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The mobile movement: what does this mean for tertiary education?

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The mobile movement: what does this mean for tertiary education?

  1. 1. The mobile movement: what does this mean for tertiary education? Assoc Prof Philip Uys Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia <puys@csu.edu.au> DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  2. 2. 1. Introduction 2. Examining the impact of mobile devices on the sector 3. Investigating mobile learning for Charles Sturt University 4. Identifying and overcoming ethical, educational, technical and general challenges 5. Implementing a mobile strategy that best aligns with student and staff expectations for learning, communication and campus experience 6. Summary DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  3. 3. 1. Introduction - Sponsor CSU mLearn project; 2011 mlearning seminars in SA; judge of GSMA's 17th Global Mobile Awards (Best Mobile Innovation for Education or Learning) - mlearning - mLearning is about supporting the mobility of the learner (anywhere, anytime) - We are using the students devices (not the institution’s) and moving into their world in a more direct and personal way - Focus is on student learning (not access to general administrative information e.g. time tables, maps) - Synchronous and asynchronous - Offline and online DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  4. 4. 2. Examining the impact of mobile devices on the sector - general access to the “University”; learning and teaching; research – will focus on the impact on learning in this presentation DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  5. 5. - CSU Ed Tech survey responses June 2010 (n=4000) • 87% of students want to revisit work from lectures on their handheld/mobile device • Students were evenly split (50/50) among those who wish to access on campus information; subject information; subject readings; assessments or notifications on a handheld/mobile device. • Since 2005 we have surveyed our first year students in the School of Communication about a range of technology/media issues. Of the 207 surveyed in 2010 - 94% own a portable media player (e.g. iPod) and 80% use iTunes at least weekly. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  6. 6. - CSU website access through mobile devices per month: January 2012: 51, 533 visits (growth of more than 1000% since January 2010) iOS accounted for 40,000. Total 245,508 unique visitors = 21% mobile - Other needs at CSU: - CSU students doing fieldwork need to access CSU’s learning and teaching systems wherever they are. - The envisaged increase in students from lower SES backgrounds could see a decrease in privately owned laptops with a resultant higher ratio of mobile (small screen) devices. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  7. 7. - some mlearning developments in Australasia and beyond • Take up by many universities in Australasia and internationally • Abilene Christian University: initial findings from 2008 to 2009 were above 80% satisfaction and the last two years this has risen to over 90%. http://www.acu.edu/technology/mobilelearning/documents/ACU2009-10MobileLearningReport.pdf (ACU, 2011) 84 percent of ACU's faculty reported using their devices frequently in class to facilitate enhanced classroom collaboration. 86 percent of students reported improved student-to-student and student-to-teacher collaboration when using mobile devices in the instructional process. • Oklahoma State University reported 75% agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, “I think the iPad enhanced the learning experience of this course.” http://news.okstate.edu/press-releases/929-ipad-study-released-by-oklahoma-state-university • Earlypilot programs have found that students feel that mobile technology encourages exploration of additional course topics, helps manage time, provides new functions/ tools, increases learning, and makes courses more interesting (University of Notre Dame, 2011) and provide additional motivation for learning (Bond University, 2011) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  8. 8. • The Horizon Project is a long-running qualitative research project that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within learning-focused organisations. For the last three years mobile learning has featured as the number one emerging technology both internationally and in Australasia • Mobile devices (such as Phones, Smart phones, PDA’s, Tablets, Netbooks and Portable Gaming Platforms) are more common and we are seeing an increase in usage of handheld ‘mobile’ devices by staff, community members and students. Many of these are Internet capable, able to connect to the Internet via a wireless connection, or via the 3G mobile phone network. • A typical Smartphone has not only a wireless internet connection but a GPS, accelerometer, compass and multi-touch interface which can be developed to create a much more personal experience where content can be delivered, created and contextualized by a student’s physical location. http://www.lukew.com/resources/articles/MobileFirst_LukeW.pdf • In the 3 years (2006-2009) mobile web traffic on the AT&T network in the USA increased 50 times AT&T, Morgan Stanley Research DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  9. 9. • Tremendous growth in the number of new mobile devices, specifically tablets, expected over the next few years. Gartner predicts word wide rollout of 54.8 million tablet units in 2011, 103.4 million in 2012 and 154.2 million in 2013 on top of the 11 million sold in 2010. http://printceo.com/2010/11/gartner%E2%80%99s-optimistic-predictions-of-tablet-growth/ DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  10. 10. • In the final quarter of 2010 Fortune reported that Smartphones outsold PCs for the first time – a full two years before the prediction by Morgan Stanley – and according to the UN Telecommunications Agency www.itu.int 77% of the world’s population now has mobile devices. • By 2013, mobile phones will overtake PCs as the most common Web access device worldwide – Gartner Inc, 2010 http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1278413 • By 2015, 80% of people accessing the Internet will be doing so from mobile devices – 2011 Horizon Report http://wp.nmc.org/horizon2011/sections/mobiles/ The technology is here, ready, available and in widespread use BUT availability does not mean that students are demanding it or that by itself it has potential to enhance learning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  11. 11. A survey last year (2010) of 200 iPhone-owning Stanford students portrayed them as digitally obsessed, even addicted. Most slept next to their phones. A quarter said their phones were "dangerously alluring." But when Stanford's School of Medicine lent iPads to all new students last August, a curious thing happened: Many didn't like using them in class. Officials had hoped to stop printing an annual average of 3,700 pages of course materials per medical student, encouraging them to use digital materials instead. Some students rebelled, and Stanford was forced to resume offering printed notes to those who wanted them. In most classes, half the students had stopped using their iPads only a few weeks into the term. May 2011 http://chronicle.com/article/The-Slow-Motion-Mobile-Campus/127380/ DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  12. 12. Impact on learning “There is something counter-intuitive but familiar about this approach to technology: new technologies often heralded and sold as “revolutionary,” are deployed to do the same old things” (p. 11). Hanley, L. (2011). Teacher as bricoleur. Radical Teacher, 90, 9-14. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  13. 13. - focus on distinctive aspects Such as using the: 5.inherent affordances of mobile devices themselves (mobility, GPS, etc.) as well as the 2. functionality on the devices (apps) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  14. 14. - A few standout items of the “24 benefits of mobile learning - Marcus Boyes” -1.Relevance: mobile learning enables training and evidence collection to be ‘situated rather than simulated’ and so it makes learning possible at the point of need e.g. Induction - 2. Elimination of technologicaland acceptance barriers: the use of a learner’s own mobile device means they are already familiar with the technology, eliminating technological barriers to accessing learning. - 3. Context sensitive learning: with GPS and the use of QR codes learning can become specific to a location DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  15. 15. Distinctive capabilities in learning and teaching through (personas): 1. Students accessing learning materials 2. Performing learning tasks 3. Participating in learning interactions 4. Performing assessment tasks 7. Students accessing learning support 6. Evaluating teaching DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  16. 16. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  17. 17. a. eBooks Martha (28) is studying by distance. Whilst on the train she is able to browse books and resources in an online store on her iPad. Before she reaches her destination she has read a few samples and chosen to purchase an eBook of her prescribed text so she can avoid lugging the large volume print copy to and from work. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  18. 18. b. Pod/Vodcasts Rachel (43) has two children and is enrolled in CSU through distance education. She uses mobile technology mostly to complete her readings while on the move. She is able to access podcasts of her lectures while she is preparing dinner using iTunesU, and on her hands free mobile phone while travelling to work and socially DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  19. 19. 3. Performing learning tasks DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  20. 20. • Research Andre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to find relevant articles and add it to “Instapaper” to read later (“Instapaper” also allows Andre to change the font, size and colour.) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  21. 21. b. ePortfolio/Personal Learning System Liz (24) is a final year student in B. Information Studies (DE only), currently studying Social Networking in Info Studies subject. She is able to update her ePortfolio using her smart phone to keep a record of any meetings that she will have in regards to work or study. She also uses the Pebble Pad application on her smart phone to document emergent, unintentional learning. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  22. 22. send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMS c. Mobile Capture Mick (44) is a mature age student, family man and farming outside Broken Hill. He is in his second year of study doing an joint agricultural /health science diploma by DE. Out in the field, where there is no network connection, Mick is still able to use his phone to take photos of examples from his study guide which are also geo-tagged. When he is back at the homestead he is able to upload them to the forums for discussion with his peers.. This supports contingent learning (reacting to the environment and changing experiences), situated learning (learning takes place in the surroundings that make learning meaningful). Mick also sends x-rays from outstations with comments to the academic for upload in the LMS, or sometimes upload it himself at the homestead. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  23. 23. d. Geo-tagging Kevin (20) is a student in environmental science who with fellow students visits a natural reserve near Sydney where various plants and trees are geo-tagged to deliver online information and enhance users’ experiences via photo, video, audio and text; on the user’s mobile device. Kevin can add to the information which is then available to his peers. It is developed as an environmental teaching tool as well as an eco-guide for natural reserves and parks. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  24. 24. e. SMS Michael (23) is a final year Vet student. He has a basic mobile phone (not a smart phone). He accesses CSU’s intelligent mobile answer engine that delivers knowledge bits over SMS. The return SMS will contain the exact answer to the query and not links to answers. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  25. 25. 4. Participating in learning interactions DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  26. 26. a. CHAT Andre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to access his Learning Management System modules and communicates with other students in the class using the chat tool. In addition, he belongs to a Mixit study group where he also participates actively in chats. He is also a bof on using his mobile phone to participate in Twitter discussions. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  27. 27. b. Messaging System - the Learning Management System Pete (41) is an academic teaching a distance education cohort in the Outback, with only two residential schools per session per year. His students in the region have intermittent Internet access at best and the mobile networks are far more robust. Pete sends notifications to students (using SMS) regarding the availability of new Internet resources as they are posted so students know when they need to get online. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  28. 28. c. Web Application Client Liz (24) is a final year student in Bachelor of Information Studies currently studying a Social Networking subject. The class is immersed and engaged with variety of Web 2.0 tools integrated in Sakai OAE. Using a web application client, the class is able to aggregate and share content on their Galaxy Tablet from a variety of sites and applications in one central location. For Liz this is a great time saver. She can also use tools she is already using and familiar with. This supports personalised learning (learning is customised for the preferences, history and abilities of individual learners or groups of learners). DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  29. 29. 5. Performing assessment tasks DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  30. 30. a. Self Assessment Tools James (29) is studying a health science degree. James is about to undertake a multiple choice test on the train as part of his subject revision. To access this, James uses his tablet and an environment specifically designed for mobile use. Once complete, James will get instantaneous feedback from the test and see where he may need to focus his studies for the exam DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  31. 31. b. OLE Access – online assignment submission Sam (28) is a trainee parks manager completing a Bachelor of Environmental Sciences. Sam is struggling to connect to anything because of his location (very remote). Sam struggles with a poor internet connection on his homestead but is able to get mobile reception in some locations with higher elevation. Sam is able to take his tablet computer and submit his assessments using his mobile connection saving a long trek into town. Mobile learning thus addresses geographical or spatial distance. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  32. 32. c. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) James (29) is studying a health science degree. He is required to attend a trade fair in Sydney and check in with at least half of the stalls at the fair. RFID uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag attached to the student, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. Students wear RFID bracelets that connects them to their Facebook and Twitter pages. At each station they scan their bracelet and have a post or tweet automatically sent to their pages. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  33. 33. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  34. 34. a. Learning Support Tools and SMS Robyn (58) is a mature age student returning to study after 25 years in the workforce. She is struggling with the Learning Management System and with the DE materials that are so different from when she got her degree. Fortunately she is able to access a range of resources and tools to help her, including interactive tutorials so she is able to see how things work. She has to contribute to a Wiki in one of her subjects and after watching a video showing how wiki formatting is done she feels more confident. She has downloaded a cheat sheet to her mobile that lists all the codes so she can refer to it quickly whenever and wherever she needs to. Furthermore, she has elected to receive targeted SMS messages such as reminders of assessments and encouraging messages at crucial milestones. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  35. 35. 6. Evaluating teaching DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  36. 36. a. Classroom Feedback Leanne (31) - first year academic teaching Accounting. It’s her first full time teaching position and she is nervous about her performance and she will be in charge of reviewing and updating the subject next session. Leanne wants to ensure that she is engaging with the students, that they are finding the subject information useful and the assessments beneficial so she has deployed a range of feedback tools to her subject materials through mobile devices. Students can “like” sections of the online modules as well as make comments, which are recorded anonymously. Students have already commented on a number of areas that are difficult to understand and she now knows that they need further development. Students are able to update their comments simultaneously, using a smart phone. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  37. 37. 3. mLearning at CSU DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  38. 38. http://www.csu.edu.au/division/lts/docs/role/ltsystemsdashboard.pdf DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  39. 39. Implementation thus far: - 2012 iTunesU (private) with CSU Replay - since 2008 podcast tool in Interact: 2011 in 714 subject sites, out of approx 3600 sites = 20% - since 2010 ePortfolio/PLE system mobile web and iPhone/iPad app 2011 - 2013 mLearn project at CSU - within the unique context of Charles Sturt University DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  40. 40. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  41. 41. http://eportfolio.csu.edu.au/pebblepad/mobile DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  42. 42. • General mobile access available since mid-2011: mobile web available targeting iphones and android phones http://m.csu.edu.au DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  43. 43. - 2011 TO 2013 to expand mlearning and explore sustainability issues (around $.5 million): • Mobilise specific features and tools from Interact (CSU’s learning management system Sakai) then Interact 2 (Sakai OAE) as a whole (2013) • Run trials of tablet devices: nuclear medicine; eCommerce; education • Develop mobile friendly media-rich learning materials, and • Mobilise the subject evaluation system. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  44. 44. 4. Identifying and overcoming ethical, educational, technical and general challenges DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  45. 45. Ethical issues • Inequity across different socio-economic groups and ability to use the technology – organisation could provide; alternatives; decreasing cost of devices; blended • Radiation: disputes around tumour creation, impact on fertility - appropriate risk reduction strategies • Negative impact on sight and hearing – blended learning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  46. 46. • Mobile use in class, and in assessment contexts DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  47. 47. Educational issues • Integrated within blended and flexible learning • Deep versus shallow learning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  48. 48. • In-the-flesh communication vs mediated • Appreciate diversified learning preferences • Respect cognitive load (“head space”) • Limitations of multi-tasking DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  49. 49. • Redefined role of the teacher/educator? • Informal/mobile language acceptable? DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  50. 50. Technical issues • Variable access (regional and rural Australia) – National Broadband Network DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  51. 51. • strain on wireless networks (Stanford; Duke: 3 years to expand wireless and cellular coverage to 95 % of the major areas on campus) http://www.ausnetech.com.au/images/cartoons/sept2004.gif DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  52. 52. • Variable platforms (apps against open “web” philosophy), create once, publish everywhere – the promise of HTML5 compliancy. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  53. 53. General issues • Is it a fad? Gartner’s Hype cycle • Spaces are not neutral e.g. in evaluation DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  54. 54. 5. Implementing a mobile strategy that best aligns with student and staff expectations for learning, communication and campus experience DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  55. 55. - a mobile learning strategy has three key elements: LAP model adjusted from http://www.slideshare.net/dmolsenwvu/developing-a-progressive-mobile-strategy-bdconf-version DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  56. 56. Building mLearning content - Integrate as part of the learning process i.e “doing” and interactivity, not just listen/read (supported by mlearning) (Traditional: Learning outcomes  learning content) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  57. 57. - Select the apps to be used (especially free ones!) – distinctive of mlearning http://langwitches.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Bloom-iPads- Apps.jpg DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  58. 58. - consider platform: SMS / mobile web / mobile app (off-line + features of device e.g. Geo-location) - consider special affordances of mobile devices that might add to the learner experience DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  59. 59. One of the keys of a mobile learning strategy for higher education: Produse: Use mobile learning to produce and consume knowledge Herrington, A., Herrington, J. & Mantei, J. (2009). Design principles for mobile learning. In J. Herrington, A. Herrington, J. Mantei, I. Olney, & B. Ferry (Eds.), New technologies, new pedagogies: Mobile learning in higher education (pp. 129-138). Wollongong: University of Wollongong. Retrieved from http://ro.uow.edu.au/edupapers/88/ DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  60. 60. URLs mLearn project at CSU http://www.csu.edu.au/division/landt/resources/mobilelearning/index.htm mLearning project blog http://mlearnproject.wordpress.com/ Uys, Philip mLearning collection http://www.globe-online.com/mobilelearning 24 benefits of mobile learning, by Marcus Boyes http://insights.elearningnetwork.org/?p=507 mLearning in Higher Education (Curated by Tim Klapdor) http://www.scoop.it/t/mlearning-in-higher-education DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  61. 61. Design principles for mobile learning http://ro.uow.edu.au/edupapers/88/ Top 50 Mobile Learning Resources http://www.upsidelearning.com/blog/index.php/2009/11/02/top-50-mobile-learning-resources ADL Mobile Learning Handbook https://sites.google.com/a/adlnet.gov/mobile-learning-guide/home Top 50 mLearning Resources http://www.slideshare.net/UpsideLearning/top-50mlearningmobilelearningresources DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  62. 62. 6. Summary - Plan – design – implement – evaluate - - Seek out appropriate apps - Use the inherent affordances of the mobile devices DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  63. 63. - Use mobile learning to generate knowledge - We are in their world - DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  64. 64. Thank you Slides available from www.globe-online.com/philip.uys Assoc Prof Philip Uys Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia <puys@csu.edu.au> DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES

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