund winner 2010. Best Software Maker Faire Africa 2011. Vision2030 ICT Award for i...
3 Organizations providing access    to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping        Community involvementWeb and digital   ...
Lessons for the developed world Slum communities must become visible – even in  developed countries – for the problems to...
Information &knowledge                    Empowerment                Self determination                         Prosperity
Asante,Usiku Mwema
Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya
Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya
Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya
Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya
Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya
Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya
Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya
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Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya

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Digital technology in the developing world. An in depth look at at how three organizations in the KIbera Slum outside Nairobi, Kenya are using information and communications technology, and in particular, mobile and digital technologies to empower slum residents through:
Urban mapping
Web & digital design skills
Digital and social media platforms

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Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya

  1. 1. “Cities are now home to half of humankind.” UN Habitat Website 2010
  2. 2. Our world is no longer simply going through the experience of urbanization.Our world has become urbanized.
  3. 3. What defines an urban slum? Access to safe water Access to improved sanitationDurability of structures Sufficient living area (overcrowding) UN Habitat Slum Indicators - UnitedAccess to secure tenure Nations2010/11 State of the World’s Cities Report “Bridging the Urban Divide”
  4. 4. Over 1 billion people now live in an urban slum Or 1 in every 3 urban residents in the world live in a slum. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2030. By 2050 95% of the growth of the human population will occur in the urban areas of developing countries. whose population is expected to double to Sources: UN-HABITAT, United Nations &Inferring Human Dynamics in Slums nearly 4 billion. Using Mobile Phone
  5. 5. “A firebrand raging across the southern hemisphere.” Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Design with the Other 90%: CITIES
  6. 6. With growth comes Overcrowding Unregulated and unsafe housing Growing risks associated with solid and liquid waste High levels of informality and lack of access to stable income sources Social pressures due to limited access to services and deficient infrastructure
  7. 7. The raging firebrand in Africa 61.7% of people living in towns and cities in sub-Saharan Africa today live in slumsUnited Nations (2010) UN-HABITAT For ABetter Urban Future Report &UN 2010/11 State of the World’s CitiesReport “Bridging the Urban Divide;
  8. 8. Africa is home to the largest proportion of young people in the world today Young people aged 15-24 years represent 18% of the worlds population In most African countries, including Tanzania, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Zambia those under 25 constitute about or over 70% of the population. In many African cities more than 50% of inhabitants are under the age of 19.2. UN Habitat Website
  9. 9. Youth are particularly affected by growing urban poverty High unemployment  The breakdown of family life Child trafficking and sexual exploitation  Environmental degradation The growing phenomenon of street  Worsening health children conditions Victims of crime and  The transmission of violence infectious diseases, and the worsening HIV/AIDS pandemic
  10. 10. ICT’s have been diffusing rapidlyamong the urban poor, providingnew livelihood opportunities and fostering entrepreneurship (UNCTAD, 2010).
  11. 11. Specific ways ICT is building and empowering slum communities Urban Mapping & Community Involvement Urban Health, Risk and Hazard Management Urban Capacity-Building & Networking Training and education, and employment Micro-enterprises
  12. 12. ICT, and in particular, mobile and digital technologies are helping to empower slum residents and theiryouth to have a greater control over their lives, communities and prosperity through Access to information & knowledge
  13. 13. 3 Organizations providing access to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping Community involvementWeb and digital Self determinationdesign skills Training& employmentDigital and socialmedia platforms Entrepreneurship
  14. 14. In one urban slum community Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya
  15. 15. Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya…… Spread across 550 acres of government-owned land, 5 kilometers southwest of the city center. Its population is estimated at anywhere from 200,000 to more than one million, and varies seasonally World Bank Institute Website
  16. 16. Satellite images show a dense, vibrant settlement
  17. 17. But Google maps shows a quiet farming villageIn official registers it is designated a forest
  18. 18. Outsiders are led to believe that Kibera isa kind of hell on earth and are moved to send cash, while Nairobi’s middle andupper classes tend to avoid it altogether, out of fear or disdain.
  19. 19. “Without basic knowledge of thegeography of Kibera it is impossible to have an informed discussion onhow to improve the lives of residents of Kibera.” Map Kibera’s Mikel Maron
  20. 20. “We aimed to alter the existing power dynamic by shifting the information dynamic so that the residents could use localizedinformation to influence policy and development.” Map Kibera’s Erika Hagen
  21. 21. Mapping Kibera Phase One
  22. 22. In 2009 a small group decided to Map Kibera Openstreetmap
  23. 23. Within three weeks, the mapping team hadproduced one of the densest maps ever made,labeling "points of interest" throughout Kibera
  24. 24. Some initial early pay-offs The participants learned new computer and technology skills. The mapping experience validated their own community knowledge. Now they were regarded as holders of important information rather than poorly educated slum dwellers. NGO’s and local groups were keen to make use of the information
  25. 25. But for whom and what purpose?Many Kiberans did not see how a map available only online could benefit them or their community—besides which, they already knew how to get around.
  26. 26. Empowering through information Phase Two
  27. 27. Allow Kibera residents to speak for themselves through Extending the mapping work to gather more in-depth, issue-based information and to providing paper based maps for residents. Engaging people in the community through citizen journalism, or reporting by non- professionals on important local issues and news.
  28. 28. Issues based mapping Health Security Water/SanitEducation ation
  29. 29. The pay-offs – for example, on healthcare they learned What various clinics charged for what services There is a shortage of affordable maternal health care but they got the address of the best midwife in town Kibera has no mental health services, dentists, or opticians Identified low-quality chemists prescribing inappropriate remedies but also these chemists with unlicensed examination rooms play critical roles in healthcare Especially when people with acute emergencies have to be carried several kilometers along mud paths to the government hospital
  30. 30. Allow Kibera residents to speak for themselves through Extending the mapping work to gather more in-depth, issue-based information and to providing paper based maps for residents. Engaging people in the community through citizen journalism, or reporting by non- professionals on important local issues and news.
  31. 31. A sustainable future? The initiatives are governed by Map Kibera Trust and they are charity dependent for funding. But the costs are small using inexpensive mobile technologies and open source platforms The initiatives are now in the hands of the youth of Kibera with the founders seeking to spread the word globally via the Ground Truth Initiative A repeatable model – started in the other large Nairobi slum - Map Mathare & Voice of Mathare
  32. 32. 3 Organizations providing access to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping Community involvementWeb and digital Self determinationdesign skills Training& employmentDigital and socialmedia platforms Entrepreneurship
  33. 33. Nairobits ProgramsReproductive Micro-health & HIV- EntrepreneurshipAIDS program program ICT Multimedia Program InformationLife skills and for povertyemployability alleviation
  34. 34. The Slum Dog Manager
  35. 35. 2010 Youth Empowerment Program Evaluation Impact64% - 74% - engaged in employment, self-employment, unemployed before internship and/community service program commencement and/or continued education since 74% of participants rated program completion79% - engaged themselves good or higher in 10 out of 13 life skill attributes 98% perceive the future will be better forin employment, self- themselves and their familiesemployment, internship after the programand/or community servicesince program completion
  36. 36. OutcomesAnne Ikiara - CEO of NairoBitsWinner of the 2011 Anita BorgSocial Impact Award – SponsoredBy Microsoft“Anne has enabled more than 6,000women and girls from urban poorsettlements across the African region togain ICT skills that have improved theirlives economically, socially-culturallyand politically”. Anita Borg Institute 2011
  37. 37. Creating more empowerment through knowledge Train teachers in North Nigeria in the use of an interactive SRH program (learning about living).A (serious) gamewhich simulates the Building Bridges is acomplexity of life in campaign tothe slums, the encourage, map andscarcity of resources, connect peacehow to deal with initiatives in Kenya.them and preventescalation of conflict.
  38. 38. Sustainability - funders & partners"Our resources are not enough in Africa - we need more local people to help us," Wook Ko, Samsung Marketing Manager for the Middle East and Africa 2010 Youth Empowerment Program Evaluation
  39. 39. Sustainability - clientsPartners byoutsourcing webdesign clients toNairoBits MediaLab.
  40. 40. 3 Organizations providing access to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping Community involvementWeb and digital Self determinationdesign skills Training& employmentDigital and socialmedia platforms Entrepreneurship
  41. 41. “My ultimate goal is to get everyone talking to one another” John Karanja Founder,Whive
  42. 42. Classifieds
  43. 43. SMS
  44. 44. A bright future? 100,000 user subscriptions and modest growth. A contacts database of 500,000 to market offers to Number 1 Facebook application in Kenya Growing Small Medium Enterprise base of over 600 customers who use Whive services to send bulk messages
  45. 45. A bright future? In partnership with Nokia East Africa will providing a Free SMS service that will reach millions in East Africa. CrowdPesa.com: A mobile money mappings solution built on the Ushahidi platform that is being used to map the 25,000 Mpesa Agents in Kenya. This application will be used by Kenyans to locate mobile money services using their phones. PesaPay.com: A mobile payments solutions that will allow for IN-APP purchases locally in Kenya.
  46. 46. Others think so too 1st Open Screen Fund winner 2010. Best Software Maker Faire Africa 2011. Vision2030 ICT Award for innovation in Youth, Gender & Vulnerable groups. Winner Gaming, Entertainment, Utilities at Pivot25 Mobile Apps Competition.
  47. 47. 3 Organizations providing access to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping Community involvementWeb and digital Self determinationdesign skills Training& employmentDigital and socialmedia platforms Entrepreneurship
  48. 48. Lessons for the developed world Slum communities must become visible – even in developed countries – for the problems to be recognized and understood. Digital technology means information that was once difficult to find is now easy to collect, collate and share. Digital technology tools not only educate and inform they empower people to manage their own communities.
  49. 49. Information &knowledge Empowerment Self determination Prosperity
  50. 50. Asante,Usiku Mwema

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