Kegley Chapter 4

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Kegley Chapter 4

  1. 1. Chapter 4: Great Power Politics in Historical Perspective<br />
  2. 2. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Long Cycles of World Leadership<br />Long-cycle theory: Rise and fall of hegemons<br />Hegemon: A single powerful state that exercises predominant influence over global actors<br />Hegemonic stability theory: Global dominance of a hegemon is necessary to provide the order required for international commerce and military security<br />Enduring rivalries among great powers<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Birth of International Politics <br />Greek city states <br />Peloponnesian war<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />From City States to Nation States<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Westphalian System <br />The 30 Years War <br />Treaty of Westphalia: <br />Recognized the existence and defined the rights of sovereign states<br />Pluralism <br />Recognition <br />5<br />
  6. 6. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Europe in 1648<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Balance of Power System <br />Anarchy<br />Balance of Power <br />Law of War <br />7<br />
  8. 8. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Europe and the Rest of the World <br />European domination <br />8<br />
  9. 9. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Napoleon and National Warfare<br />Nationalism <br />National self-determinism<br />Democracy<br />The draft, or Levée en Masse<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Concert of Europe <br />Liberal approach to international affairs <br />Debate over the relative effectiveness of collaboration versus deterrence in preventing wars continues to this day<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Nationalism and Imperialism <br />11<br />Colonialism<br />
  12. 12. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Road to World War I <br />By the beginning of the 20th century, there was intense competition among European powers. <br />Triple Alliance<br />Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Italy<br />Triple entente<br />Britain, France, Russia <br />Serbian nationalists’ assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in July, 1914. <br />12<br />
  13. 13. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />World War I: A Guide to the Major Players <br />Alliance Powers: <br />Germany, Austria-Hungary<br />Ottoman Empire, Italy (until 1915)<br />Entente Powers:<br />Great Britain, France, Russia, <br />United States, Italy (after 1915)<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />World War I Consequences<br />Millions of deaths<br />Versailles Treaty and punishment of Germany: war guilt, reparations, small military, Ruhr occupied<br />Rise of communism<br />Creation of many new states in Europe<br />Wilsonian liberalism and decline of realism<br />Strong anti-war sentiment in U.S. and western Europe<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Territorial Changes in Europe Following World War I<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />World War II: A Guide to the Major Players <br />Axis Powers: <br />Germany, Italy, Japan<br />Allied Powers:<br />France, Great Britain, <br />Soviet Union, United States<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />World War II Causes<br />Versailles provisions inflame Germany<br />Fascism and Nazi grip on Germany<br />German irredentism<br />Inaction by France, Britain, Soviet Union  appeasement<br />American isolationism<br />Multipolarity<br />Great Depression and protectionism<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />World War II Consequences<br />Border changes in Europe<br />System change: end to great-power rivalries in Europe<br />Iron curtain in eastern Europe<br />Beginning of decolonization<br />United Nations<br />Bipolarity: U.S.-Soviet rivalry  the Cold War<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />World War II Redraws Map of Europe<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Cold War: Causes<br />Power transition propels both states to top of global power hierarchy<br />Struggle for spheres of influence<br />Domino theory<br />Mirror images<br />Self-fulfilling prophecy<br />Ideology<br />Security dilemma<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Key Events in the Evolution of the U.S.–Soviet Relationship During the Cold War 1949–1991<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Seedbed of the Cold War, 1945–1948 <br />U.S. unipolarity<br />Kennan’s “long telegram” <br />Truman doctrine<br />Containment <br />22<br />
  23. 23. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Cold War: Confrontation, 1945–1962<br />Khrushchev pursued a policy of peaceful coexistence <br />Berlin blockade; Korean War; other crises<br />Extended deterrence<br />Bipolarity<br />Khrushchev's peaceful coexistence<br />Cuban missile crisis, 1962<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Cold War: 1963–1978<br />MAD: Mutual assured destruction<br />Kennedy and tension reductions<br />Détente: Relaxation of tensions<br />Policy of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger<br />Linkage <br />SALT talks<br />Cultural exchanges, trade agreements<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Cold War: 1979–1991<br />Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, 1979<br />Carter Doctrine<br />Reagan Doctrine<br />Rapprochement <br />Gorbachev policies: withdrawal from eastern Europe, Afghanistan, Cuba; INF, START, and CFE treaties; domestic liberalization<br />25<br />
  26. 26. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Consequences of the Cold War <br />End of communism<br />“End of history”<br />Emergence of U.S. hegemony<br />More elusive security threats <br />Rogue states<br />Terrorism <br />26<br />
  27. 27. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />America’s Unipolar Moment<br />Caused by end of Cold War<br />Soft power<br />Unilateralism of the Bush administration <br />Bush Doctrine and the war on terror<br />Unipolar situation instigates other power centers to form<br />Imperial overstretch?<br />27<br />
  28. 28. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />A Multipolar World<br />United States currently the dominant military and political power<br />China, Japan, India, the European Union and possibly Russia are potential challengers for hegemon role<br />Multipolar distributions of power can lead to war<br />Power transitions<br />28<br />
  29. 29. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Emerging Centers of Power in the Twenty First Century Global Hierarchy<br />29<br />
  30. 30. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Responding to Multipolarity’s Challenge<br />Unilateral approach<br />Selective engagement<br />Concert<br />Collective security<br />30<br />
  31. 31. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Projection of the Largest Global Economies by 2020<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />New World Order or Disorder?<br />The attacks on New York and Washington on September 11, 2001 led to a new common, enemy, terrorism.<br />However, disagreement exists about how to overcome terrorism—specifically with the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003.<br />International challenges continue: trade barriers, SARS, economic collapse, swine flu . . . <br />32<br />
  33. 33. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Great Powers’ Current National Security Strategies <br />The United States and Its Unipolar Moment<br />The Bush Doctrine<br />China’s Ascendance and Global Clout <br />The European Union’s Search for a Strategic Vision <br />Supporter of integration and institutional approaches <br />Japan’s Strategic Posture <br />Yoshida Doctrine <br />Russia’s Quest for Strategic Revival <br />33<br />

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