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SoC-powered Linux / Linux-powered SoC

SoC-powered Linux / Linux-powered SoC

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A presentation about benefits of new embedded devices architecture -- System On Chip. We tell about the boot flow (preloader->uboot->kernel), about implementation of NIC-controller with hardware timestamping.

Created in collaboration with Denis Gabidullin, STC Metrotek.

A presentation about benefits of new embedded devices architecture -- System On Chip. We tell about the boot flow (preloader->uboot->kernel), about implementation of NIC-controller with hardware timestamping.

Created in collaboration with Denis Gabidullin, STC Metrotek.

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SoC-powered Linux / Linux-powered SoC

  1. 1. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin SoC-powered Linux Benefits of Linux-powered SoC-devices
  2. 2. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Presentation plan ● Company profile ● SoC Altera Cyclone V Architecture ● Booting Linux: SPL, U-boot, kernel ● Developing NIC ● Benchmarks ● Troubles 2
  3. 3. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin ● 12 years of RnD experience ● Russia, Saint-Petersburg ● Development and production of measurement equipment ● Telecommunication channels verification: E1, Datacom, Ethernet (10/100/GbE/10G/100G), fiber optics ● Network packet analysis and processing at line rate ● From idea to complete to “out of the box” solution ● Linux inside! 3 STC Metrotek STC Metrotek
  4. 4. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin System On Chip one chip integrates many components 4
  5. 5. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin SoC block diagram 5
  6. 6. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Altera SoC = HPS(CPU) + FPGA 6
  7. 7. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Array 7
  8. 8. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Why use SoC? Old school Modern design CPU FPGAI/F bottleneck or complex PCB CPU FPGA 8
  9. 9. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin SoC data flows ● Direct memory access ● Interconnect ● Dedicated HPS-FPGA interfaces 9
  10. 10. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin CPU address space 10
  11. 11. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin ● Independent HPS and FPGA ● Boot sources: SD, QSPI, etc... ● Independent flexible configuration (HPS or FPGA initiated) ● Dedicated memory for FPGA registers ● High-speed interfaces SoC architecture 11
  12. 12. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin CPU boots first 12
  13. 13. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin FPGA boots first 13
  14. 14. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin HPS and FPGA boots independently 14
  15. 15. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Booting Linux ● preloader ● U-boot + environment ● device tree ● Linux kernel ● rootfs 15
  16. 16. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin HPS Boot flow 16
  17. 17. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Preloader + U-boot Preloader ● DDR initialization ● memtest ● basic synchronization clock setup U-boot ● access to peripheral (SD/USB/Ethernet/i2c/etc..) ● filesystem support (fat/ext2) ● flexible boot configuration (boot from TFTP, RAM, etc...) ● scripting, flexibility ● direct memory access 17
  18. 18. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Linux kernel ● github:altera-opensource/linux-socfpga ● v 3.18.0 18
  19. 19. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Device tree 19
  20. 20. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Booting FPGA ● Load fpga manager module ● Ensure that FPGA has been detected -- file /dev/fpga0 should exist ● Get proper FPGA firmware file -- firmware.rbf ● Load it to FPGA -- cat firmware.rbf > /dev/fpga0 ● Ensure that it has been loaded -- cat /sys/class/fpga/fpga0/status HPS and FPGA ready for data exchange! 20
  21. 21. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Moving to practical examples 21
  22. 22. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin EthOnd development board Features: ● SoC with 2 ARMv7 Cores and FPGA ● RAM 1GB ● SD-card slot ● 2 x GbE ports ● Shield interface ● USB OTG ● UART console ● Optional PoE ● RTC 22
  23. 23. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin EthOnd block diagram 23
  24. 24. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin NIC block diagram 24
  25. 25. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin NIC Features ● 2 ports ● NAPI support ● frame sizes 64-1518 ● DMA support ● 10/100/1000 Mbps, full duplex ● ethtool support (link speed, link status) ● MDIO support ● low-level timestamping 25
  26. 26. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Packet timestamping 26
  27. 27. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin NIC Benchmarks ● TCP iperf on 1500 bytes, TCP window size 85K -- 370 Mbit/s ● UDP for different frame sizes: 16 - 377 Mbit/s ● Delay via office switch - 3 us 27
  28. 28. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Troubles… ● Hardware MAC (stmmac) did not communicate with FPGA ● Sometimes Qsys generates invalid interconnect ● DDR3: 66 MHz instead of 333 MHz ● i2c controller hangs up ● Linux v3.18 has issue with i2c interrupts ● U-boot does not support ULPI ● Linux 3.12 hangs up with pre-loaded FPGA ● fpga2sdram interface should be configured in U- boot ● UART generates thousands of interrupts in 3.18 28
  29. 29. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin ● Single chip ● High-speed interconnect ● Linux kernel ● Flexibility Pros and cons 29 ● CPU frequency cannot be changed at run-time ● High chip temperature ● Drivers are still crude yet ;)
  30. 30. STC Metrotek 2015 Pavel Kurochkin, Denis Gabidullin Thank you! 30

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