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Circulatory System - The Heart

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This slide presentation discusses the basic anatomy and function of the human heart.

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Circulatory System - The Heart

  1. 1. THE HEART CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
  2. 2. • muscular organ • size of a closed fist • weigh appr. 250 to 350 grams • BASE is attached to the aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, and the vena cava. • APEX of the heart rests superior to the diaphragm. THE HEART OVERVIEW BASE APEX AORTA SUPERIOR VENA CAVA PULMONARY ARTERY INFERIOR VENA CAVA PULMONARY VEINS
  3. 3. • circulatory pump – takes in deoxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation – blood is pumped into the various arteries (which provide oxygen and nutrients to body tissues by transporting the blood throughout the body). THE HEART OVERVIEW
  4. 4. THE HEART LOCATION LUNGS HEART LIVER DIAPHRAGM ESOPHAGUS T8 VERTEBRA STERNUM • Posterior to the sternum • Anterior to the esophagus and vertebra • Medial to the lungs • 2/3 left, 1/3 right
  5. 5. THE HEART LOCATION
  6. 6. THE HEART PERICARDIUM • Prevent friction between beating heart and organs • Holds the heart in position and maintains a hollow space for expansion when full.
  7. 7. THE HEART HEART WALL • EPICARDIUM – outermost layer, same as visceral layer of pericardium. • MYOCARDIUM – muscular middle layer of the heart. • ENDOCARDIUM – simple squamous epithelium lining the inside of the heart.
  8. 8. • short, fat, branched and interconnected. • interlock at dark-staining junctions called intercalated discs. • gap junctions allow ions to pass • muscles behave like a single coordinated unit. THE HEART CARDIAC MUSCLES CARDIAC MUSCLE CELL INTERCALATED DISC DESMOSOME GAP JUNCTION
  9. 9. THE HEART CARDIAC MUSCLES CARDIAC MUSCLE SKELETAL MUSCLE Structure Short, fat, branched, Interconnected Long, cylindrical, multinucleate Means of Stimulation Nerve Stimulus Self-excitable Nerve stimulus Contraction Contract as a unit Individually activated Refractory period 200 ms 1-2 ms
  10. 10. MITRAL VALVE TRICUSPID VALVE AORTIC VALVE PULMONARY VALVE Chordae tendineae THE HEART VALVES • Prevents the blood from flowing backwards or regurgitating back into the heart. • Two types: – Atrioventricular (AV) valve – Semilunar valve
  11. 11. THE HEART VALVES Atrioventricular or AV Valve Tricuspid – right side Mitral – left side  prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles contract. MITRAL VALVE TRICUSPID VALVE AORTIC VALVE PULMONARY VALVE Chordae tendineae
  12. 12. THE HEART VALVES Semilunar Valve Aortic– left side Pulmonary – right side  blood flows from ventricles to the arteries MITRAL VALVE TRICUSPID VALVE AORTIC VALVE PULMONARY VALVE Chordae tendineae
  13. 13. THE HEART CHAMBERS ATRIA VENTRICLES • receiving chambers for blood • smaller and less muscular than ventricles • larger, stronger • pumps blood out of the heart
  14. 14. THE HEART CHAMBERS RIGHT ATRIUM • deoxygenated blood(body) • FROM: superior/inferior vena cava coronary sinus • PUMPTS TO: right ventricle • THROUGH THE: tricuspid valve SUPERIOR VENA CAVA INFERIOR VENA CAVA TRICUSPID VALVE
  15. 15. THE HEART CHAMBERS RIGHT VENTRICLE • deoxygenated blood • FROM: right atrium • PUMPTS TO: pulmonary artery • THROUGH THE: tricuspid valve (in) pulmonary valve(out) PULMONARY ARTERY TRICUSPID VALVE
  16. 16. THE HEART CHAMBERS LEFT ATRIUM • oxygenated blood (lungs) • FROM: left /right pulmonary veins • PUMPTS TO: left ventricle • THROUGH THE: mitral valve MITRAL VALVE PULMONARY VEINS
  17. 17. THE HEART CHAMBERS LEFT VENTRICLE • oxygenated blood • FROM: left atrium • PUMPTS TO: aorta (to the body) • THROUGH THE: mitral valve (in) aortic valve(out) AORTA MITRAL VALVE

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