Kegley chapter 14


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  • Are terrorist groups now a category of nonstate actors on the global stage? Postmodern terrorism’s active and global nature has changed the ways that governments must confront it. The rapid spread of technology and weapons across borders has made battling terrorism all the more difficult.Terrorist NGOs: Al Qaeda, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC), Hezbollah, Hamas, Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR)
  • Interpol (the International Criminal Police Organization) is an international law enforcement agency based in Lyon, France. It facilitates information exchange from 188 member countries, provides criminal databases and supports police operations. Interpol’s constitution prevents intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character.
  • The global flu pandemic of 1918 (also known as the Spanish flu) was responsible for 600,000 deaths in the United States alone, and up to 40 million worldwide. Most of its victims were healthy young adults.
  • Red Crescent organizations are the Muslim country equivalents of Red Cross organizations. About 80% of the ICRC’s budget comes from governments, particularly wealthy nations. It has the advantage of being able to operate in areas where governments are not always welcome.
  • The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network Collaborating Centres (provided at no cost by Australia, Japan, the United States and Great Britain) provide analysis of current virus strains in order to make recommendations to the World Health Network, an agency of the United Nations.
  • Other examples of the tragedy of the commons are related to energy resources, forest, animals and overpopulation.
  • The United States is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, but has not yet ratified it. The Obama administration has signaled interest in international climate efforts, but not through this agreement.
  • Montreal Protocol (1987)Mediterranean Action Plan (1976, 1995)Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)
  • The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) monitors average global surface temperatures at thousands of sites, and shows a defined upward trend.
  • The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists 3,246 species as critically endangered.
  • The 2009 Global 100 listing of the world’s most sustainable corporations identifies twenty U.S. companies, including Alcoa, Inc., Baxter International, Coca Cola Company, Dell Inc. Eastman Kodak, Nike Inc. and The Walt Disney Company.
  • The global economy’s need for energy continues to rise, requiring more energy than is available from nonrenewable resources.
  • Kegley chapter 14

    1. 1. Chapter 14: Population, Resources, and Global Environmental Politics<br />
    2. 2. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Transnational Crime <br />Global Drug Trade ($300 billion per year)<br />Money Laundering <br />“Conflict Diamonds”<br />Endangered species <br />Stolen Automobiles <br />Piracy of Copyrighted Materials <br />The Arms Trade <br />Terrorism<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />International Enforcement<br />Interpol<br />Combating Drug Smuggling<br />U.S. Plan Columbia<br />Combating Money Laundering<br />Financial Action Task Force <br />3<br />
    4. 4. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Spread of Disease <br />Long history<br />Bubonic plague<br />1918 flu<br />Polio<br />SARS: 2003<br />H1N1 (swine flu)<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Efforts to Fight Disease <br />World Health Organization (WHO) <br />USAID<br />HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment<br />Fighting infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and polio<br />Maternal and children’s healthcare<br />Family planning<br />Strengthening health systems<br />5<br />
    6. 6. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />6<br />NGOs in International Health <br />The International Red Cross and Crescent <br />Medecins sans Frontiers (MSF)<br />The Gates Foundation <br />
    7. 7. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Agenda <br />HIV/AIDS<br />Malaria<br />Tuberculosis (TB)<br />Treating a new flu pandemic <br />7<br />
    8. 8. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Ecopolitics<br />The global commons: The physical and organic characteristics and resources of the entire planet—the air in the atmosphere and conditions on land and sea—on which human life depends and which is the common heritage of all humanity.<br />Carrying capacity: The maximum number of humans and living species that can be supported by a given territory.<br />Politics of scarcity: Scarce resources can undermine security and lead to military conflict.<br />8<br />
    9. 9. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Global Environmental Problems <br />Depletion of the ozone layer<br />Global warming<br />Biodiversity loss <br />Overpopulation<br />Oil shortages <br />9<br />
    10. 10. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Tragedy of the Commons <br />An example of what can happen with shared resources: land, fish, air. <br />10<br />
    11. 11. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />International Environmental Collaboration Is Difficult <br />Conflict with existing agreements<br />Competing priorities <br />Equity<br />Scientific uncertainty <br />11<br />
    12. 12. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Kyoto Protocol <br />Limits greenhouse gases <br />Includes provisions for emissions trading<br />Problems: <br />Some feel it is too restrictive<br />Others feel it is too weak <br />12<br />
    13. 13. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Other International Agreements<br />The Montreal Protocol <br />Reduce the production and use of gases that deplete the ozone layer<br />The Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) <br />Limit the dumping of land-based pollution into the Mediterranean Sea<br />The Convention on Biological Diversity<br />The conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. <br />13<br />
    14. 14. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Ecopolitics<br />Environmental security: Environmental threats can be as important as military threats<br />Sustainable development: Economic growth that does not deplete the resources needed to maintain growth<br />14<br />
    15. 15. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Climate Change<br />Greenhouse effect<br />CO2, methane<br />World temperature to rise 2–12ºF by 2100 unless action is taken<br />Possible effects of global warming<br />Rising sea levels<br />Warmer winters and more severe hot spells<br />Increased rainfall in areas prone to flooding; dryer drought-prone regions<br />The disappearance of entire ecosystems<br />Increases in tropical disease<br />Increased hunger and water shortages <br />15<br />
    16. 16. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Rising Average Global Temperatures at the Earth’s Surface Since 1867<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Global Warming, Climatic Catastrophes, and Mass Suffering<br />17<br />
    18. 18. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Ozone Depletion and Protections <br />Emergence of an international regime<br />Montreal Protocol 1987<br />Strong scientific evidence and<br />Active NGO epistemic community <br />Can this translate to other issues?<br />Mountains<br />18<br />
    19. 19. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Ecopolitics of Forests and Biodiversity <br />Biodiversity: The variety of plant and animal species living in the earth’s diverse ecosystems<br />Deforestation <br />1992 Earth Summit <br />Desertification <br />19<br />
    20. 20. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Loss of Forest and Ground to Deserts<br />20<br />
    21. 21. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Biodiversity<br />Genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity <br />14 percent of the world’s species are threatened with extinction <br />Most likely to affect the Global South<br />Role of MNCs<br />Enclosure movement <br />21<br />
    22. 22. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Locating Biodiversity Bastions and Endangered Biodiversity Hot Spots<br />22<br />
    23. 23. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Sources of the Ecological Threats to the Global Commons <br />Tragedy of the commons<br />Rationally self-interested behavior may have a destructive collective impact<br />Overgrazing of animals on the village green<br />Applies to human behavior and ecological systems<br />23<br />
    24. 24. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Globalization of Planetary Dangers <br />IPCC Report 2007<br />Human activity is the main cause of global warming<br />Climate Change<br />U.S. and China major sources of CO2<br />Burning coal also causes acid rain<br />24<br />
    25. 25. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Touring Trends of the Greenhouse<br />25<br />
    26. 26. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Global Politics of Energy Supplies and Consumption <br />Oil is being used faster than it’s being discovered<br />OPEC countries control oil supply<br />Cartel<br />Oil and natural gas located in politically unstable regions<br />26<br />
    27. 27. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Toward Sustainability? <br />Global solutions<br />Converting to renewable sources for energy<br />International treaties for environmental protection <br />Free trade?<br />“Green” corporations<br />27<br />
    28. 28. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Phasing Out Fossil Fuels? The Potential for Renewable Energy to Supply to World’s Energy Needs by the Year 2100<br />28<br />
    29. 29. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Number of International Environmental Treaties Since 1921: Protecting the Global Commons?<br />29<br />
    30. 30. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Toward Sustainability?<br />Local solutions<br />California state laws<br />EPA<br />An Inconvenient Truth<br />Change a light bulb.<br />Recycle more.<br />Use less hot water.<br />Drive less.<br />Conserve electricity.<br />30<br />
    31. 31. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Measuring National Commitments to Environmental Sustainability<br />31<br />