P Copyright, IP and Creative Commons licensing at UCT –
Savvy Researcher Series
03 April 2014
Dr. Tobias Schonwetter
Direc...
<copyright 101>
Copyright is only one pillar of the IP protection regime; others:
Patents
Trademarks
Designs
“Copyright is the exclusive
right in relation to work
embodying intellectual content to
do or to authorize to do
certain a...
What is intended
by copyright law?
Fair balance between the interests
of right owners and public/users
Protected works in SA
1.  Literary, musical and artistic works;
2.  Cinematograph films;
3.  Sound recordings;
4.  Broadca...
1.  reproduce
2.  make adaptations
3.  broadcast
4.  distribute
5.  perform
6.  display in public
7.  cause a work to be t...
1.  Integrity (right to object to derogatory treatment)
2.  Paternity (right to be identified as the author)
Plus: Moral r...
Basic requirements for copyright protection
§  Originality
§  Material form
§  (Qualified person)
no registration neces...
ü depending on the nature of work
ü rule of thumb: end of the year in which
author dies + 50 years,
or 50 years from end...
Default & automatic All Rights Reserved situation
The way copyright laws around the world operate is that
the moment creative works are created (written works, music,
photo...
<dealing with copyrights>
2 main ways of disposing of / dealing with copyrights
Assignment & Licensing
Assignment = transfer of rights
Licence = permission to make use of
copyrighted material
Exclusive licence
Permission that excludes
all other persons to use
the work in a similar
fashion
Different kinds of licen...
Exclusive licences need to be in writing!
But can they be in electronic form?
Yes, in South Africa [ss 11, 12 ECT Act]
Copyright holders frequently allow collective management
organisations (“collecting societies”) to grant
licences, monitor...
<the public domain>
The public domain
Public domain works are those works
whose use is not restricted by copyright
• Copyright term expired
• ...
Permission is required for most uses of most works!
<copyright exceptions and limitations>
Unless a copyright exception
and limitation applies.
Copyright exception and limitation
Copyright e&l curtail the exclusive rights assigned by
copyright law to the copyright h...
Relevant examples
ü Fair dealing (study, research, private use)
ü Exceptions for educational purposes
ü Exceptions for ...
Chapter 1 of the Copyright Regulations contains
some exceptions and limitations for reproduction
and dissemination of copy...
Hence: Copyright e & l could be a key enabler
for legal access to knowledge material…
“O#en,	
  the	
  scope	
  of	
  (educa&onal)	
  
excep&ons	
  and	
  excep3ons	
  for	
  
libraries	
  and	
  archives	
  ...
<the digital environment>
Why is digital different?
ü unlimited number of
copies
ü  virtually
instantaneously
ü  no loss of quality
ü  easy to modify
ü  easy to distribu...
… one example:
And our old laws are ill-equipped to deal with these changes
S12 General exceptions from protection of literary and musical works
(1) Copyright shall not be infringed by any fair deal...
And copying became much easier
<new approaches and open licensing>
Academic content is
increasingly becoming
unaffordable
Open Access & Open Educational
Resources (OERs) as legal approaches to
overcome some of the problems for access to
and (re...
To make learning materials more
accessible, affordable and re-useable
Open	
  educa&onal	
  resources	
  are	
  
educa&onal	
  materials	
  and	
  resources	
  offered	
  
freely	
  and	
  open...
Open	
  Access	
  is	
  the	
  prac3ce	
  of	
  providing	
  
unrestricted	
  access	
  via	
  the	
  Internet	
  to	
  
p...
{author	
  fees	
  –	
  paid	
  by	
  libraries?}	
  
Business	
  model???	
  
A	
  few	
  examples…	
  
…	
  calls	
  on	
  governments	
  worldwide	
  to	
  openly	
  license	
  
publicly	
  funded	
  educa3onal	
  materials	...
But	
  to	
  make	
  all	
  this	
  work	
  legally	
  you	
  need	
  open	
  licences!	
  
Default & automatic All Rights Reserved situation
Remember?
One of the most widely used system of open licences:
Creative Commons provides free licences that make it
easier for people:
to disseminate their works and
share and build upo...
A set of pre-formulated licences
More than 500 million CC licensed works on the
Internet
If you are looking for CC licensed material created by
others, …
Or look out for a symbol like this:
If you want to distribute your material
under a CC licence, ….
Or: go to
www.creativecommons.org
And follow the instructions on the website to attach the
chosen licence to your work.
Thank you!
my email address is:
tobias.schonwetter@uct.ac.za
Creative Commons Licence
This presentation is the work of Dr Tobias Schonwetter.
It is licensed under a
Creative Commons A...
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter
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Practical Copyright & IP - Tobias Schonwetter

  1. 1. P Copyright, IP and Creative Commons licensing at UCT – Savvy Researcher Series 03 April 2014 Dr. Tobias Schonwetter Director: UCT IP Unit
  2. 2. <copyright 101>
  3. 3. Copyright is only one pillar of the IP protection regime; others: Patents Trademarks Designs
  4. 4. “Copyright is the exclusive right in relation to work embodying intellectual content to do or to authorize to do certain acts in relation to that work.” “uses”
  5. 5. What is intended by copyright law?
  6. 6. Fair balance between the interests of right owners and public/users
  7. 7. Protected works in SA 1.  Literary, musical and artistic works; 2.  Cinematograph films; 3.  Sound recordings; 4.  Broadcasts; 5.  Computer programs
  8. 8. 1.  reproduce 2.  make adaptations 3.  broadcast 4.  distribute 5.  perform 6.  display in public 7.  cause a work to be transmitted in a diffusion service Exclusive (economic) rights (“certain acts”)
  9. 9. 1.  Integrity (right to object to derogatory treatment) 2.  Paternity (right to be identified as the author) Plus: Moral rights
  10. 10. Basic requirements for copyright protection §  Originality §  Material form §  (Qualified person) no registration necessary the idea itself is NOT protected
  11. 11. ü depending on the nature of work ü rule of thumb: end of the year in which author dies + 50 years, or 50 years from end of the year in which work was made available to the public (cinematograph films, photographs) 10 30 40 5020 Duration of copyright protection in SA
  12. 12. Default & automatic All Rights Reserved situation
  13. 13. The way copyright laws around the world operate is that the moment creative works are created (written works, music, photographs etc), creators automatically get a monopoly that allows them to decide if and under what circumstances others can use this work.
  14. 14. <dealing with copyrights>
  15. 15. 2 main ways of disposing of / dealing with copyrights
  16. 16. Assignment & Licensing
  17. 17. Assignment = transfer of rights Licence = permission to make use of copyrighted material
  18. 18. Exclusive licence Permission that excludes all other persons to use the work in a similar fashion Different kinds of licences Non-exclusive licence Permission to use but similar licences can be granted to others Open licence vs restrictive licence Compulsory licence …provides users with a right to use against payment set by law.
  19. 19. Exclusive licences need to be in writing!
  20. 20. But can they be in electronic form? Yes, in South Africa [ss 11, 12 ECT Act]
  21. 21. Copyright holders frequently allow collective management organisations (“collecting societies”) to grant licences, monitor uses of copyrighted material and collect royalties from users on their behalf. UCT’s blanket licence agreement
  22. 22. <the public domain>
  23. 23. The public domain Public domain works are those works whose use is not restricted by copyright • Copyright term expired • Works that are not copyright protected (eg official texts of a legislative, administrative or legal nature)
  24. 24. Permission is required for most uses of most works!
  25. 25. <copyright exceptions and limitations>
  26. 26. Unless a copyright exception and limitation applies.
  27. 27. Copyright exception and limitation Copyright e&l curtail the exclusive rights assigned by copyright law to the copyright holder. They do this to promote the public interest and to respect users’ legitimate interests in using copyright protected material in certain circumstances without the permission of the rights holder.
  28. 28. Relevant examples ü Fair dealing (study, research, private use) ü Exceptions for educational purposes ü Exceptions for libraries and archives ü Quotations ü Etc.
  29. 29. Chapter 1 of the Copyright Regulations contains some exceptions and limitations for reproduction and dissemination of copyrighted works by libraries and archives.
  30. 30. Hence: Copyright e & l could be a key enabler for legal access to knowledge material…
  31. 31. “O#en,  the  scope  of  (educa&onal)   excep&ons  and  excep3ons  for   libraries  and  archives  is   unclear,  par3cular  in  the  digital   environment.”         However,   ”reasonable  por3on”   “no  conflict  with  normal  exploita3on”   “not  unreasonable  prejudice  the   legi3mate  interests  of  the  rights   holder”   “no  direct  or  indirect  commercial  advantage”  
  32. 32. <the digital environment>
  33. 33. Why is digital different?
  34. 34. ü unlimited number of copies ü  virtually instantaneously ü  no loss of quality ü  easy to modify ü  easy to distribute ü  distribution of copies around the world in seconds ü  new search and linking capabilities ü Sometimes no human author ü “multimedia” works
  35. 35. … one example: And our old laws are ill-equipped to deal with these changes
  36. 36. S12 General exceptions from protection of literary and musical works (1) Copyright shall not be infringed by any fair dealing with a literary or musical work- (a) for the purposes of research or private study by, or the personal or private use of, the person using the work; (b)for the purposes of criticism or review of that work or of another work; or (c) for the purpose of reporting current events- […] S17 General exceptions regarding protection of sound recordings The provisions of section 12 (1) (b) and (c), (2), (3), (4), (5), (12) and (13) shall mutatis mutandis apply with reference to sound recordings.
  37. 37. And copying became much easier
  38. 38. <new approaches and open licensing>
  39. 39. Academic content is increasingly becoming unaffordable
  40. 40. Open Access & Open Educational Resources (OERs) as legal approaches to overcome some of the problems for access to and (re-)use of knowledge material
  41. 41. To make learning materials more accessible, affordable and re-useable
  42. 42. Open  educa&onal  resources  are   educa&onal  materials  and  resources  offered   freely  and  openly  for  anyone  to  use  and  under   some  open  licenses  to  re-­‐mix,  improve  and   redistribute,  including  learning  content.    
  43. 43. Open  Access  is  the  prac3ce  of  providing   unrestricted  access  via  the  Internet  to   peer-­‐reviewed  scholarly  journal   ar&cles.  Open  Access  is  also  increasingly  being   provided  to  theses,  scholarly  monographs   and  book  chapters.  
  44. 44. {author  fees  –  paid  by  libraries?}   Business  model???  
  45. 45. A  few  examples…  
  46. 46. …  calls  on  governments  worldwide  to  openly  license   publicly  funded  educa3onal  materials  for  public  use.  
  47. 47. But  to  make  all  this  work  legally  you  need  open  licences!  
  48. 48. Default & automatic All Rights Reserved situation Remember?
  49. 49. One of the most widely used system of open licences:
  50. 50. Creative Commons provides free licences that make it easier for people: to disseminate their works and share and build upon the work of others consistent with the rules of copyright.
  51. 51. A set of pre-formulated licences
  52. 52. More than 500 million CC licensed works on the Internet
  53. 53. If you are looking for CC licensed material created by others, …
  54. 54. Or look out for a symbol like this:
  55. 55. If you want to distribute your material under a CC licence, ….
  56. 56. Or: go to www.creativecommons.org
  57. 57. And follow the instructions on the website to attach the chosen licence to your work.
  58. 58. Thank you! my email address is: tobias.schonwetter@uct.ac.za
  59. 59. Creative Commons Licence This presentation is the work of Dr Tobias Schonwetter. It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 South Africa License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/za/ or send a letter to: Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, California, 94041, USA.

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