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The mobile learning potential of the Sakai CLE and Open Academic Environments

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The mobile learning potential of the Sakai CLE and Open Academic Environments.

Dr Philip Uys
Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation
Division of Learning and Teaching Services
Charles Sturt University, Australia
<puys>

Tim Klapdor
Media Technologist
Division of Learning and Teaching Services
Charles Sturt University, Australia
<tklapdor>

The mobile learning potential of the Sakai CLE and Open Academic Environments.

Dr Philip Uys
Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation
Division of Learning and Teaching Services
Charles Sturt University, Australia
<puys>

Tim Klapdor
Media Technologist
Division of Learning and Teaching Services
Charles Sturt University, Australia
<tklapdor>

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The mobile learning potential of the Sakai CLE and Open Academic Environments

  1. 1. The mobile learning potential of the Sakai CLE and Open Academic Environments Dr Philip Uys Tim Klapdor Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Media Technologist Division of Learning and Teaching Services Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia Charles Sturt University, Australia <puys@csu.edu.au> <tklapdor@csu.edu.au> DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  2. 2. Key tenets of mLearning - mLearning deals with the mobility of the learner (anywhere, anytime) - It also integrates other uses of mobile devices (e.g. polls in the classroom) - Universities are using the students’ devices (not the university’s) , and we are moving into their world in a more direct and personal way - mLearning via the Sakai CLE and Sakai OAE supports - Personalised learning par excellence - Supports authentic, situated, contingent and contextualised learning - Supports emergent learning - Supports social constructivist learning via direct communication and social media. It is difficult to define mobile devices because of the greyness of such a definition, but here is an attempt: A mobile device is typically a pocket-sized or handheld computing communication device having a display screen with touch input, keypad or keyboard. Mobile Devices are typically wireless enabled allowing access to the Internet and use mobile Web 2.0 tools to connect and engage with some computing capabilities. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  3. 3. mLearning within CSU’s online learning environment http://www.csu.edu.au/division/lts/docs/role/ltsystemsdashboard.pdf DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  4. 4. Para-analysis (Buchan, 2010) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  5. 5. Synopsis The presentation aims to encourage discussion about new options for student learning through the use of mobile devices via the CLE and OAE. These new options relate to students accessing learning materials; accessing learning support materials; performing learning tasks; participating in learning interactions; performing assessment tasks; and evaluating teaching. Typical personas, real life examples, issues espoused in the literature will be discussed and built upon. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  6. 6. Structure Introduction 1. Students accessing learning materials 2. Performing learning tasks 3. Participating in learning interactions 4. Performing assessment tasks 6. Students accessing learning support 6. Evaluating teaching 7. Issues: Ethical; Educational; Technical; Other Closing Note: The six areas are not watertight and overlap, separated merely as a framework DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  7. 7. Introduction 1. Focus on student learning  Not student access to general administrative information e.g. time tables, maps  Not staff use (although implications and overlaps) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  8. 8. 2. Some recent studies •Abilene Christian University (Tim Klapdor visited): initial findings from 2008 to 2009 were above 80% satisfaction and the last two years this has risen to over 90%. •http://www.acu.edu/technology/mobilelearning/documents/ACU2009-10MobileLearningReport.pdf •Oklahoma State University reported 75% agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, “I think the iPad enhanced the learning experience of this course.” •http://news.okstate.edu/press-releases/929-ipad-study-released-by-oklahoma-state-university DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  9. 9. 3. Some international developments • The Horizon Project is a long-running qualitative research project that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within learning-focused organisations. For the last three years mobile learning has featured as the number one emerging technology both internationally and in Australasia • Mobile devices (such as Phones, Smart phones, PDA’s, Tablets, Netbooks and Portable Gaming Platforms) are more common and we are seeing an increase in usage of handheld ‘mobile’ devices by staff, community members and students. Many of these are Internet capable, able to connect to the Internet via a wireless connection, or via the 3G mobile phone network.. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  10. 10. • A changing trend in hardware towards mobile computing in a variety of forms. A multitude of Mobile Operating Systems are in development including Apple’s iPhone OS, Google’s Android, Microsoft’s Windows Mobile and various Linux based systems. These are being launched in conjunction with the next wave of Tablet hardware (See: Apple iPad http://www.apple.com/ ; Motorola Xoom http://bit.ly/kYOFbk and Samsung Galaxy Tab http://bit.ly/muWjfJ). There is a considerable market push towards Tablets and Netbooks • A typical Smartphone has not only a wireless internet connection but a GPS, accelerometer, compass and multi-touch interface which can be developed to create a much more personal experience where content can be delivered, created and contextualized by a student’s physical location. http://www.lukew.com/resources/articles/MobileFirst_LukeW.pdf DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  11. 11. • Tremendous growth in the number of new mobile devices, specifically tablets, expected over the next few years. Gartner predicts word wide rollout of 54.8 million tablet units in 2011, 103.4 million in 2012 and 154.2 million in 2013 on top of the 11 million sold in 2010. Source. http://printceo.com/2010/11/gartner%E2%80%99s-optimistic-predictions-of-tablet-growth/ •In the 3 years (2006-2009) mobile web traffic on the AT&T network in the USA increased 50 times, up 4,932%. AT&T, Morgan Stanley Research •At the March 2011 introduction of iPad 2, Apple CEO Steve Jobs shared recent numbers on Apple's "post-PC" sales and market share. http://events.apple.com.edgesuite.net/1103pijanbdvaaj/event/index.html • Apple recently shipped their 100 millionth iPhone. • Apple has sold 15 million iPads - that's more than every tablet PC ever sold. • There are 65,000 apps specifically developed for the iPad. • There are more 350,000 apps available on the iPhone. • More than 10 Billion Apps have been downloaded from the App Store. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  12. 12. • Relevant to CSU: the iPhone is the clear market leader in Australia with over 74% market share followed by Android with 13% ; in terms of tablets the iPad has a 92% share. iOS devices, which includes iPhones, iPods and iPads, account for more than 5% of the total web traffic in Australia. • In the final quarter of 2010 Fortune reported that Smartphones outsold PCs for the first time – a full two years before the prediction by Morgan Stanley – and according to the UN Telecommunications Agency www.itu.int 77% of the world’s population now has mobile devices. • 99% of the students of the Catholic University of Mozambique has a cell phone, while less than 10% have computers • While mobile devices are often in developing contexts the primary device, these devices are often secondary devices in developed contexts. The technology is here in both developing and developed contexts, ready, available and in wide spread use right now. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  13. 13. 5. mLearning at Charles Sturt University • CSU Educational Technology Survey among students (July 2010 ; n = 4000) o A large majority (87%) of students indicated that they wanted to revisit work from lectures on their handheld/mobile device. o Students were evenly split (50/50) among those who wish to access on campus information; subject information; subject readings; assessments or notifications on a handheld/mobile device. o 42% of students already had Internet enabled mobile phones. (Note that this survey was done very shortly after the iPad was launched in Australia). o Since 2005 we have surveyed our first year students in the School of Communication about a range of technology/media issues. Of the 207 surveyed in 2010 - 94% own a portable media player (e.g. iPod) and 80% use iTunes at least weekly." DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  14. 14. • Investigation in 2010 identified need and options http://www.csu.edu.au/division/landt/resources/mobilelearning/index.htm • Podcasting tool in Interact DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  15. 15. • ePortfolio/PLE (Pebblepad) iPhone/iPod/iPad apps, as well as mobile web http://eportfolio.csu.edu.au/pebblepad/mobile DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  16. 16. • CSU Replay (Echo360) which caters for lesson recording and vodcasts - access planned via iTunesU (second half of 2011) • Funding received for the mobile learning project for 2011 to 2013 o Mobile Interact (Sakai CLE in hybrid with Sakai Open Academic Environment) o Mobile device trials o Mobile learning materials primarily for distance students o Mobile subject evaluation at the end of each session DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  17. 17. mLearning roject Objectives • Improve access • Leverage students mobility • To improve learning & teaching • Engage students DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  18. 18. • General mobile access available: mobile web available targeting iphones and android phones http://m.csu.edu.au DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  19. 19. Mobile app this year will in addition have: • campus maps • contacts • student news • centralised messaging centre (up to 10 different sources) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  20. 20. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  21. 21. a. Learning Packages Kevin (20) is a student stuck in public transport in a regional location. While waiting to get home he uses his mobile device (an android tablet) to download information regarding his subject, including the subject study guide. He is then able to make use of this time to read through the content. b. eResources Michael (23) is a final year Vet student. His study is based in Canberra but he is going to do his 3rd clinical rotation in a dairy practice in Orange. Cattle are not his strong point, so he uses his iPad to download some readings and journals about common procedures that he can review in the field, or listen in audio format on the drive to the farm. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  22. 22. c. eBooks Martha (28) is studying by distance. Whilst on the train she is able to browse books and resources in an online store on her iPad. Before she reaches her destination she has read a few samples and chosen to purchase an eBook of her prescribed text so she can avoid lugging the large volume print copy to and from work. d. Pod/Vodcasts Rachel (43) has two children and is enrolled in CSU through distance education. She uses mobile technology mostly to complete her readings while on the move. She is able to access podcasts of her lectures while she is preparing dinner using iTunesU, and on her hands free mobile phone while travelling to work and socially DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  23. 23. e. Digital Object Management system (DOMS) Susan (35) is a student doing two Early Childhood subjects in Education. Susan is able to use her tablet to search for resources that other students and staff have created that are stored in the DOMS (and accessible via Interact). She has found a couple of great resources and is able to quickly add them to her own collection for assessment and review purposes. Susan is able to quickly share the resource with other students by sending them links. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  24. 24. 3. Performing learning tasks DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  25. 25. a. In the Learning Management System Andre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to access his Learning Management System modules, and have a sense of it being a personal and personalised experience, and communicate with other students in the class using the chat tool. b. ePortfolio/Personal Learning System Liz (24) is a final year student in B. Information Studies (DE only), currently studying Social Networking in Info Studies subject. She is able to update her ePortfolio using her smart phone to keep a record of any meetings that she will have in regards to work or study. She also uses the Pebble Pad application on her smart phone to document emergent/unintentional learning. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  26. 26. send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMS c. Mobile Capture Mick (44) is a mature age student, family man and farming outside Broken Hill. He is in his second year of study doing an joint agricultural /health science diploma by DE. Out in the field, where there is no network connection, Mick is still able to use his phone to take photos of examples from his study guide which are also geo-tagged. When he is back at the homestead he is able to upload them to the forums for discussion with his peers. This supports contingent learning (reacting to the environment and changing experiences), situated learning (learning takes place in the surroundings that make learning meaningful). Mick also sends x-rays from outstations with comments to the academic for upload in the LMS, or sometimes upload it himself at the homestead. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  27. 27. 4. Participating in learning interactions DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  28. 28. a. Learning Management System Forums George (22) is on practicum for his nursing subject. He uses his mobile device to to access the online forums to see how his peers are going and to share his experiences. During his rounds he has had to deal with a particularly difficult patient and during his break post how he and his supervisor dealt with the situation. This stimulates a long thread of other students sharing stories and techniques that they have picked up. He also loads it up to his blog. Other students are able to read these and feel more prepared if they are placed in similar circumstances. This supports authentic learning (meaningful learning tasks are related to immediate learning goals). b. CHAT Andre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to access his Learning Management System modules and communicates with other students in the class using the chat tool. In addition, he belongs to a Mixit study group where he also participates actively in chats. He is also a bof on using his mobile phone to participate in Twitter discussions. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  29. 29. c. Messaging System - the Learning Management System Pete (41) is an academic teaching a distance education cohort in the Outback, with only two residential schools per session per year. His students in the region have intermittent Internet access at best and the mobile networks are far more robust. Pete sends notifications to students (using SMS) regarding the availability of new Internet resources as they are posted so students know when they need to get online. d. Web Application Client Liz (24) is a final year student in Bachelor of Information Studies currently studying a Social Networking subject. The class is immersed and engaged with variety of Web 2.0 tools integrated in Sakai OAE. Using a web application client, the class is able to aggregate and share content on their Galaxy Tablet from a variety of sites and applications in one central location. For Liz this is a great time saver. She can also use tools she is already using and familiar with. This supports personalised learning (learning is customised for the preferences, history and abilities of individual learners or groups of learners). DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  30. 30. 5. Performing assessment tasks DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  31. 31. a. Self Assessment Tools James (29) is studying a health science degree. James is about to undertake a multiple choice test on the train as part of his subject revision. To access this, James uses his tablet and an environment specifically designed for mobile use. Once complete, James will get instantaneous feedback from the test and see where he may need to focus his studies for the exam b. Individual and Group assessment The academic upload x-rays in the LMS. James and other students,are then requested to comment on the x-rays. They access the LMS from their mobile phones and submit their comments for feedback by other students and the academic. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  32. 32. c. OLE Access – online assignment submission Sam (28) is a trainee parks manager completing a Bachelor of Environmental Sciences. Sam is struggling to connect to anything because of his location (very remote). Sam struggles with a poor internet connection on his homestead but is able to get mobile reception in some locations with higher elevation. Sam is able to take his tablet computer and submit his assessments using his mobile connection saving a long trek into town. Mobile learning thus addresses geographical or spatial distance. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  33. 33. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  34. 34. a. Subject Outline/Syllabus Patrick (37) is a post grad MBA student part time that works in the city with a 45min commute each way. During his commute he remembers that one of his assessments is due next week but can’t remember the exact date. Using his smart phone he logs into the Learning Management System, checks his subject outline and then marks it into his calendar with a reminder for the weekend. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  35. 35. b. Learning Support Tools Robyn (58) is a mature age student returning to study after 25 years in the workforce. She is struggling with the Learning Management System and with the DE materials that are so different from when she got her degree. Fortunately she is able to access a range of resources and tools to help her, including interactive tutorials so she is able to see how things work. She has to contribute to a Wiki in one of her subjects and after watching a video showing how wiki formatting is done she feels more confident. She has downloaded a cheat sheet to her mobile that lists all the codes so she can refer to it quickly whenever and wherever she needs to. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  36. 36. 6. Evaluating teaching DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  37. 37. a. Classroom Feedback Leanne (31) - first year academic teaching Accounting. It’s her first full time teaching position and she is nervous about her performance and she will be in charge of reviewing and updating the subject next session. Leanne wants to ensure that she is engaging with the students, that they are finding the subject information useful and the assessments beneficial so she has deployed a range of feedback tools to her subject materials. Students can “like” sections of the online modules as well as make comments, which are recorded anonymously. Students have already commented on a number of areas that are difficult to understand and she now knows that they need further development. Students are able to update their comments simultaneously, using a their smart phone. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  38. 38. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  39. 39. Ethical issues • Inequity across different socio-economic groups and ability to use the technology – organisation could provide; alternatives • Radiation: disputes around tumour creation, impact on fertility - appropriate risk reduction strategies (e.g. Cancer Foundation of SA) • Negative impact on sight and hearing • Mobile use in class, and in assessment DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  40. 40. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  41. 41. Ethical issues •Privacy issue of being able to identify cell identification numbers when “anonymous” participation is required • Fuelling addiction? DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  42. 42. Educational issues • Integrated within blended and flexible learning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  43. 43. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  44. 44. Educational issues • Deep space learning versus shallow learning • Real communication vs mediated • Appreciate varied learning preferences • Respect cognitive load (“head space”) • Limitations of multi-tasking • Redefined role of the teacher/educator? DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  45. 45. Educational issues • Informal/mobile language acceptable? • Netiquette DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  46. 46. Technical issues • Variable access (also regional and rural Australia – National Broadband Network) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  47. 47. Technical issues • Variable platforms (apps against open “web” philosophy) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  48. 48. General issues • Is it a fad? Gartner’s Hype cycle DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  49. 49. General issues • Spaces are not neutral e.g. in assessment and evaluation • Security (“mobile crime”!) • Political, socio-economic factors and impact •Understand mLearning within an educational change management framework DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  50. 50. Four key change management variables 1. People 2. Tasks 3. Organisational Structure/design 4. Technology DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  51. 51. LASO model (Uys, P.M., 2007): top down and bottom up strategies need to work in unison DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  52. 52. In a time of drastic change it is the learners who survive, the ‘learned’ find themselves fully equipped to live in a world that no longer exists Eric Hoffer DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  53. 53. Conclusion DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  54. 54. The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating; The paths to it are not found but made, and the activity of making them changes both the maker and the destination. Peter Ellyard as cited by Hogan 2003 Hogan, C. (2003) Practical Facilitation. A toolkit of Techniques. Kogan Page, London and Sterling, VA. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  55. 55. Ownership, initiative, ingenuity, responsibility DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  56. 56. Thank you Dr Philip Uys Tim Klapdor Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Media Technologist Division of Learning and Teaching Services Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia Charles Sturt University, Australia <puys@csu.edu.au> <puys@csu.edu.au> DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
  57. 57. Links CSU Mobile Learning Investigation: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/landt/resources/mobilelearning/index.htm Uys, P. M. (2010, December). Implementing an open source learning management system: A critical analysis of change strategies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(7), 980-995. http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet26/uys.html Uys, P.M. (2007). Enterprise-Wide Technological Transformation in Higher Education: The LASO Model. International Journal of Educational Management (ISSN: 0951-354X), Emerald, UK. http://www.globe-online.com/philip.uys/2006 08 uysLASOmodel.htm CSU Educational Technology Dashboard http://www.csu.edu.au/division/lts/docs/role/ltsystemsdashboard.pdf CSU Educational Technology Framework http://www.csu.edu.au/division/landt/resources/documents/CSUEducationalTechnologyFramework.pdf Personal mLearning collection http://www.globe-online.com/mobilelearning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES

Editor's Notes

  • Mobile Interact is the big win – we can offer students better access to their learning materials, communication and interaction tools, social and collaborative spaces. Device trials will allow us to see how this technology will work at CSU – in our distinct learning situations – DE, work place learning, blended learning Learning Materials – the technology brings with it new ways of publishing content – eTexts, eBooks, Interactivity, Socialisation Subject Evaluations – key measurable of learning and teaching – want to improve response rates
  • Access – mobilising key services, applications, information Leverage – create new learning environments, create blended learning spaces, break away from the classroom, - applies to DE and workplace learning Technology – trialing ways to improve learning and teaching to be more timely, interactive, informative, Engaging – create learning that engages students
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